Presentation on theme: "Lighting Technologies Applications Energy Consumption"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lighting Technologies Applications Energy Consumption MAE 406 / 589John Rees, PE, CEMEric Soderberg, PE, CEMOctober 15, 2013
2 Electricity BillingCommercial and Industrial electric bills can be difficult to understand.
3 Difference Between Power and Energy Electricity is like water – it flows like water in a pipe.Demand – How fast is the Flow Rate (Instantaneous).Energy – How many gallons over a period of time.
4 Electricity - Definitions Demand - amount of electrical energy that is being consumed at a given time (instantaneous, kW).Electrical Energy - total electricity used over a period of time (kWh).Electrical Energy (kWh) = Demand (kW) * Operating HoursExample: 100 watt lamp burning for 10 hours = 1000 watt-hours = 1 kWh
7 Utility Electrical Charges Utility RatesUtilities have a variety of ratesResidentialCommercialSmall BusinessLarge BusinessCan be based on Electrical Energy only (residential and small commercial).Can be based on a combination of Demand and Energy.Ratchet Charge – Demand charge may be based on high demand from the previous 12 months (not the current month).It’s possible to be on the “wrong” rate.Check with your electric utility representative.
8 Peak HoursThe demand charge is based on the maximum demand set over the month during peak hours.Peak hours are the hours set by the utility when the total demand from all customers puts the most load on the utility’s power generating capacity.Varies from summer to winter.
9 Comparing KWh Usage to KW Demand Kilowatt hour charges (kWh) Total amount of electricity used during your billing period.Demand Charges (kW) Greatest amount of electrical power you have used (typically in 15 min interval)The demand charge is the way that your utility pays for maintaining capacity to meet “peak” demands.Turning machines off when not needed may reduce peak demand charges during high electrical demand.(for Example) A facility or institution electric bill/ rate schedule has a peak demand setting and violation of that peak for more than 15 minutes will invoke a monthly penalty on the electric bills for the next 11 months.The utility is not mandated to notify you of this charge.Progress Energy has a15 minute peak period, and Duke Energy has a30 minutes, local utilities may have something different.Example - For insurance purposes, a factory tested its fire pumps for half an hour on the last Friday every month, during 1st shift. The power those big pump motors use, with the rest of the power the factory was using, caused the factory to go above the peak rate in its rate schedule. Because of this violation in their rate schedule the factory paid an extra $48,000 in their utility bills over the next 11 months.
10 Understanding Your Electrical Bill Knowing how you are being charged for electricity helps:Know how much various pieces of equipment cost to operate.Determine when electrical equipment can be run during off-peak hours.Determine how to limit on-peak demand.
11 Duke Energy Rate Schedules http://www. duke-energy *Date EffectiveRSResidential Service9/1/2013REResidential Service, Electric Water Heating and Space ConditioningESResidential Service, Energy StarRTResidential Service, Time-of-UseWCResidential Service, Water Heating, Controlled/SubmeteredSGSSmall General ServiceOPT-GOptional Power Service, Time of Use General ServiceBCGeneral Service, Building Construction ServiceLGSLarge General Service
14 The 3 Pillars of Energy Efficient Lighting Visual TaskVisual TaskWATTSLUMENSF O O T C A N D L E SMeet target lightlevelsEfficiently produceand deliver lightAutomaticallycontrol lightingoperationMost Important Slide in Today’s Seminar!1414
15 Paint Booth Case Study Old Fixtures (Incandescents) = 5 kW New Fixtures (T5 Fluorescents) = 1.72 kW> 60% Energy Savings, $500/yrOld Lamps - 1,000 hour lifeNew Lamps - 20,000 hour lifeBetter Illumination; Better Quality of Light
19 Lighting Fundamentals - Illumination Light Output.Measured at the lamp surface.Measured in lumens.Illuminance or Light Level.Measured at the working surface.Measured in foot-candles.Luminance or Brightness.Measured at an angle to the working surface.Measured in footlamberts.
20 Targeted Illumination Levels Targeted illumination level is determined by:Tasks being performed (detail, contrast, size).Ages of the occupants.Importance of speed and accuracy.Important not to Underlight or Overlight.
21 Recommended Illumination Levels ActivityIllumination Foot-candlesOffices: Average Reading and Writing50-75Offices: Hallways10-20Offices: Rooms with Computers20-50Auditoriums / Assembly Places15-30Hospitals: General Areas10-15Labs / Treatment areas50-100Libraries30-100Schools30-150HALLWAYS OFTEN OVERLITHOTELS MUST OFTEN MAINTAIN HIGHER LEVELSNCSU GUIDELINES
22 Quality of Illumination Quality of illumination may affect worker productivity.Quality is affected by:Glare. Too bright.Uniformity of illumination.Color rendition. Ability to see colors properly.Scale is 0 to 100 (100 is best)Color Temperature. Warm to Cool.Measured in degrees kelvin is warm (yellowish); 5000 is cool or “daylight”.
23 Color Rendering Index (CRI) A relative scale indicating how perceived colors illuminated by the light source match actual colors. The higher the number the less color distortion from the reference source. Daylight = 100.CRI = Excellent color renditionCRI = Very Good color renditionCRI = Good color renditionCRI = Fair color rendition0 – 55 CRI = Poor color rendition
24 Color Temperature (K˚) A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” of a light source.≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of spectrum≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of spectrum3500K = “neutral”5000K = “Daylight”WHEN BUIYNG CFLs OR ANY OTHERLOW TEMP WARM OFTEN USED IN HIGH END STORESHIGH TEMP BETTER COLOR DISCRIMINATION
25 Color Temperature Scale North Sky KColor Temperature ScaleDaylight Fluo KCool White KHalogen – 3100KWarm White KIncandescent – 2700KHPS K25
26 Color Rendition cool source is used enhancing blues and greens warm light source is used, enhancing reds and orangesneutral light source is usedColor rendering, expressed as a rating on the Color Rendering Index (CRI), from 0-100, describes how a light source makes the color of an object appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades are revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better its color rendering ability.
27 Color Temperature (K˚) A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” of a light source.≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of spectrum≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of spectrum3500K = “neutral”5000K = “Daylight”
28 Color Temperature Scale North Sky KDaylight Fluo KCool White KHalogen – 3100KWarm White KIncandescent – 2700KHPS K28
29 Light QualityColor Rendering Index and Color Tremperature Affect the Light Quality
30 EfficiencyLighting efficiency (efficacy) is expressed as lumens output/wattage input.Ranges from 4 to 200 lumens/watt.Measures how efficiently a lamp converts electrical energy into light.Similar to mpg.
32 Lamp Lumen Depreciation - LLD As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output.Old T12 fluoresecents can lose up to 30% of output over their life.New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of original lumens.This depreciation must be accounted for when installing new lighting system.Depreciation is also a result of dirt accumulation
35 Luminaires Luminaire = Lighting fixture LampsLamp socketsBallastsReflective materialLenses, refractors, louversHousingDirects the light using reflecting and shielding surfaces.
36 Luminaires (cont’d) Luminaire Efficiency Percentage of lamp lumens produced that actually exits the fixture.Types of luminairesDirect (general illumination).Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall washers”).Spot/Accent lighting.Task Lighting.Outdoor/Flood Lights.
37 Types of Luminaires Direct (general illumination). Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall washers”).Spot/Accent lighting.Task Lighting.Outdoor/Flood Lights.Direct LightingIndirect Lighting
38 Luminaire EfficiencyIES definition: The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) emitted by a luminaire to that emitted by the lamp or lamps used therein.Percentage of initial lamp lumens that are ultimately emitted by the luminairee Efficiency = by a luminaireLumens emitted by the lamp(s)Luminaire Efficiency = Lumens emitted by the luminaireLighting Research Center
39 Contrasting Lamp, Fixture, and Luminaire Efficacy IncandescentFixture Efficacy10 lm/W17 lm/WxCoefficient of Utilization58%=CFLFixture Efficacy35 lm/W=x60 lm/WCoefficient of Utilization58%LED BulbFixture Efficacy42 lm/Wx=Coefficient of Utilization~85 %150+ lm/W50+ lm/WSub-optimal thermal applicationIntegratedLED LuminaireFixture Efficacy80 lm/W=150+ lm/WOptimized thermals and efficacy
42 Major Lighting Types Incandescents/Halogens Fluorescents including CFLsHigh Intensity Discharge (HID)Light Emitting Diode (LED)InductiveINCANDESCENT AND FLUORESCENT ARE MOST COMMON
43 Incandescent Lamps One of the oldest electric lighting technologies. Light is produced by passing a current through a tungsten filament.Least efficient – (4 to 24 lumens/watt).Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.
44 Incandescent LampsIncandescents - High CRI (100) and Warm Color (2700K)Halogen color is 2900K to 3200KInexpensiveExcellent beam controlEasily dimmed – no ballast neededImmediate off and onNo temperature concerns – can be used outdoors100, 75, 60 and 40 watt incandescent lamps were elminated in by the 2007 law
45 Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps A type of incandescent lamp.Encloses the tungsten filament in a quartz capsule filled with halogen gas.Halogen gas combines with the vaporized tungsten and redeposits it on the filament.More efficient.Lasts longer (up to 6,000 hrs.)
46 Fluorescent Lamps Most common commercial lighting technology. High Efficacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.Most common fluorescent lamps.T12: 1.5 inch in diameter million, or 63% of fluorescents in the U.S. are still T12T8: 1 inch in diameter.~30% more efficient than T12.T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.~40% more efficient than T12.Improvements have been made in the last 15 years.T5s MINIMUM 20 FT HEIGHT
47 Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d) ConfigurationsLinear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft. fixture).Circular (rare, obsolete).Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1 lamp per fixture.Output CategoriesStandard Output (430 mA).High Output (800 mA).Very High Output (1,500 mA).
48 Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor crystals Mercury atom Electron Electrode
49 Fluorescent Installed Base DataPoint Research Lighting 2012
50 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Direct Note “cave effect”
51 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Indirect More uniform distribution INDIRECT LIGHTING AT 60% OF FOOT-CANDLES OF DIRECT IS AS EFFECTIVE AS DIRECT.
52 Ballasts Auxiliary component that performs 3 functions: Provides higher starting voltage.Provides operating voltage.Limits operating current.Old type ballasts were electromagnetic.New ballasts are electronic.Lighter, less noisy, no lamp flicker, dimming capability.HOW TO DETERMINE IF A BALLAST IS ELECTRONIC OR MAGNETICELECTRONIC ADVANTAGES:LONGER LIFE THAN MAGNETICELIMINATES THE FLICKER
53 Ballast FactorDEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combinationAPPLICATIONSHigh Ballast Factor Increases output( ) AND energy consumptionTypical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in( ) one-to-one replacementLow Ballast Factor Decreases light output( ) AND energy consumptionMaximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.
54 Ballast Circuit TypesInstant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage. Efficient but may shorten lamp life.Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; supplies starting current to heat the filament prior to starting and continues during operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an instant start ballast.Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; starting current heats the filament prior to starting, then cuts off during operation.PROGRAMMED START BEST FOR OCCUPANCY SENSORS WITH MORE ON/OFFPROGRAMMED START SLIGHTLY MORE WATTAGE THAN INSTANT STARTINSTANT START DEGRADES MORE WITH STOPS AND STARTS
55 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) Fluorescent lamp that is small in size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in length).Developed as replacement for incandescent lamps.Two Main TypesBallast-integrated.Ballast non-integrated (allows only lamp to be replaced).
56 Compact Fluorescent -CFL Excellent color available – comparable to incandescentMany choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)Wide Range of CRI and Color TemperaturesEnergy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)Long Life (generally 10,000 hours –lasts 12 times longer than standard750 hour incandescent lamps)Less expensive dimming now availabledown to 5% outputAvailable for outdoor use with amalgam technologyGREATEST ADVANTAGES:HIGHER EFFICIENCYLONGER LIFEBEST $$ OVER THE LIFE WHEN ENERGY COSTS CONSIDEREDINSTANT START – CAN BE USED WITH OCCUPANCY SENSORSGOOD CRIDISADVANTAGES:DIFFICULT TO DIMMORE COSTLY THAN INCANDESCENT
57 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d) Use 25% the power of an incandescent for an equivalent amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL is equivalent to a 75-watt incandescent.)10,000 hour life. (10x an incandescent).Saves about $30 over the life of the CFL.
60 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps An HID Produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina (ceramic) arc tube filled with special gases.
61 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (cont’d) Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts.HID lamps are used in industrial high bay applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting, parking decks, street lights.Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up to full light after power outage.
62 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (cont’d) Types of HIDsMercury Vapor (obsolete)Sodium VaporHigh pressureLow pressureMetal HalideArc tube contains argon, mercury, and metal halides.Gives better color temperature and CRI.MOST COMMON ARE:OLD MERCURY VAPOR – BLUE/GREENHPS – YELLOWISH – POOR CRI BUT HIGH EFFICIENCY.GOOD FOR SECURITY LIGHTING WHERE COLOR RENDITION IS NOT IMPORTANTMETAL HALIDE – GOOD CRIBIGGEST DRAWBACK START AND RESTART DELAY
63 Metal Halide Lamps Most common HID in use today. Recent Improvements. Allow higher pressure & temperature.Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen maintenance.Pulse Start vs. older Probe StartCeramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.
64 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Latest Lighting Technology.Invented in 1962.In the past, used as indicator lights, automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting.LED is a semiconductor technology.Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine with holes in the semiconductor, releasing photons.
65 LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes) Advantages Long life (50K to 100K hours)Energy EfficientDirectionalDimming and instant onCan be cycled frequentlyRugged (no filament tube to break)Multiple ColorsEnvironmentally Green (no mercury)Barriers:Higher CostHeat removal is a must!
66 Typical Power LED Package LED dieESD protectionWire bondReflectorLens (glass, silicone)SubstrateEncapsulantThe LED Package provides:Protection for the LED die from the outside environmentConductive path to carry generated heat away from the LED dieRI matching from the LED die to airReliabilityLens & encapsulant systems should not discolor under UV and exposure to high amounts of luminous flux
67 LED Applications Successfully used today for many markets Signs Traffic signalsDisplays (change colors for attention)Exit Signs (most common)IndicatorsFlashlightsParking Garage & OutdoorCommercialFood FreezersOffices
68 LED Replacement Lamps (PAR 38, PAR 30, PAR 20, MR16 and A-19) Available from a large number of vendorsVariety of Beam Spreads, Dimmable
69 LEDs Project Virtually no UV Why is no UV important? Typically, grocery stores do not spot light potatoes with traditional light sources. The potatoes will grow spuds due to the UV light. Customers will not buy. It is similar to the elementary school experiment. Now, LED lamps do not have UV light. The potatoes can now be lit to desirable light levels. Grocery stores found that Cree Led Lamps provided well-lit potatoes. Well-lit potatoes sold better.LED Lamps
70 LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fxture
71 T5HO vs. LED Dow Corning Greensboro, NC Remove 6-lamp T5HO88 fixtures4100K321w each28.25 kW total30 FC maintainedInstall LED Fixtures118 fixtures6000K145w each17.11 kW total30 FC maintainedkW Savings Summary11.14 kW reduced (40%) with LED
72 Lay-in Troffer Product Evolution Technology advancements and energy costs have driven down the wattage of the standard 2’x4’ lay-in fixture.1950’s 4LP - T12 troffer with magnetic ballast 220W (65 CRI)1970’s 4LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 178W (65 CRI)1980’s 3LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 134W (65 CRI)1990’s 3LP - T8 troffer with Electronic Ballast 96W (70-80 CRI)2000’s 2LP – T8 troffer w/ Elec. Ballast (tuned) 59W (70-80 CRI)2011 First Viable 2’x4’ LED troffer offered 44W & 36W (90CRI)In 60 years the standard has gone from 65 CRI to 90 CRI
76 Outdoor Lighting Older technology for outdoor lighting High pressure sodiumMetal HalideNewer technologyCompact fluorescentsLEDsNOTE: Solar street lights offer significant savings by eliminating costly electric conduit and cable runs
77 Exit SignsOld incandescent exit signs used (2) 20-watt incandescent lamps.At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1 sign = $28/yr.CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 wattsEnergy cost for 1 sign = $7 to $8.50/yr.LED exit signs use 3 to 4 wattsenergy cost for 1 sign = $3 to $4/yr.Photoluminescent sign uses 0 watts, but may have (slightly) radioactive material.New technology claims completely non-toxic and recyclable.
78 Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36WCeramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W787878
79 Induction LightsLight source in which the power required to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic fields.Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glowLong lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000 hours depending on the lamp model;High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient;Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent;“Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp, Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long lifespan.
80 Induction LightingType of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glowAdvantages:QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours – if used 12 hours each day will last 20 years!Good for hard to maintain locationsDisadvantages:Large light source – difficult to control beam of light making it inefficient for delivered and task lumensExpensive - $200+ adder to HIDNo industry standards for Induction
81 Induction Applications Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult24 hour a day.7 days a week applicationsBridgesLow Bay IndustrialSelect Outdoor Lighting ApplicationsLong burning hour applications
83 Hazardous Waste Disposal Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the disposal of other widely generated wastes that contain toxic materials, such as batteries and pesticidesState Rule supersedes Federal RuleUnder current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID) may be hazardous wasteThe rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is hazardous.
84 Mercury Content of Lamps TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS250 watt Metal Halide lamp 38 mg250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp 15 mgPre 1988 T12 Fluorescent 45 mgPost 1988 T12 Fluorescent 12 mgTypical T8 Fluorescent Tube 4-5 mgTypical Compact Fluorescent (CFL) 4-5 mg4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent lamp.Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled!EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury into the environment.EPA encourages lamp recycling
85 LIGHTING ECONOMICS $$ Return on Investment (ROI) Simple PaybackReturn on Investment (ROI)Internal Rate of Return (IRR)Net Present Value (NPV)
86 SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS Simple Payback is the number of years it takes an energy saving measure to repay the initial investment for the new system. It does not account for the time value of money and it also does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point.Most private companies require a simple payback of 2 years or less.For energy saving measures, they will sometimes accept a 3 to 5 year payback.Government agencies can accept longer paybacks than private companies.SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS
87 Return on Investment - ROI ROI is the inverse of Simple Payback and has all of the qualifiers of a simple payback. It does not account for the time value of money and also it does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point. It is sometimes called Rate of Return.ROI is expressed as a percentage. It is often compared to other investment yields.
88 Net Present Value ($)NPV adjusts for the time value of money by discounting incremental future cash flows to the present time using a discount rate appropriate to those cash flows. NPV ($) is a profitability measure and can be used to rank one lighting alternative over another. The higher the $ profit NPV, the better the alternative. The NPV, to be appropriately used, should be calculated by applying the after tax cost of capital to the after tax cash flows.
89 Example: Simple Payback & ROI A lighting upgrade is estimated to save $5,000 a year and cost $25,000. What are the simple payback and return on investment (ROI)?Simple payback = Cost / Annual Savings= $25,000 / $5,000= 5 yearsROI = 1 / Simple Payback= 1/5= 20%
90 Example: Energy & Cost Savings Existing lighting in the Method Road Greenhouse consists of 10 fixtures containing ten 4’, 4 lamp T12 fixtures that consume 154 watts of electrical power. At $0.09/kWh, what is the annual cost of operating these fixtures 2,000 hours a year?10 x 154 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 3,080 kWh3,080 x $0.09 = $2,772 per yearThese fixtures are replaced by fixtures containing 25 watt T8 lamps with low BF ballasts which only consume 89 watts per fixture. What is the annual cost of operation?10 x 89 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 1,780 kWh1,780 x $0.09 = $1,602 per yearCost savings = $1,170 per year
91 Other Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in SpaceLonger Lamp LifeLess Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)Adjust to target light levels (IES)Improved ControlsHVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled spacesTax Incentives – Generally tax deductionsIncentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have programs
92 HVAC Savings from a Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removedHeat removed with Efficient Lighting is:A savings when cooling (A/C is on)In the heating season, lighting assists the HVAC.Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savingsUnitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00$2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
93 Change from Old to New and Save Energy and $$ OLD TECHNOLOGY =>T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ SystemsIn the US today, 60% are still T12.Magnetic BallastsIncandescentHalogenProbe Start Metal Halideand Mercury VaporNeonManual ControlsNEW TECHNOLOGYT8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogen IR, MH & LEDMetal Halide and LEDPulse Start andCeramic Metal HalideLEDAutomatic Controls, Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
94 Ballast FactorDEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combinationAPPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor Increases output( ) AND energy consumptionTypical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in( ) one-to-one replacementLow Ballast Factor Decreases light output( ) AND energy consumptionMaximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.
96 Types of Lighting Controls Occupancy SensorsBi-level SwitchingTime ClockPhoto SensorsDimmersLighting Control SystemsBuilding Management Systems
97 Typical Lighting Control Applications Type of ControlPrivate OfficeOpen Office - DaylitOpen Office - InteriorOccupancy Sensors++Time Scheduling+Daylight DimmingBi-Level SwitchingDemand Limiting++ = good savings potential+ = some savings potential0 = not applicable
98 Occupancy SensorsAutomatically turn lights off when spaces are unoccupied.Ceiling or Wall Mounted.Adjustments for sensitivity and time delay.Proper selection, location, and adjustment of sensors is key to reliable operation.Wireless technology is available.Ultrasonic, Infrared, Dual-Technology.
99 Ultrasonic Wall Sensor Automatic ControlUse in areas where there are long periods of unoccupied timeExcellent for bi-levelcontrol to maximizeenergy savingsDoes not require direct line of sightAdjust sensitivity and time delay for best results
100 Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR) Detect movement of heat-radiating sources betweenradial detection zonesLine-of-sight is required (30’ max)Larger motion is required to trigger sensor at greaterdistanceMost sensitive to motion lateral to sensorCoverage pattern can be modified to minimize falsetriggers
101 Dual-Technology Sensors Greater reliability from using both infrared (IR) and ultrasonic (US) sensing technologiesTypical operation settings:IR and US signals for lights to turn onIR or US signals for lights to stay onAbsence of IR and US signals for lightsto turn off
102 Energy Savings Potential With Occupancy Sensors Application Energy SavingsOffices (Private) %Offices (Open Spaces) %Rest Rooms %Corridors %Storage Areas %Meeting Rooms %Conference Rooms %Warehouses %Source: CEC/DOE/EPRISavings can be determined with data logger installed in room or area for 1 to 2 weeks.
103 Bi- and Multi-Level Switching Top shows switching for 50% of lamps on.Bottom shows switching for 1, 2, or 3-lamp operation.
104 Photo Sensors Turn lights off when daylight is adequate. Outdoor lighting.Dusk to dawn.Indoor lightingDims lights as daylight increases.Can work with occupancy sensors.104
105 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST SAVINGS Lighting energy savings are possible while improving lighting quality.
106 Other Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in SpaceLonger Lamp LifeLess Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)Adjust to target light levels (IES)Improved ControlsHVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooledspacesTax Incentives – Generally tax deductionsIncentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke haveprograms
107 HVAC Savings from a Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removedHeat removed with Efficient Lighting is:A savings when cooling (A/C is on)A cost when heating is onRules of Thumb to count HVAC savingsUnitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00$2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
108 Lighting Upgrade Savings Opportunities More Efficient Lamp TypeMetal Halide T8 FluorescentT12 Fluorescent T8 Fluorescent or LEDIncandescent CFL or LEDFewer Lamps per Fixture4-Lamp to 3-Lamp or 2-LampFewer FixturesBetter FixturesBetter Control
109 HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
110 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ SystemsFluorescent Magnetic BallastsIncandescentStandard Metal HalideMercury VaporNeonManual Controls
111 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsLEDBi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
112 “Super T8” Fluorescent System T8s have been improved.Older T8s called “700 series”; 32 watts.Newer Super T8s called “800 series” (CRI > 80) and “850 series” (CRI > 85)3000K, 3500K, 4100K, 5000K versions30,000 hour lamp 3 hours per startinitial lumensUniversal Voltage ( V)4-foot lamp: 30, 28 or 25 watts; Low input wattage (4-lamp: 93/89 watts)95% lumen 8000 hoursLow Temperature Starting (0˚F)Lamp/Ballast System Warranty 5 Years85 CRIProgram Start BallastsTCLP-compliant
113 Instant Start Super T8 vs. Standard T8 800-series Super T8s have 96% of system lumens of 700-series lamps with standard ballasts19% reduction in powerDouble lamp life (3 hrs. per start)Maximum life on occupancy sensors
114 Old T8 to Super T8 Upgrades Save up to 20% of energy costs by replacing 32 Watt T8s with low-wattage T8s. Whenreplacing 700-series 32 Watt T8s:25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 9% light output reduction.28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 2% light output reduction.When replacing 800-series 32 Watt T8s:25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 16% light output reduction.28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 9% light output reduction.While low-wattage T8 lamps may reduce light output, changes in light levels of less than 10% are generally undetectable to most occupants.
115 25 Watt T8 Advantage Long Life Lamp from Philips Lighting Long lamp life (40,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium™ Instant Start ballasts and 46,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium™ Programmed Start Ballasts)2400 lumens with 95 percent lumen maintenanceSuperior color rendering (a CRI of 85)Low mercury (Philips ALTO® lamps average 70% less mercury than the 2001 industry average for fluorescent lamps up to 60 inches, which are not TCLP (EPA Std. - Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) compliant) 1.7 mg Mercury per 4’ lamp
116 Fluorescent Lamp/Ballast Change-out vs. New Fixture “Rules of Thumb” Install new fixtures when:Existing fixtures are over 20 years oldLamp holders are worn outMultiple components are failingDesign requires change in fixture typeRetrofit existing fixtures with lamps & ballasts when:Existing fixtures are less than 20 years oldLamp holders and other components are still goodBudget is very tightExpensive/Difficult/Environmental Conditions Present(i.e. asbestos or excessive piping and ducts in ceiling, etc.)
117 T5 and T5HO Systems output to two T8 lamps (4750 vs. 4669 maintained One T5HO lamp provides similar maintained lumenoutput to two T8 lamps (4750 vs maintainedlumens)Maintained lumens are higher – fixtures are smallerPeak light output at 95˚F ambient air temperatureinstead of 77˚F with T8 and T12Amalgam technology has been added to provide amore constant lumen output across a broad range ofambient temperatures!
118 T5 and T5HO Systems Disadvantages T5 and T5HO lamp life is less than T8sThe bulb wall surface of the T5 is very bright. Care must be exercised in using T5 lamp in direct lighting applications.Costs higher than T8 – cost can be balanced by a reduction in the number of luminaries used.Lead times may be longer – T5s require compete fixture replacement.In cooler temperatures or high CFM air distribution the T5 or T5HO may not perform well (peak light output at 95 °F).May not work well with occupancy sensors due to slow lumen run-up with cold start.
119 T5HO vs. T8 Application Rules of Thumb ≤ 20’ – use T8≥ 20’ – use T5HO18’ to 25’ – either T8 or T5HO can be used successfullyOver 50 types of 4’ T8 lamps availableTwo T5 lamps: 28w T5 and 54w T5HOTo get T5HO performance out of T8 lamps, use high-lumen/high performance T8 lamps
120 T5HO vs. T8 for Warehouse Aisles Rule of Thumb In general for warehouse aisles, T5HO will perform better in non-air-conditioned spaces and T8 performs better in air-conditioned spaces.Reason: Ambient temperature of T5HO rating for peak performance is 35 degrees C (95F) and T8 is rated at 25C (77F).Source: Warehouse aisle lighting – p. 16 – LD&A Feb 2009-article by Siva K. Haran, PE, LEED, AP, IES
121 An Increase in Quality Can Improve Worker Productivity 1% increase in productivity is about equal to one sick dayImprove employee satisfaction and reduce turnover/replacement expensesfor new employees.Improves Company bottom lineIndirect Lighting is preferred by many today.
123 Daylighting Advantages Excellent light source for almost all interior spaces – offices, homes, retail, schools and more; People prefer it!Field research indicates that with daylighting:Learning is enhancedRetail sales increase (Wal-Martstudy)Employee satisfaction increasesEnergy Savings is realized when controls are used
125 Task LightingTask lighting can reduce the need for overhead ambient light.Useful where tasks require more light, e.g., painting, inspection, better color rendition.
126 Group RelampingChanging out all the lamps in an area at one time at regular intervals.At about 90% of lamp rated lifeSaves labor.Maintains light levels.Can be scheduled during off-hours.
127 Conducting a Lighting Survey Why Conduct a Lighting Survey? – to identify improvement opportunities. It is a systematic exam and appraisal of building lighting systems.Step 1 – Establish a base line of performanceStep 2 – Identify opportunities for improvementStep 3 – Calculate savings and potential paybackThe quality of the information collected in the survey has a direct impact on steps 2 and 3
128 Instruments Top: Light Meter Bottom: Ballast Discriminator Measures lumens (ft.-candles).Bottom: Ballast DiscriminatorIndicates whether a fixture has a electronic or electromagmetic ballast.
129 Suggestions for a Lighting Survey Ask the right questions to meet the client’s goalsGather ALL the right informationDon’t assume – check the existing equipment to obtain accurate informationDetermine Economic Calculations RequiredIs a test installation needed?Lighting FixturesControlsConsider all drivers to reduce the paybackUse a pre-printed form or spreadsheet template
130 Information and Data to Collect in a Lighting Survey Floor plan of the building/space with dimensions if availableElectric bills for 1 year to determine average cost per kWh over the yearTasks being performed in each area – Talk to occupants in the areaType (fixture input wattage and lamps/ballasts type), quantity, mounting height, and control of fixtures in each spaceLighting operating hours per year and footcandle levels for each spaceCircuit VoltageExit signs (light source)Talk with building occupants about operating practices and satisfaction with the level and quality of lightingTalk with maintenance staff about equipment condition and any recurring problems.
131 Lighting Survey Results Baseline: current lighting energy use (typical lighting energy = 0.5 to 1.5 watts per sq. ft.)Recommendations for Lighting Upgrades.Estimated Costs with Incentives/Rebates.Energy and Cost Savings. Bottom Line: Payback Period.
132 LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE USE OF LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
133 Energy Legislation and Incentive Programs for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Energy Policy Act of 2005 – EPAct 2005North Carolina Tax CreditsNorth Carolina Senate Bill 3 – Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007Utility Incentives – Progress Energy, Duke EnergyAmerican Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009, ARRA or Stimulus PackageNC Greenpower
134 Highlights of the Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 30% tax credit for residential solar thermal or photovoltaic energy systems up to a credit of $2,000Does not apply to pool heating systems30% tax credit up to $500 for energy efficient windows, doors, heating & cooling equipment, and insulationTax deductions up to $1.80 per square foot for energy efficiency improvements in commercial buildings.Lighting, HVAC, Building Envelope
135 EPAct 2005 Tax DeductionsThe Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 1331, provides a tax deduction of up to $1.80/ft2 for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. These tax deductions can be claimed in a single year. Systems covered include:Interior lighting systems Max. $0.60/ft2Heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water systems Max. $0.60/ft2Building envelope Max. $0.60/ft2
136 EPAct 2005 Tax DeductionsTo qualify for an EPAct 2005 tax deduction for lighting, the following must be met:Surpass the ASHRAE LPD StandardBi-level switching must be installed for most buildings (exceptions identified) and all controls provisions (new buildings) in the Standard must be met.Must meet the minimum requirements for calculated light levels as set forth in the 9th Edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook.Consult a tax expert to see if you qualify
137 EPAct 2005 Critical Dates and Proposed Increase in Tax Deduction For commercial (for profit) enterpriseAny new system that exceeds ASHRAE standards by the required amount must be placed into service between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013 for tax deduction.Proposed 2009 Senate Bill 1637 would increase tax credit for $1.80 to $3.00 per square foot for whole building or from $0.60 to $1.00 per square foot for partial allowance (such as lighting measures only).
139 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) President Bush signed into law on 12/19/07Lighting Sections include:Sec. 321 – Efficient Light BulbsSec. 322 – Incandescent Reflector LampEfficiency StandardsSec. 324 – Metal Halide Lamp FixturesSec. 65 – Bright Tomorrow Light Prizes
140 Lamp Wattages and Efficiency Requirements There are new efficacies for general service incandescent lamps expressed as a new maximum wattage.Generally, the lamps must be 30% more efficient by , with larger lamps covered first.Compliance: Today’s typical incandescent and halogen general service screw-base lamps do not comply with the new efficiency requirements.Examples of General Service Lamps that will become obsolete:January 1, 2012 – 100W A19 incandescent lampsJanuary 1, 2013 – 75W A19 incandescent lampsJanuary 1, 2014 – 40W A19 and 60W A19 incandescent lamps
143 Better Use of Light Bulbs Act - 2011 Legislation introduced to repeal the EISA lamp efficiency requirements.Jobs lost to China.Mercury in CFLs.Did not pass in July 2011.Issue has become politically-charged.
144 Super Incandescents?GE just announced "advancements to the light bulb that potentially will elevate the energy efficiency of this 125-year-old technology to levels comparable to compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), delivering significant environmental benefits. Over the next several years, these advancements will lead to the introduction of high-efficiency incandescent lamps that provide the same high light quality, brightness and color as current incandescent lamps while saving energy and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions." The bulbs will come out at 30 lumens per watt (twice a conventional incandescent) and top out at 60 lumens per watt.From ;
145 CFLUse 75% less energy than incandescent bulbsLast more than 7 years*New Energy Efficient LampGE energy-efficient soft white offer the closest alternative to traditional incandescent bulbHalogenUse 28% less energy than incandescent bulbsSame size & shapeNearly the same light outputDimmable & instantly brightLEDLast up to 22 years*Use 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs
146 Dates and Halogen Lamps January 1, W Halogen rated at 1600 lumens, must meet 23 lumens/WJanuary 1, W Halogen rated at 1100 lumens, or 22 lumens/WJanuary 1, W Halogen rated at 800 lumens, or 20 lumens/WMost all of today’s standard PAR (parabolic anodized reflector) halogen lamps will be eliminated
147 DOE 2009 Ruling These lamps are obsolete: Went into Effect 7/14/2012 Majority of F40T12 and F34T12ES 4-ft. lampsMajority of FB40T12 and FB34T12ES 2-ft. U-lampsAll 75W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. lampsMajority of 60W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. ES lampsAll 110W F96T12HO 8-ft. lampsMajority of 95W F96T12HO 8-ft. ES lampsAll T8 basic 700 series 4-ft. lamps with 2800 lumens (requires2850 lumens to pass)Majority of T8 basic 700 series 2-ft. U-lamps
148 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ SystemsFluorescent Magnetic BallastsIncandescentStandard Metal HalideMercury VaporNeonManual Controls
149 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent SystemsElectronic BallastsHalogen IRPulse Start and Ceramic Metal HalideLEDBi-Level and Continuous Dimming SystemsNew Fixtures
150 North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3) Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007 SB3 requires a Percentage of Electrical Generation from Renewable Sources. Of these amounts, 25% can be achieved by Energy Efficiency.Solar PVSolar ThermalWindHydroelectricWave EnergyBiomassLandfill Gas (LFG)Waste Heat fromRenewablesHydrogen from RenewablesUTILITIES HAVE RESPONDED WITH SIGNIFICANT INCENTIVES IN THE AREAS OF LIGHTING, HVAC, MOTORSUTILITIES HAVE SOLICITED PROPOSALS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY WITH LIMITED SUCCESS.READ THE FINE PRINT
151 Utility Incentives to Upgrade Lighting Beginning in 2010, Duke and Progress Energy offered rebates for customers to upgrade their lighting to more efficient lights.Rebate would pay up to 40% of the cost of the new lamps/ballasts.These incentives will become unavailable as the new lighting technologies are mandated.
152 * Renewable Portfolio Standards 29 states & DC have an RPS † / November 2009WA: 15% by 2020*ME: 30% by 2000New RE: 10% by 2017VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales by 2012; (2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017MN: 25% by 2025(Xcel: 30% by 2020)MT: 15% by 2015NH: 23.8% by 2025ND: 10% by 2015MI: 10% + 1,100 MW by 2015*MA: 15% by % annual increase (Class I Renewables)OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities)*5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities)SD: 10% by 2015WI: Varies by utility; 10% by 2015 goalNY: 24% by 2013RI: 16% by 2020NV: 25% by 2025*CT: 23% by 2020IA: 105 MWOH: 25% by 2025†CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)*PA: 18% by 2020†WV: 25% by 2025*†IL: 25% by 2025NJ: 22.5% by 2021CA: 33% by 2020UT: 20% by 2025*KS: 20% by 2020VA: 15% by 2025*MD: 20% by 2022MO: 15% by 2021AZ: 15% by 2025DE: 20% by 2019*NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs)10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis)DC: 20% by 2020NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)10% by 2020 (co-ops)TX: 5,880 MW by 201529 states & DC have an RPS6 states have goalsHI: 40% by 2030State renewable portfolio standardMinimum solar or customer-sited requirement*State renewable portfolio goalExtra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables†Solar water heating eligibleIncludes non-renewable alternative resources152