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Lighting Technologies Applications Energy Consumption MAE 406 / 589 John Rees, PE, CEM Eric Soderberg, PE, CEM October 15, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Lighting Technologies Applications Energy Consumption MAE 406 / 589 John Rees, PE, CEM Eric Soderberg, PE, CEM October 15, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lighting Technologies Applications Energy Consumption MAE 406 / 589 John Rees, PE, CEM Eric Soderberg, PE, CEM October 15, 2013

3 Electricity Billing Commercial and Industrial electric bills can be difficult to understand.

4 Difference Between Power and Energy Electricity is like water – it flows like water in a pipe. Demand – How fast is the Flow Rate (Instantaneous). Energy – How many gallons over a period of time. 3

5 Electricity - Definitions Demand - amount of electrical energy that is being consumed at a given time (instantaneous, kW). Electrical Energy - total electricity used over a period of time (kWh). Electrical Energy (kWh) = Demand (kW) * Operating Hours Example: 100 watt lamp burning for 10 hours = 1000 watt-hours = 1 kWh 4

6 Electricity - Demand 5

7 Electricity - Energy 6

8 Utility Electrical Charges Utility Rates –Utilities have a variety of rates Residential Commercial Small Business Large Business –Can be based on Electrical Energy only (residential and small commercial). –Can be based on a combination of Demand and Energy. Ratchet Charge – Demand charge may be based on high demand from the previous 12 months (not the current month). Its possible to be on the wrong rate. –Check with your electric utility representative. 7

9 Peak Hours The demand charge is based on the maximum demand set over the month during peak hours. Peak hours are the hours set by the utility when the total demand from all customers puts the most load on the utilitys power generating capacity. –Varies from summer to winter. 8

10 Comparing KWh Usage to KW Demand 9

11 Understanding Your Electrical Bill Knowing how you are being charged for electricity helps: Know how much various pieces of equipment cost to operate. Determine when electrical equipment can be run during off- peak hours. Determine how to limit on-peak demand.

12 Rate Schedule *Date Effective RSResidential Service9/1/2013 RE Residential Service, Electric Water Heating and Space Conditioning9/1/2013 ESResidential Service, Energy Star9/1/2013 RTResidential Service, Time-of-Use9/1/2013 WCResidential Service, Water Heating, Controlled/Submetered9/1/2013 SGSSmall General Service9/1/2013 OPT-GOptional Power Service, Time of Use General Service9/1/2013 BCGeneral Service, Building Construction Service9/1/2013 LGSLarge General Service9/1/2013 Duke Energy Rate Schedules

13 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS

14 Worlds Oldest Light Bulb – Burning (almost continuously) Since 1901

15 14 The 3 Pillars of Energy Efficient Lighting Meet target light levels levels Efficiently produce and deliver light Efficiently produce and deliver light Automatically control lighting operationAutomatically operation Visual Task F O O T C A N D L E S WATTS LUMENS Visual Task Most Important Slide in Todays Seminar!

16 Paint Booth Case Study Old Fixtures (Incandescents) = 5 kW New Fixtures (T5 Fluorescents) = 1.72 kW > 60% Energy Savings, $500/yr Old Lamps - 1,000 hour life New Lamps - 20,000 hour life Better Illumination; Better Quality of Light

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20 Lighting Fundamentals - Illumination Light Output. – Measured at the lamp surface. – Measured in lumens. Illuminance or Light Level. – Measured at the working surface. – Measured in foot-candles. Luminance or Brightness. – Measured at an angle to the working surface. – Measured in footlamberts.

21 Targeted Illumination Levels Targeted illumination level is determined by: Tasks being performed (detail, contrast, size). Ages of the occupants. Importance of speed and accuracy. Important not to Underlight or Overlight.

22 Recommended Illumination Levels Activity Illumination Foot-candles Offices: Average Reading and Writing50-75 Offices: Hallways10-20 Offices: Rooms with Computers20-50 Auditoriums / Assembly Places15-30 Hospitals: General Areas10-15 Labs / Treatment areas Libraries Schools30-150

23 Quality of Illumination Quality of illumination may affect worker productivity. Quality is affected by: – Glare. Too bright. – Uniformity of illumination. – Color rendition. Ability to see colors properly. Scale is 0 to 100 (100 is best) – Color Temperature. Warm to Cool. Measured in degrees kelvin is warm (yellowish); 5000 is cool or daylight.

24 Color Rendering Index (CRI) A relative scale indicating how perceived colors illuminated by the light source match actual colors. The higher the number the less color distortion from the reference source. Daylight = CRI = Excellent color rendition CRI = Very Good color rendition CRI = Good color rendition CRI = Fair color rendition 0 – 55CRI = Poor color rendition

25 Color Temperature (K˚) A measure of the warmth or coolness of a light source. 3200K = warm or red side of spectrum 4000K = cool or blue side of spectrum 3500K = neutral 5000K = Daylight

26 25 Color Temperature Scale Cool White K Daylight Fluo K North Sky K Warm White K HPS K Halogen – 3100K Incandescent – 2700K

27 Color Rendition warm light source is used, enhancing reds and oranges neutral light source is used cool source is used enhancing blues and greens Color rendering, expressed as a rating on the Color Rendering Index (CRI), from 0-100, describes how a light source makes the color of an object appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades are revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better its color rendering ability.

28 Color Temperature (K˚) A measure of the warmth or coolness of a light source. 3200K = warm or red side of spectrum 4000K = cool or blue side of spectrum 3500K = neutral 5000K = Daylight

29 28 Color Temperature Scale Cool White K Daylight Fluo K North Sky K Warm White K HPS K Halogen – 3100K Incandescent – 2700K

30 Light Quality Color Rendering Index and Color Tremperature Affect the Light Quality

31 Efficiency Lighting efficiency (efficacy) is expressed as lumens output/wattage input. – Ranges from 4 to 200 lumens/watt. Measures how efficiently a lamp converts electrical energy into light. Similar to mpg.

32 Lamp Efficiencies Lamp Type Lamp Efficiency (lumens/watt) Incandescent Halogen Halogen HIR Mercury Vapor Compact Fluorescent Linear Fluorescent LED Metal Halide Ceramic Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Sodium150 – 200 LED Theoretical Limit

33 Lamp Lumen Depreciation - LLD As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output. Old T12 fluoresecents can lose up to 30% of output over their life. New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of original lumens. This depreciation must be accounted for when installing new lighting system. Depreciation is also a result of dirt accumulation

34 Lamp Lumen Depreciation

35 Typical Lamp Life Incandescent1, ,000 hrs Halogen2, ,000 hrs CFL12,000 hrs Sodium24,000+ hrs Metal Halide24,000+ hrs Mercury20, ,000+ hrs Fluorescent20, ,000 hrs Induction100,000 hrs LED100,000 hrs

36 Luminaires Luminaire = Lighting fixture – Lamps – Lamp sockets – Ballasts – Reflective material – Lenses, refractors, louvers – Housing Directs the light using reflecting and shielding surfaces.

37 Luminaires (contd) Luminaire Efficiency – Percentage of lamp lumens produced that actually exits the fixture. – Types of luminaires Direct (general illumination). Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; wall washers). Spot/Accent lighting. Task Lighting. Outdoor/Flood Lights.

38 Types of Luminaires Direct (general illumination). Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; wall washers). Spot/Accent lighting. Task Lighting. Outdoor/Flood Lights. Direct Lighting Indirect Lighting

39 Luminaire Efficiency IES definition: The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) emitted by a luminaire to that emitted by the lamp or lamps used therein. 38 Percentage of initial lamp lumens that are ultimately emitted by the luminaire Percentage of initial lamp lumens that are ultimately emitted by the luminaire e Efficiency = by a luminaire Lumens emitted by the lamp(s) Luminaire Efficiency = Lumens emitted by the luminaire

40 Fixture Efficacy 10 lm/W 17 lm/W Incandescent Coefficient of Utilization 58% x= = Integrated LED Luminaire Fixture Efficacy 42 lm/W Fixture Efficacy 35 lm/W 60 lm/W CFL Coefficient of Utilization 58% x = Contrasting Lamp, Fixture, and Luminaire Efficacy 150+ lm/W = Fixture Efficacy 80 lm/W LED Bulb 50+ lm/W x Coefficient of Utilization ~85 % Sub-optimal thermal application 150+ lm/W Optimized thermals and efficacy 39

41 History of Lighting

42 LIGHTING TYPES

43 Major Lighting Types Incandescents/Halogens Fluorescents including CFLs High Intensity Discharge (HID) Light Emitting Diode (LED) Inductive

44 Incandescent Lamps One of the oldest electric lighting technologies. Light is produced by passing a current through a tungsten filament. Least efficient – (4 to 24 lumens/watt). Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.

45 Incandescent Lamps Incandescents - High CRI (100) and Warm Color (2700K) Halogen color is 2900K to 3200K Inexpensive Excellent beam control Easily dimmed – no ballast needed Immediate off and on No temperature concerns – can be used outdoors 100, 75, 60 and 40 watt incandescent lamps were elminated in 2012 by the 2007 law

46 Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps A type of incandescent lamp. Encloses the tungsten filament in a quartz capsule filled with halogen gas. Halogen gas combines with the vaporized tungsten and redeposits it on the filament. More efficient. Lasts longer (up to 6,000 hrs.)

47 Fluorescent Lamps Most common commercial lighting technology. High Efficacy: up to 100 lumens/watt. Most common fluorescent lamps. – T12: 1.5 inch in diameter. 112 million, or 63% of fluorescents in the U.S. are still T12 – T8: 1 inch in diameter. ~30% more efficient than T12. – T5: 5/8 inch in diameter. ~40% more efficient than T12. Improvements have been made in the last 15 years.

48 Fluorescent Lamps (contd) Configurations – Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.) – Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft. fixture). – Circular (rare, obsolete). – Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1 lamp per fixture. Output Categories – Standard Output (430 mA). – High Output (800 mA). – Very High Output (1,500 mA).

49 Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor crystals Mercury atom ElectronElectrode

50 Fluorescent Installed Base DataPoint Research Lighting 2012

51 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Direct Note cave effect

52 Typical Linear Fluorescent Fixture – Indirect More uniform distribution

53 Ballasts Auxiliary component that performs 3 functions: – Provides higher starting voltage. – Provides operating voltage. – Limits operating current. Old type ballasts were electromagnetic. New ballasts are electronic. – Lighter, less noisy, no lamp flicker, dimming capability.

54 Ballast Factor DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combination APPLICATIONS High Ballast FactorIncreases output ( )AND energy consumption Typical Ballast FactorComparable light output in ( )one-to-one replacement Low Ballast FactorDecreases light output ( )AND energy consumption Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.

55 Ballast Circuit Types Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage. Efficient but may shorten lamp life. Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; supplies starting current to heat the filament prior to starting and continues during operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an instant start ballast. Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; starting current heats the filament prior to starting, then cuts off during operation.

56 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) Fluorescent lamp that is small in size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in length). Developed as replacement for incandescent lamps. Two Main Types – Ballast-integrated. – Ballast non-integrated (allows only lamp to be replaced).

57 Compact Fluorescent -CFL Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.) Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent) Long Life (generally 10,000 hours – lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps) Less expensive dimming now available down to 5% output Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology

58 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (contd) Use 25% the power of an incandescent for an equivalent amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL is equivalent to a 75- watt incandescent.) 10,000 hour life. (10x an incandescent). Saves about $30 over the life of the CFL.

59 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps

60 High Intensity Discharge Fixtures

61 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps An HID Produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina (ceramic) arc tube filled with special gases.

62 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (contd) Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts. HID lamps are used in industrial high bay applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting, parking decks, street lights. Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt). Long Life (up to 25,000 hours). Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up to full light after power outage.

63 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (contd) Types of HIDs – Mercury Vapor (obsolete) – Sodium Vapor High pressure Low pressure – Metal Halide Arc tube contains argon, mercury, and metal halides. Gives better color temperature and CRI.

64 Metal Halide Lamps Most common HID in use today. Recent Improvements. – Allow higher pressure & temperature. – Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen maintenance. – Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start – Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.

65 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Latest Lighting Technology. Invented in In the past, used as indicator lights, automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting. LED is a semiconductor technology. Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine with holes in the semiconductor, releasing photons.

66 65 LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes) Advantages Long life (50K to 100K hours) Energy Efficient Directional Dimming and instant on Can be cycled frequently Rugged (no filament tube to break) Multiple Colors Environmentally Green (no mercury) Barriers: – Higher Cost – Heat removal is a must!

67 Typical Power LED Package The LED Package provides: – Protection for the LED die from the outside environment – Conductive path to carry generated heat away from the LED die – RI matching from the LED die to air Reliability – Lens & encapsulant systems should not discolor under UV and exposure to high amounts of luminous flux LED die ESD protection Wire bond Reflector Lens (glass, silicone) Substrate Encapsulant 66

68 67 LED Applications Successfully used today for many markets – Signs – Traffic signals – Displays (change colors for attention) – Exit Signs (most common) – Indicators – Flashlights – Parking Garage & Outdoor – Commercial – Food Freezers – Offices

69 LED Replacement Lamps (PAR 38, PAR 30, PAR 20, MR16 and A-19) Available from a large number of vendors Variety of Beam Spreads, Dimmable 68

70 LEDs Project Virtually no UV LED Lamps

71 LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fxture

72 T5HO vs. LED Dow Corning Greensboro, NC Remove 6-lamp T5HO – 88 fixtures – 4100K – 321w each – kW total 30 FC maintained Install LED Fixtures – 118 fixtures – 6000K – 145w each – kW total 30 FC maintained 71 kW Savings Summary kW reduced (40%) with LED

73 Technology advancements and energy costs have driven down the wattage of the standard 2x4 lay-in fixture. 1950s 4LP - T12 troffer with magnetic ballast 220W (65 CRI) 1970s 4LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 178W (65 CRI) 1980s 3LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 134W (65 CRI) 1990s 3LP - T8 troffer with Electronic Ballast 96W (70-80 CRI) 2000s 2LP – T8 troffer w/ Elec. Ballast (tuned) 59W (70-80 CRI) 2011 First Viable 2x4 LED troffer offered 44W & 36W (90CRI) In 60 years the standard has gone from 65 CRI to 90 CRI Lay-in Troffer Product Evolution

74 73 US Pentagon Alcove Before (432W)

75 74 Alcove After (288W) Note Vertical Light on Shelves

76 75 LED vs. HPS

77 Outdoor Lighting Older technology for outdoor lighting – High pressure sodium – Metal Halide Newer technology – Compact fluorescents – LEDs NOTE: Solar street lights offer significant savings by eliminating costly electric conduit and cable runs

78 Exit Signs Old incandescent exit signs used (2) 20-watt incandescent lamps. – At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1 sign = $28/yr. CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 watts – Energy cost for 1 sign = $7 to $8.50/yr. LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts – energy cost for 1 sign = $3 to $4/yr. Photoluminescent sign uses 0 watts, but may have (slightly) radioactive material. – New technology claims completely non-toxic and recyclable.

79 78 Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36W Ceramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W

80 Induction Lights Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic fields. Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glow Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000 hours depending on the lamp model; High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient]; High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient; Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent; Instant-on and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp, Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp); Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long lifespan.

81 Induction Lighting Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glow Advantages: QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours – if used 12 hours each day will last 20 years! Good for hard to maintain locations Disadvantages: Large light source – difficult to control beam of light making it inefficient for delivered and task lumens Expensive - $200+ adder to HID No industry standards for Induction

82 Induction Applications Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult 24 hour a day.7 days a week applications Bridges Low Bay Industrial Select Outdoor Lighting Applications Long burning hour applications

83 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

84 Hazardous Waste Disposal Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the disposal of other widely generated wastes that contain toxic materials, such as batteries and pesticides State Rule supersedes Federal Rule Under current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID) may be hazardous waste The rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is hazardous.

85 Mercury Content of Lamps TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS 250 watt Metal Halide lamp38 mg 250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp15 mg Pre 1988 T12 Fluorescent45 mg Post 1988 T12 Fluorescent12 mg Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube4-5 mg Typical Compact Fluorescent (CFL)4-5 mg 4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent lamp. Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled! EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury into the environment. EPA encourages lamp recycling

86 Simple Payback Return on Investment (ROI) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Net Present Value (NPV) LIGHTING ECONOMICS $$

87 Simple Payback Simple Payback is the number of years it takes an energy saving measure to repay the initial investment for the new system. It does not account for the time value of money and it also does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point. Most private companies require a simple payback of 2 years or less. For energy saving measures, they will sometimes accept a 3 to 5 year payback. Government agencies can accept longer paybacks than private companies. SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS

88 Return on Investment - ROI ROI is the inverse of Simple Payback and has all of the qualifiers of a simple payback. It does not account for the time value of money and also it does not consider the savings that occur after the payback point. It is sometimes called Rate of Return. ROI is expressed as a percentage. It is often compared to other investment yields.

89 Net Present Value ($) NPV adjusts for the time value of money by discounting incremental future cash flows to the present time using a discount rate appropriate to those cash flows. NPV ($) is a profitability measure and can be used to rank one lighting alternative over another. The higher the $ profit NPV, the better the alternative. The NPV, to be appropriately used, should be calculated by applying the after tax cost of capital to the after tax cash flows.

90 Example: Simple Payback & ROI A lighting upgrade is estimated to save $5,000 a year and cost $25,000. What are the simple payback and return on investment (ROI)? Simple payback= Cost / Annual Savings = $25,000 / $5,000 = 5 years ROI= 1 / Simple Payback = 1/5 = 20%

91 Example: Energy & Cost Savings Existing lighting in the Method Road Greenhouse consists of 10 fixtures containing ten 4, 4 lamp T12 fixtures that consume 154 watts of electrical power. At $0.09/kWh, what is the annual cost of operating these fixtures 2,000 hours a year? 10 x 154 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000= 3,080 kWh 3,080 x $0.09= $2,772 per year These fixtures are replaced by fixtures containing 25 watt T8 lamps with low BF ballasts which only consume 89 watts per fixture. What is the annual cost of operation? 10 x 89 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000= 1,780 kWh 1,780 x $0.09= $1,602 per year Cost savings= $1,170 per year

92 Other Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in Space Longer Lamp Life Less Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life) Adjust to target light levels (IES) Improved Controls HVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled spaces Tax Incentives – Generally tax deductions Incentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have programs

93 HVAC Savings from a Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is: A savings when cooling (A/C is on) In the heating season, lighting assists the HVAC. Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x.1 to.2 Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x.05 to.1 Example: Lighting Savings = $2, $2,000 x.1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC

94 Change from Old to New and Save Energy and $$ OLD TECHNOLOGY => T12 Fluorescent – 4 and 8 Systems In the US today, 60% are still T12. Magnetic Ballasts Incandescent Halogen Probe Start Metal Halide and Mercury Vapor Neon Manual Controls NEW TECHNOLOGY T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems Electronic Ballasts Halogen IR, MH & LED Metal Halide and LED Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide LED Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems

95 Ballast Factor DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-ballast combination APPLICATIONS: High Ballast FactorIncreases output ( )AND energy consumption Typical Ballast FactorComparable light output in ( )one-to-one replacement Low Ballast FactorDecreases light output ( )AND energy consumption Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.

96 LIGHTING CONTROLS

97 Types of Lighting Controls – Occupancy Sensors – Bi-level Switching – Time Clock – Photo Sensors – Dimmers – Lighting Control Systems – Building Management Systems

98 Typical Lighting Control Applications Type of ControlPrivate Office Open Office - Daylit Open Office - Interior Occupancy Sensors++ Time Scheduling+++ Daylight Dimming++ 0 Bi-Level Switching++++ Demand Limiting = good savings potential + = some savings potential 0 = not applicable

99 Occupancy Sensors Automatically turn lights off when spaces are unoccupied. Ceiling or Wall Mounted. Adjustments for sensitivity and time delay. Proper selection, location, and adjustment of sensors is key to reliable operation. Wireless technology is available. Ultrasonic, Infrared, Dual-Technology.

100 Ultrasonic Wall Sensor Automatic Control Use in areas where there are long periods of unoccupied time Excellent for bi-level control to maximize energy savings Does not require direct line of sight Adjust sensitivity and time delay for best results

101 Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR) Detect movement of heat-radiating sources between radial detection zones Line-of-sight is required (30 max) Larger motion is required to trigger sensor at greater distance Most sensitive to motion lateral to sensor Coverage pattern can be modified to minimize false triggers

102 Dual-Technology Sensors Greater reliability from using both infrared (IR) and ultrasonic (US) sensing technologies Typical operation settings: IR and US signals for lights to turn on IR or US signals for lights to stay on Absence of IR and US signals for lights to turn off

103 Energy Savings Potential With Occupancy Sensors ApplicationEnergy Savings Offices (Private)25-50% Offices (Open Spaces)20-25% Rest Rooms30-75% Corridors30-40% Storage Areas45-65% Meeting Rooms45-65% Conference Rooms45-65% Warehouses50-75% Source: CEC/DOE/EPRI Savings can be determined with data logger installed in room or area for 1 to 2 weeks.

104 Bi- and Multi-Level Switching Top shows switching for 50% of lamps on. Bottom shows switching for 1, 2, or 3-lamp operation.

105 Photo Sensors Turn lights off when daylight is adequate. Outdoor lighting. – Dusk to dawn. Indoor lighting – Dims lights as daylight increases. Can work with occupancy sensors.

106 Lighting energy savings are possible while improving lighting quality. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST SAVINGS

107 Other Benefits from Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in Space Longer Lamp Life Less Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life) Adjust to target light levels (IES) Improved Controls HVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled spaces Tax Incentives – Generally tax deductions Incentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have programs

108 HVAC Savings from a Lighting Retrofit 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is: A savings when cooling (A/C is on) A cost when heating is on Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x.1 to.2 Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x.05 to.1 Example: Lighting Savings = $2, $2,000 x.1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC

109 Lighting Upgrade Savings Opportunities More Efficient Lamp Type – Metal Halide T8 Fluorescent – T12 Fluorescent T8 Fluorescent or LED – Incandescent CFL or LED Fewer Lamps per Fixture – 4-Lamp to 3-Lamp or 2-Lamp Fewer Fixtures Better Fixtures Better Control

110 HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input 6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts

111 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent - 4 and 8 Systems Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts Incandescent Standard Metal Halide Mercury Vapor Neon Manual Controls

112 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems Electronic Ballasts LED Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems

113 Super T8 Fluorescent System T8s have been improved. Older T8s called 700 series; 32 watts. Newer Super T8s called 800 series (CRI > 80) and 850 series (CRI > 85) 3000K, 3500K, 4100K, 5000K versions 30,000 hour lamp 3 hours per start initial lumens Universal Voltage ( V) 4-foot lamp: 30, 28 or 25 watts; Low input wattage (4-lamp: 93/89 watts) 95% lumen 8000 hours Low Temperature Starting (0˚F) Lamp/Ballast System Warranty 5 Years 85 CRI Program Start Ballasts TCLP-compliant

114 Instant Start Super T8 vs. Standard T8 800-series Super T8s have 96% of system lumens of 700-series lamps with standard ballasts 19% reduction in power Double lamp life (3 hrs. per start) Maximum life on occupancy sensors

115 Old T8 to Super T8 Upgrades Save up to 20% of energy costs by replacing 32 Watt T8s with low-wattage T8s. Whenreplacing 700-series 32 Watt T8s: – 25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 9% light output reduction. – 28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 2% light output reduction. When replacing 800-series 32 Watt T8s: – 25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 16% light output reduction. – 28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 9% light output reduction. While low-wattage T8 lamps may reduce light output, changes in light levels of less than 10% are generally undetectable to most occupants.

116 25 Watt T8 Advantage Long Life Lamp from Philips Lighting Long lamp life (40,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium Instant Start ballasts and 46,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on Optanium Programmed Start Ballasts) 2400 lumens with 95 percent lumen maintenance Superior color rendering (a CRI of 85) Low mercury (Philips ALTO ® lamps average 70% less mercury than the 2001 industry average for fluorescent lamps up to 60 inches, which are not TCLP (EPA Std. - Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) compliant) 1.7 mg Mercury per 4 lamp

117 Fluorescent Lamp/Ballast Change-out vs. New Fixture Rules of Thumb Install new fixtures when: Existing fixtures are over 20 years old Lamp holders are worn out Multiple components are failing Design requires change in fixture type Retrofit existing fixtures with lamps & ballasts when: Existing fixtures are less than 20 years old Lamp holders and other components are still good Budget is very tight Expensive/Difficult/Environmental Conditions Present (i.e. asbestos or excessive piping and ducts in ceiling, etc.)

118 T5 and T5HO Systems One T5HO lamp provides similar maintained lumen output to two T8 lamps (4750 vs maintained lumens) Maintained lumens are higher – fixtures are smaller Peak light output at 95˚F ambient air temperature instead of 77˚F with T8 and T12 Amalgam technology has been added to provide a more constant lumen output across a broad range of ambient temperatures!

119 T5 and T5HO Systems Disadvantages T5 and T5HO lamp life is less than T8s The bulb wall surface of the T5 is very bright. Care must be exercised in using T5 lamp in direct lighting applications. Costs higher than T8 – cost can be balanced by a reduction in the number of luminaries used. Lead times may be longer – T5s require compete fixture replacement. In cooler temperatures or high CFM air distribution the T5 or T5HO may not perform well (peak light output at 95 °F). May not work well with occupancy sensors due to slow lumen run-up with cold start.

120 T5HO vs. T8 Application Rules of Thumb 20 – use T8 20 – use T5HO 18 to 25 – either T8 or T5HO can be used successfully Over 50 types of 4 T8 lamps available Two T5 lamps: 28w T5 and 54w T5HO To get T5HO performance out of T8 lamps, use high- lumen/high performance T8 lamps

121 T5HO vs. T8 for Warehouse Aisles Rule of Thumb In general for warehouse aisles, T5HO will perform better in non-air- conditioned spaces and T8 performs better in air-conditioned spaces. Reason: Ambient temperature of T5HO rating for peak performance is 35 degrees C (95F) and T8 is rated at 25C (77F). Source: Warehouse aisle lighting – p. 16 – LD&A Feb article by Siva K. Haran, PE, LEED, AP, IES

122 An Increase in Quality Can Improve Worker Productivity 1% increase in productivity is about equal to one sick day Improve employee satisfaction and reduce turnover/replacement expenses for new employees. Improves Company bottom line Indirect Lighting is preferred by many today.

123 Whats the Most Efficient Light Source?

124 Daylighting Advantages Excellent light source for almost all interior spaces – offices, homes, retail, schools and more; People prefer it! Field research indicates that with daylighting: Learning is enhanced Retail sales increase (Wal-Mart study) Employee satisfaction increases Energy Savings is realized when controls are used

125 Task Lighting

126 Task lighting can reduce the need for overhead ambient light. Useful where tasks require more light, e.g., painting, inspection, better color rendition.

127 Group Relamping Changing out all the lamps in an area at one time at regular intervals. – At about 90% of lamp rated life Saves labor. Maintains light levels. Can be scheduled during off-hours.

128 Conducting a Lighting Survey Why Conduct a Lighting Survey? – to identify improvement opportunities. It is a systematic exam and appraisal of building lighting systems. Step 1 – Establish a base line of performance Step 2 – Identify opportunities for improvement Step 3 – Calculate savings and potential payback The quality of the information collected in the survey has a direct impact on steps 2 and 3

129 Instruments Top: Light Meter – Measures lumens (ft.- candles). Bottom: Ballast Discriminator – Indicates whether a fixture has a electronic or electromagmetic ballast.

130 Suggestions for a Lighting Survey Ask the right questions to meet the clients goals Gather ALL the right information Dont assume – check the existing equipment to obtain accurate information Determine Economic Calculations Required Is a test installation needed? Lighting Fixtures Controls Consider all drivers to reduce the payback Use a pre-printed form or spreadsheet template

131 Information and Data to Collect in a Lighting Survey Floor plan of the building/space with dimensions if available Electric bills for 1 year to determine average cost per kWh over the year Tasks being performed in each area – Talk to occupants in the area Type (fixture input wattage and lamps/ballasts type), quantity, mounting height, and control of fixtures in each space Lighting operating hours per year and footcandle levels for each space Circuit Voltage Exit signs (light source) Talk with building occupants about operating practices and satisfaction with the level and quality of lighting Talk with maintenance staff about equipment condition and any recurring problems.

132 Lighting Survey Results Baseline: current lighting energy use (typical lighting energy = 0.5 to 1.5 watts per sq. ft.) Recommendations for Lighting Upgrades. Estimated Costs with Incentives/Rebates. Energy and Cost Savings. Bottom Line: Payback Period.

133 LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE USE OF LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES

134 Energy Legislation and Incentive Programs for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Energy Policy Act of 2005 – EPAct 2005 North Carolina Tax Credits North Carolina Senate Bill 3 – Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007 – Utility Incentives – Progress Energy, Duke Energy American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009, ARRA or Stimulus Package NC Greenpower

135 Highlights of the Federal Energy Policy Act of % tax credit for residential solar thermal or photovoltaic energy systems up to a credit of $2,000 Does not apply to pool heating systems 30% tax credit up to $500 for energy efficient windows, doors, heating & cooling equipment, and insulation Tax deductions up to $1.80 per square foot for energy efficiency improvements in commercial buildings. Lighting, HVAC, Building Envelope

136 EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions The Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 1331, provides a tax deduction of up to $1.80/ft 2 for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. These tax deductions can be claimed in a single year. Systems covered include: Interior lighting systemsMax. $0.60/ft 2 Heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water systems Max. $0.60/ft 2 Building envelopeMax. $0.60/ft 2

137 EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions To qualify for an EPAct 2005 tax deduction for lighting, the following must be met: Surpass the ASHRAE LPD Standard Bi-level switching must be installed for most buildings (exceptions identified) and all controls provisions (new buildings) in the Standard must be met. Must meet the minimum requirements for calculated light levels as set forth in the 9 th Edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook. Consult a tax expert to see if you qualify

138 EPAct 2005 Critical Dates and Proposed Increase in Tax Deduction For commercial (for profit) enterprise Any new system that exceeds ASHRAE standards by the required amount must be placed into service between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013 for tax deduction. Proposed 2009 Senate Bill 1637 would increase tax credit for $1.80 to $3.00 per square foot for whole building or from $0.60 to $1.00 per square foot for partial allowance (such as lighting measures only).

139 NC Tax Credit Summary

140 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) President Bush signed into law on 12/19/07 Lighting Sections include: Sec. 321 – Efficient Light Bulbs Sec. 322 – Incandescent Reflector Lamp Efficiency Standards Sec. 324 – Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures Sec. 65 – Bright Tomorrow Light Prizes

141 Lamp Wattages and Efficiency Requirements There are new efficacies for general service incandescent lamps expressed as a new maximum wattage. Generally, the lamps must be 30% more efficient by , with larger lamps covered first. Compliance: Todays typical incandescent and halogen general service screw- base lamps do not comply with the new efficiency requirements. Examples of General Service Lamps that will become obsolete: January 1, 2012 – 100W A19 incandescent lamps January 1, 2013 – 75W A19 incandescent lamps January 1, 2014 – 40W A19 and 60W A19 incandescent lamps

142

143 Rated Lumens Typical Current Lamp Wattage Maximum Rate Wattage Minimum Efficacy Minimum Rated Lifetime Effective Date Californ ia Effec- tive Date ,000 hours1/1/20121/1/ ,000 hours1/1/2013 1/1/ ,000 hours1/1/2014 1/1/ ,000 hours1/1/2014 1/1/201 3 A19 Lamp Lighting Legislation

144 Better Use of Light Bulbs Act Legislation introduced to repeal the EISA lamp efficiency requirements. – Jobs lost to China. – Mercury in CFLs. Did not pass in July Issue has become politically-charged.

145 Super Incandescents? GE just announced "advancements to the light bulb that potentially will elevate the energy efficiency of this 125-year- old technology to levels comparable to compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), delivering significant environmental benefits. Over the next several years, these advancements will lead to the introduction of high-efficiency incandescent lamps that provide the same high light quality, brightness and color as current incandescent lamps while saving energy and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions." The bulbs will come out at 30 lumens per watt (twice a conventional incandescent) and top out at 60 lumens per watt. From ;

146 GE energy-efficient soft white offer the closest alternative to traditional incandescent bulb Halogen Use 28% less energy than incandescent bulbs Same size & shape Nearly the same light output Dimmable & instantly bright Use 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs Last more than 7 years* Last up to 22 years* Use 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs LED CFL New Energy Efficient Lamp

147 Dates and Halogen Lamps January 1, W Halogen rated at 1600 lumens, must meet 23 lumens/W January 1, W Halogen rated at 1100 lumens, or 22 lumens/W January 1, W Halogen rated at 800 lumens, or 20 lumens/W Most all of todays standard PAR (parabolic anodized reflector) halogen lamps will be eliminated

148 DOE 2009 Ruling Went into Effect 7/14/2012 These lamps are obsolete: Majority of F40T12 and F34T12 ES 4-ft. lamps Majority of FB40T12 and FB34T12 ES 2-ft. U-lamps All 75W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. lamps Majority of 60W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. ES lamps All 110W F96T12HO 8-ft. lamps Majority of 95W F96T12HO 8-ft. ES lamps All T8 basic 700 series 4-ft. lamps with 2800 lumens (requires 2850 lumens to pass) Majority of T8 basic 700 series 2-ft. U-lamp s

149 Older Lighting Technology Subject to be Changed Out T-12 Fluorescent - 4 and 8 Systems Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts Incandescent Standard Metal Halide Mercury Vapor Neon Manual Controls

150 New Energy Efficient Lighting Replacements T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems Electronic Ballasts Halogen IR Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide LED Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems New Fixtures

151 North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3) Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007 SB3 requires a Percentage of Electrical Generation from Renewable Sources. Of these amounts, 25% can be achieved by Energy Efficiency. Solar PV Solar Thermal Wind Hydroelectric Wave Energy Biomass Landfill Gas (LFG) Waste Heat from Renewables Hydrogen from Renewables

152 Utility Incentives to Upgrade Lighting Beginning in 2010, Duke and Progress Energy offered rebates for customers to upgrade their lighting to more efficient lights. Rebate would pay up to 40% of the cost of the new lamps/ballasts. These incentives will become unavailable as the new lighting technologies are mandated.

153 Renewable Portfolio Standards State renewable portfolio standard State renewable portfolio goal / November 2009 Solar water heating eligible * Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables Includes non-renewable alternative resources WA: 15% by 2020* CA: 33% by 2020 NV : 25% by 2025* AZ: 15% by 2025 NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) 10% by 2020 (co-ops) HI: 40% by 2030 Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement TX: 5,880 MW by 2015 UT: 20% by 2025* CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) 10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)* MT: 15% by 2015 ND: 10% by 2015 SD: 10% by 2015 IA: 105 MW MN: 25% by 2025 (Xcel: 30% by 2020) MO: 15 % by 2021 WI : Varies by utility; 10% by 2015 goal MI: 10% + 1,100 MW by 2015* OH : 25% by 2025 ME: 30% by 2000 New RE: 10% by 2017 NH: 23.8% by 2025 MA: 15% by % annual increase (Class I Renewables) RI: 16% by 2020 CT: 23% by 2020 NY: 24% by 2013 NJ: 22.5% by 2021 PA: 18% by 2020 MD: 20% by 2022 DE: 20% by 2019* DC: 20% by 2020 VA: 15% by 2025* NC : 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs) 10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis) VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales by 2012; (2) 20% RE & CHP by states & DC have an RPS 6 states have goals KS: 20% by 2020 OR : 25% by 2025 (large utilities )* 5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities) IL: 25% by 2025 WV: 25% by 2025*


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