Presentation on theme: "Public Goods SLO- Describe, explain and analyse as appropriate;"— Presentation transcript:
1Public Goods SLO- Describe, explain and analyse as appropriate; • Public and Private Goods• Collective goods and the Market• Collective provision of Public Goods
2Do now. Discuss the following questions with the person beside you What would NZ be like without a police force?How would people protect themselves and their property?How would those who couldn’t afford to pay for protection survive?How do you prevent people who haven’t paid benefiting?
3Types of Economic Goods Private GoodsMixed GoodsPublic Goods
4Types of Economic Goods Private Goods RivalDepletableExcludable by priceClear price signalsNo significant externalitiesSocial equilibrium = Market equilibriumAllocative efficient situation
5Mixed Goods Have externalities Market equilibrium ≠Social Equilibrium Market Failure
6The nature of Public Goods Non-rivalOne persons consumption of the good does not reduce its availability to others.Non-excludable by priceOnce the good has been provided it is not possible to prevent others from using it even if they haven't paid to use it.Non depletableNo clear price signals.Often provided by government
7Public Goods and free-rider Behaviour -notes A free rider is a person who consumes a good without paying for it. (People who use a public good without contributing for its payment)Public goods result in free rider behaviour because they are non-excludable by price.What does this mean??If you were a producer of street lampshow would this behaviour affect you?
8Public GoodsConsumers know they can use a public good without paying for it, so producers in the private sector will be unable and unwilling to produce these goods.As it is not possible for them to make a profit.
9How are public goods produced then? notes In many cases for a public good to be available at all the government will need to provide them.How does the government pay for these goods?The government will chargepeople collectively throughthe tax system
10Collective goods - notes These public goods funded in this way are classified as collective goods.Collective goods – goods that are provided free of charge and are paid for collectively through the tax systemExample, public footpaths, street lights paid from rates
11What about Roads?Some people claim that roads are a public good. But some could are they are not.Thank about this, then discuss with your neighbor.
12RoadsNon rival- one person using the road does not stop others from using it, until congestion sets in.Non excluable- Once the road is built it is generally not possible to prevent others from using the road.Because of this free rider behaviour the govt usually provides roads free of charge. Most roads are paid for through tax.
13But…. Private vehicle owners pay… Registration fee Road user charges Tax on petrolWhat about road tolls?There is a possibility with technology that in the future roads will be provided by the private sector or though public private partnerships.
14User PaysConsumer have to pay to use a good or service, such as paying a toll to use a road.
15PUBLIC GOODS MODEL -notes Once a good has been provided for it costs no more for another person to use it therefore MC=0Al locative efficiency is where MC=MBPUBLIC GOODS MODEL -notesCharging a fee on a bridge.$capacityThe model shows that charging a fee for the public good, in this case, results in a loss of welfare not gained by another party.We can conclude it is more efficient to build a bridge from taxes and not charge for it.MBFee $2Total benefit less total costQLoss of welfare (CS)Total benefitTotal cost
16Public goods and the media A lot of media broadcasting is non-rival and non excludable.Some broadcasters work towards privatising the positive externalitySky TV - scrambles the signal to prevent potential free riders.
17Other types of goods Excludable Non-excludable Rival Private goods e.g. food, clothingCommon pool resourcese.g. fisheriesNon rivalClub goodse.g. Sky TVPublic Goodse.g. lighthouse
18Allocation of Public goods Weak and non existent price signals means that market allocation is not possible.How do you think we choose which public goods are to be provided?The political system! And votersThe socially optimal output of public goods is where MSB=MSC, or where TSB-TSC is at a max
20What determines the mix of public goods? Society also needs to determine the best mix of public goods.Roading, defence, health care, and education.There will be a trade off involved. Due to scarcity.We cannot have everything in the quantities we want due to insufficient resources.If more healthcare is provided there might be less education.HealthcareEducation