2ObjectivesSWBAT: describe the impact of new technology on industry, transportation, and communication
3Do Now – 2/12/13 Have your Sec 1 “IR Spreads” HW out Sec 2: Rise of the Cities – due tomorrow!What form of technology plays the biggest/most important role in your life?How? (Something that you cannot live without – but might take for granted.)crash courseWhy The IR Happened in Britain
4New Nations Industrialize Belgiumfirst to industrialize after BritainBy mid 1800s other nations caught upGermany, France, United Statesmore supplies of coal, iron & other resourcesADVANTAGE: followed Britain’s leadborrowed British experts & technology
5American’s Industrialize First American textile factory Pawtucket, RIPlans smuggled out of BritainRapidly grew after the Civil War ( )By 1900 the US was manufacturing 30% of the world’s industrial goodsSURPASSING Britain as the leading industrial nation
6Uneven DevelopmentEastern & southern Europe industrialized much slowerLacked natural resources & capital toRussia had the resources but lacked social & political conditionsSlowly industrialized – 100 years after BritainJapan lacked resourceshad political revolution making industrialization a priority.Canada, Australia, New Zealand also built thriving industries at this time
7Effects of Industrialization 1900s conditions in factories and social conditions began to improveOrdinary workers could afford goods - $$Demand for goods created jobsrapid building of railways, buildings, factoriesPolitics changed had to meet demands of industrial societyGlobally industrial nations competedWestern nations dominated world more than ever before
8Innovations Alfred Nobel invented dynamite Used for construction & to his dismay, warfareNobel’s huge fortune was willed to fund the famous Nobel prizes still awarded today
9Electric Power Replaces Steam Late 1800s – electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of industrial powerItalian scientist Alessandro Volta first battery 1800Michael Faradayfirst simple electric motor & first dynamoToday, all generators and transformers work on the same basic principleThomas Edison 1870s first electric light bulbEdison’s “incandescent lamps” illuminated whole citiesPace of city life quickened factories could work after darkBy 1890s cables carried electrical power from dynamos to factories
10New Methods of Production Improved efficiency interchangeable partsSimplified assembly and repair of productsAssembly line add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the nextTook much of the joy out of work divided labor into separate tasks
11Transportation Advances Russians Trans-Siberian Railroad Moscow to Vladivostok on the PacificGerman engineer Nikolaus Otto invented gasoline powered internal combustion engine1886 Karl Benz patent for first automobile – had 3 wheels1887 Gotlieb Daimler introduced first four-wheel automobileAmerican Henry Ford models that reached 25 mphEarly 1900s Ford used assembly lines to mass-produce carsMaking United States a leader in the automobile industry
12Exit Ticket List some pros and cons of the Industrial Revolution In your opinion, do the pros outweigh the cons? Or is is the other way around? Explain!
13Nikolaus Otto invented gasoline powered internal combustion engine
14Gotlieb Daimler introduced first four-wheel automobile
15Geronimo drives a Locomobile Model C in this 1905 photograph taken on the 101 Ranch near Ponca City, Oklahoma. In full headdress to Geronimo's left is his friend Edward Le Clair Sr., a Ponca Indian.
16Automobiles powered by internal combustion engines at the 1900 National Automobile Show were primitive. The most popular automobiles proved to be electric, steam, and gasoline…in that order.
17This advertisement for the Winton motor carriage – often identified as the first American automobile advertisement, according to the Henry Ford Museum – appeared in a 1898 issue of Scientific American magazine. Automobiles would help reduce the annual removal of 450,000 tons of horse manure from New York City streets.
18Airplanes Take Flight 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a flimsy airplane at Kitty Hawk, NCdaredevil pilots flew airplanes across the English Channel and over the AlpsCommercial passenger travel did not begin until 1920s
19Communication Advances American inventor, Samuel F. B. Morse, developed the TelegraphSend coded messages over wires using electricityFirst telegraph line Washington D.C. & Baltimore in 18441876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone1890s Italian Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio1901 Marconi received a radio message using Morse code sent from Britain to Canada
20Rise of Big Business“Big Business” – an establishment that is run by entrepreneurs who finance, manufacture, and distribute goods.Stock sold to finance companiesCoporations businesses owned by many investorsMonopolies formed powerful business leaders controlled entire industries or areas of economy
21MonopoliesGermany – Alfred Krupp inherited father’s steelmaking businessbought up coal and iron mines as well as ore depositsJohn D. RockefellarStandard Oil Company became an empireDominated American petroleum industry“Captains of Industry” people praised vision and skill“Robber Barons” destroying competition with aggressive means – damaged free enterprise systemreformers called for laws to prevent monopolies and regulate large corporations
22Review Question: Why were big business leaders “captains of industry” to some, but “robber barons” to others?
23Exit TicketChoose one topic from what we just discussed and write a “problem-and-solution”For example, you could write about the impact of powerful monopolies. Make a list of details, facts, and examples that define the problems that monopolies pose to a free market.
24Do Now – March 2, 2012 Sit in your Workers’ Rally Project groups Form a circle with the desks within your group
28Industrial Rev Effects Immediate Effects:Rise of factoriesChange in trans & communicationUrbanizationNew methods of productionRise of urban working classGrowth of reform movements
29Industrial Rev Effects Long-Term EffectsGrowth of labor unionsInexpensive new productsIncreased populationRise of big businessExpansion of middle classExpansion of public educationCompetitive world tradeProgress in medical care
30Connections to Today Improvements in world health Growth in population Industrialization in developing nationsNew energy sources – oil & nuclearEnvironmental pollutionEfforts to regulate world trade