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WASTE REDUCTION AND MINIMIZATION. CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL COMMON NAMES WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION PREVENTION LOW - NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES.

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Presentation on theme: "WASTE REDUCTION AND MINIMIZATION. CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL COMMON NAMES WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION PREVENTION LOW - NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES."— Presentation transcript:

1 WASTE REDUCTION AND MINIMIZATION

2 CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL COMMON NAMES WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION PREVENTION LOW - NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN PRODUCTS WASTE REDUCTION DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT

3 APPLICATIONS NEW PROJECTS EXISTING PROCESSES

4 DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT (DFE) CONCEPTS ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES SAVE MONEY –CREATE NEW MARKETS –PRODUCT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS –REGULATORY COMPLIANCE –REDUCE FUTURE LIABILITY RISKS –REDUCE TREATMENT COSTS –REDUCE WASTE & POLLUTION –IMPROVE COMPANY IMAGE

5 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY DEFINITIONS MULTI-DISCIPLINARY FIELD CONSIDERS LINKAGES BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND NATURAL SYSTEMS EVALUATES USES OF ENERGY, MATERIALS AND VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES

6 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY GENERIC DEFINITION (BY ALLENBY)

7 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY GENERIC DEFINITION (BY ALLENBY – CONTINUED)

8 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH – IMPACT OF WATER USE ON DEVELOPMENT –ASPECTS OF HEAVY METALS USE IN AGRICULTURE –THE IMPACT OF MATERIALS ON INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

9 ISO (INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDS) VOLUNTARY INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OBJECTIVE IS TO SET UP AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) TO ADDRESS THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THEIR PROCESSES

10 COMPONENTS WITHIN ISO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (14001,14002, 14004) ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING (14010, 14011, 14012) EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE (14031) ENVIRONMENTAL LABELING (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023, 14024, 14025) LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (14040, 14041,14042, 14043)

11 OVERALL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT CONCEPT

12 STANDARDS TO BE INCORPORATED IN THE EMS PERFORMANCE ARE MEASURED AGAINST THE OBJECTIVES SET BY THE ORGANIZATION

13 CRITICAL COMPONENTS FOR EMS EMS HAS A CORE SET OF PLANNING ACTIVITIES THAT ENSURES A FACILITY WILL: – IDENTIFY FACILITY OPERATIONS, PROCESSES, AND PRODUCTS THAT HAVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS –EVALUATE WHICH IMPACTS ARE SIGNIFICANT – SET OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS FOR REDUCING NEGATIVE IMPACTS – SELECT AND IMPLEMENT ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE IDENTIFIED TARGETS

14 EMS OBJECTIVES SYSTEMIC APPLICATION PROMOTES TOP-TO- BOTTOM INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, BY REQUIRING: –AN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY DEFINED BY TOP MANAGEMENT – CONSIDERATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS AND CONTROLS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS – SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDED AUTHORITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION – PERIODIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW OF SYSTEM RESULTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

15 EMS OBJECTIVES CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT IS DESIGNED TO CONTINUALLY IMPROVE SYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE, THROUGH: –CREATION OF SPECIFIC TIMELINES, AUTHORITIES, AND DESIGNATED RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLAN – EXECUTION AND ACTIVITY IMPLEMENTATION – PERIODIC COMPLIANCE AUDITS TO IDENTIFY COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE IMPROVEMENTS – PERIODIC EMS AUDITS TO ASSESS PROGRESS TOWARDS STATED GOALS AND IDENTIFY NEEDED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS – MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT OF ACTIVITIES RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

16 EMS OBJECTIVES CONFIRMATION OF IMPACT EMS ACTIONS ARE VERIFIABLE, BECAUSE: –DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS ENSURE THAT BOTH CONFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARD AND EMS PERFORMANCE CAN BE AUDITED – THE ISO CERTIFICATION PROCESS SETS SPECIFIC STANDARDS AND PRACTICES FOR AUDITING BOTH CONFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARD AND PERFORMANCE OF THE EMS

17 LEVELS OF DFE APPLICATION LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS –CRADLE TO GRAVE -ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

18 PRIMARY OPPORTUNITIES IN DFE TYPICAL IMPACTS INVESTIGATED INCLUDE –A IR, WATER AND SOLID WASTES PRODUCED – HAZARD POTENTIAL OF WASTES AND PROCESSES – RENEWABLE RESOURCE UTILIZATION – ENERGY EFFICIENCY

19 SIMPLER VERSION OF THE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS TEMPLATE

20 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC GIVEN: PAPER OR PLASTIC WANTED: DETERMINE WHICH OF THESE TWO CONTAINERS HAS THE LEAST NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. –(a) DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY REQUIRED AND THE QUANTITY OF AIR POLLUTION RELEASED FOR PRODUCTION OF 1000 LB PE SACKS AND THE NUMBER OF UNBLEACHED PAPER GROCERY SACKS THAT WILL HOLD THE SAME AMOUNT OF GROCERIES. –(b) PLOT THE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS AS A FUNCTION OF RECYCLE RATES FOR EACH MATERIAL.

21 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC WANTED: (continued) –(c) SPECIFY THE RELATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THESE TWO PRODUCTS. – (d) COMPARE THE AMOUNT OF PETROLEUM REQUIRED TO PROVIDE 10% OF THE ENERGY FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ONE PAPER SACK.

22 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC BASIS: – (1) ASSUME 2.0 PE SACKS ARE USED TO HOLD THE SAME AMOUNT OF GROCERIES AS ONE PAPER SACK. – (2)TABLE 1-1 AIR EMISSIONS & ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAPER AND PLASTIC (PE) GROCERY SACKS –(3) TABLE 1-2 PROFILE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS FOR GROCERY SACKS (EXCLUDING FINAL DISPOSAL)

23 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-1 AIR EMISSIONS & ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

24 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-2 -PROFILE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS

25 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC OTHER FACTORS –PE MATERIAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS ARE SATISFIED USING A NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE, OIL. – MOST OF THE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAPER SACK PRODUCTION ARE MET USING WOOD WASTES. – ASSUME 0% RECYCLE OF PLASTIC SACKS AND 1.2 lb PETROLEUM REQUIRED TO MANUFACTURE 1 lb OF PE SACK WHERE THE HEATING VALUE OF PETROLEUM IS 20,000 BTU/lb 1000 LB OF PE YIELDS 60,800 PE SACKS

26 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-3 SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES FOR LIFE CYCLES

27 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION –A SIMILAR SET OF CALCULATIONS IS COMPLETED FOR THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANT LEVELS AND FOR PE SACKS. – RESULTS ARE SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLES AND FIGURES.NERGY REQUIREMENTS AND EMISSION RATES - BASIS 1000 lb PE SACKS – USE DATA FROM TABLE 1-1. – AIR EMISSIONS FOR PAPER SACKS AT SPECIFIED RECYCLE FRACTION:

28 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION CALCULATION SUMMARY TABLE

29 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION

30

31

32 RESULTS –(c) PE SACKS TEND TO GENERATE LOWER EMISSIONS AND REQUIRE LESS ENERGY THAN PAPER SACKS, – EXCEPT AT THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF RECYCLE. THE TYPES OF EMISSIONS ARE NOT THE SAME, WITH PE GENERATING HIGHER QUANTITIES OF HYDROCARBONS AND PAPER SACKS GENERATING MORE NOx AND MORE SO2. – THIS ANALYSIS DOES NOT INCLUDE ANY EMISSIONS FROM DISPOSAL EITHER IN LANDFILL OR INCINERATION TO COMPLETE THE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS.

33 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION RESULTS –(d) FROM THE STANDPOINT OF OIL CONSUMPTION, THE PAPER SACKS TEND TO REQUIRE LESS OIL DUE TO THE AVAILABILITY OF FUEL IN THE FORM OF WOOD WASTES. – NOTE: AS A OPTION, CONSIDER REUSABLE GROCERY SACKS THESE ARE MADE FROM NYLON, JUTE, COTTON STRING, ETC. MAY BE REUSED HUNDREDS OF TIMES THESE REQUIRE ABOUT TIMES THE ENERGY AND GENERATE TIMES THE AIR POLLUTION AS PAPER OR PE SO MUST BE USED AT LEAST 20 TIMES TO HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT.

34 DFE TOOLS AND PROCEDURES OPPORTUNITIES WITHIN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES –MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION – REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION – REVISED CONTROL METHODS – REVISED PROCESSING METHODS – RECYCLING A MATERIAL RATHER THAN DISPOSAL

35 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION REDUCE TOXICITY OF PROCESS COMPONENTS –POLAROID CHANGE OF DYE – REDUCED TOXICITY -REPLACED Cr(VI) COMPOUND – REDUCED PROCESS WASTES BY 80% – IMPROVED FILM PERFORMANCE – REDUCED ANNUAL DISPOSAL COSTS BY $1 MILLION (1987$)

36 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION NAVY REPLACEMENT OF SOLVENT FOR PAINT REMOVAL FROM PLANES WITH PLASTIC BEADS FROM HIGH PRESSURE HOSES –ELIMINATES NEED TO USE METHYLENE CHLORIDE – ELIMINATES TOXIC WASTE AS BEADS ARE RECYCLED – COST SAVINGS ~$24,000 PER PLANE (1995$)

37 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION GENERAL JUSTIFICATIONS

38 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION ACME-UNITED CONCENTRATION OF NI SALTS IN PLATING SOLUTION USING REVERSE OSMOSIS

39 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION ACME-UNITED CONCENTRATION OF NI SALTS IN PLATING SOLUTION USING REVERSE OSMOSIS –CONCENTRATED NI SALT SOLUTION RECYCLED TO PLATING TANK – REDUCED QUANTITY OF SLUDGE PRODUCED BY 80% – REDUCED RAW MATERIALS COSTS BY 94% – SAVES AT LEAST $40,000/YEAR (1986$) FROM REDUCTION IN WASTE DISPOSAL COSTS AND RAW MATERIALS COSTS – CAPITAL COST FOR SYSTEM ~$62,000

40 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION SNAP-ON TOOLS RECYCLING A RINSEWATER STREAM USING ULTRAFILTRATION AND ION EXCHANGE –REMOVED LOW-LEVEL (<1%) ISOPROPYL AMINE CONTAMINANT FROM PAINT STREAM WITH ION EXCHANGE TO ALLOW RECYCLE OF PAINT TO PROCESS – REDUCED LOSSES OF PAINT BY 190,000 LB/YR – ANNUAL SAVINGS IN PAINT COSTS AND SEWER FEES OF $73,000 (1989$) – CAPITAL COST FOR PROJECT = $150,000

41 REVISED CONTROL METHODS CHEMICAL PLANT PROJECTS IN LITHUANIA –ADDITION OF CONDUCTIVITY/TDS METER TO BOILER PLANT BLOWDOWN – REDUCED SO2 AND NOX EMISSIONS BY 0.84 TON/YR – REDUCED FUEL OIL CONSUMPTION BY 30 TONS/YR – 7 MONTH PAYOUT

42 REVISED CONTROL METHODS CHEMICAL PLANT PROJECTS IN LITHUANIA –CHEMICAL PLANT PROJECTS IN LITHUANIA (1993) – pH METER ON A MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE PROCESS – REDUCED AMMONIA TO AIR – FEWER PROCESS UPSETS – 2 MONTH PAYOUT

43 REVISED PROCESSING METHODS REVISED LIGHTING FOR AMERICAN EXPRESS OFFICES IN NEW YORK CITY –REPLACED 31,000 T12 LAMPS WITH 31,000 T8 LAMPS – REPLACED 17,000 MAGNETIC BALLASTS WITH ELECTRONIC BALLASTS – REPLACED 58 INCANDESCENT LAMPS WITH COMPACT FLUORESCENTS – REPLACED 239 MANUAL SWITCHES WITH OCCUPANCY SENSORS

44 REVISED PROCESSING METHODS REVISED LIGHTING FOR AMERICAN EXPRESS OFFICES IN NEW YORK CITY –TOTAL PROJECT COST: $710,000 – SAVINGS: INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN 38% (EXCLUDING REBATE) – TOTAL ANNUAL SAVINGS $280,000 – REBATES/GRANTS $450,000 – ENERGY SAVINGS: KW REDUCTION: LIGHTING ELECTRICITY REDUCTION 47%

45 REVISED PROCESSING METHODS REVISED LIGHTING FOR AMERICAN EXPRESS OFFICES IN NEW YORK CITY –ANNUAL POLLUTION PREVENTED: CO2 5,000,000 LBS SO235,000 LBS NOX 12,000 LBS

46 REVISED PROCESSING METHODS CIBA-GEIGY CORPORATION TOMS RIVER PLANT REDUCES SAMPLING AND CHARGING SOLVENT EMISSIONS FROM KETTLES IN RESINS PRODUCTION –REVISED PROCESS TO CHARGE AND SAMPLE REACTION VESSEL – REDUCTION IN VOC EMISSIONS BY 50 TPY (90%) – COST = $10000 – SAVINGS = $50K/YR (1996$) – YIELD INCREASE OF 1 %

47 RECYCLING REFERS TO REUSE OF A MATERIAL RATHER THAN DISPOSAL THE IDEAL MATERIAL FOR RECYCLING –HAS UNIFORM PROPERTIES – IS AVAILABLE AT A CONSTANT RATE – IS AVAILABLE IN A QUANTITY THAT JUSTIFIES THE NECESSARY CAPITAL EXPENDITURE – HAS LIMITED CONTAMINANTS – HAS FUEL VALUE AND CAN BE INCINERATED WITHOUT PRODUCING HAZARDOUS WASTES

48 INTERNAL RECYCLING PROCESSES THAT RECOVER AND REUSE A MATERIAL THAT DOES NOT CHANGE FORM IN THE PROCESS PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEMS – PURPOSE OF SYSTEM IS TO PROVIDE COOLING TO A PROCESS USING RECYCLED WATER – WATER IS COOLED BY EVAPORATION INTO AIR – NORMAL CONCENTRATION LEVELS ARE TIMES BEFORE REPLACEMENT

49 PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEMS

50 WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES - CHEMICAL – PREVENT CORROSION, SCALING, MICROBIOLOGICAL FOULING – IMPROVE HEAT TRANSFER

51 PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEMS WATER CONSUMPTION IS THROUGH EVAPORATION, BLOWDOWN, DRIFT

52 PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEMS USE OF AN RO SYSTEM TO REDUCE TOTAL BLOWDOWN AND REDUCE CHEMICAL TREATMENT NET RECOVERY IS 70% OF THE BLOWDOWN FOR A UNIT WITH A 13.5 GPM BLOWDOWN, THIS SAVES ALMOST 5 MILLION GPY MAKEUP WATER

53 PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEMS

54 INTERNAL RECYCLING RECOVERY OF SILVER FROM COLOR NEGATIVE FILM FIXER USING ROTATING ELECTRODE SYSTEM –SILVER IS RECOVERED ELECTROLYTICALLY – COLOR DEVELOPER IS RECOVERED USING ION EXCHANGE – BLEACH SOLUTIONS ARE RECOVERED USING CHEMICAL TREATMENT TO READJUST CONCENTRATIONS

55 INTERNAL RECYCLING RECOVERY OF SILVER FROM COLOR NEGATIVE FILM FIXER USING ROTATING ELECTRODE SYSTEM –TOTAL CAPITAL REQUIRED = $120K (1995$) – TOTAL VALUE OF RECOVERED MATERIALS = $1.9 MILLION PER YEAR – WASTE REDUCTION = 1700 GPD COLOR DEVELOPER, 19 GPD FIXER, 1200 GPD BLEACH

56 INTERNAL RECYCLING SOLVENT RECOVERY AT A SHIPYARD WITH A SMALL PACKAGED STILL –SOLVENTS - MEK, TOLUENE, CELLUSOLVE ACETATE – EQUIPMENT COST = $ INSTALLATION COST = $8600

57 SOLVENT RECOVERY AT A SHIPYARD WITH A SMALL PACKAGED STILL ECONOMIC SUMMARY

58 EXTERNAL RECYCLE INVOLVES AT LEAST TWO INSTITUTIONS USING THE SAME MATERIAL IN DIFFERENT FORMS MAY BE CARRIED OUT BY JOINT AGREEMENT BETWEEN ENTITIES –NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER, CARRIER CORPORATION, MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY, INC. (MTI), AND CHEMSYSTEMS SOFTWARE - VOC MINIMIZATION

59 EXTERNAL RECYCLE VOC MINIMIZATION –DISTILLATION IS USED TO RECOVER SOLVENTS RECYCLED FROM SMALL FACILITIES – SOLVENTS ARE RECYCLED OR SEND TO OTHER USERS WITH LOWER PURITY SPECIFICATIONS – SOLVENTS THAT CANNOT BE RECYCLED ARE SENT TO THE POWER COMPANY FOR INCINERATION TO PRODUCE POWER

60 EXTERNAL RECYCLE

61 ENERGY SAVINGS FOR REDUCED VOC PRODUCTION = 30 TRILLION BTU/YR WASTE REDUCTION = MILLION LB OF VOC WASTE EACH YEAR ECONOMIC SAVINGS = ESTIMATE FOR 2010 TO BE $361 MILLION.

62 EXTERNAL RECYCLE TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD) COMPANIES MAY BE DESIGNED TO PROCESS WASTE MATERIALS COMPONENTS TREATED AT A CLASS 1 FACILITY

63 TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD) THE PREFERRED PRODUCT IS RECYCLED OTHER PRODUCTS ARE SENT TO DISPOSAL INCINERATION LANDFILL EFFLUENTS TO POTW

64 TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD) OBJECTIVES AT RECYCLERS –SEGREGATE INCOMING MATERIALS FOR PROCESSING/STORAGE – DEVELOP TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHANGING FEEDSTOCKS – MINIMIZE COST OF TREATMENT WITH MAXIMUM DETOXIFICATION, WHILE MINIMIZING RESIDUAL WASTES

65 TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD) OBJECTIVES AT RECYCLERS –RECOVER PROCESS ENERGY TO MINIMIZE OPERATING COSTS – STABILIZE ALL RESIDUAL SOLIDS OR SLUDGES – PRODUCE EFFLUENTS FOR POTW PROCESSING – PRODUCE LEGAL QUANTITIES OF GASEOUS EMISSIONS

66 TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD) TSD PROCESS AREAS

67 TREATMENT, STORAGE & DISPOSAL (TSD)


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