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Chapter 26 The New Power Balance

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1 Chapter 26 The New Power Balance 1850-1900
AP World History

2 New Technologies and the World Economy
Railroads By 1850 every industrializing country began to build railroad lines. Large networks could be found in Britain, France, Germany, Canada, Russia, and Japan, with the largest (by the end of the century) in the US. Why the tremendous explosion in RR building – While RR began in Britain by the end of the century they had been surpassed by all the above (save Japan). Why is that not surprising – Environmental impacts -



5 Steamships and Telegraph Cables
Shipbuilding developments - iron (then steel) for hulls, propellers, and engines. Allowed for enormous increase in carrying capacity of freighters (200 tons – 1850 to 7500 tons – 1900) Impact of shipping advancements (price, world trade, desire for raw materials and markets, etc) – Submarine telegraph cables used to coordinate movements of ships around the globe.


7 The Steel and Chemical Industries Nobel Peace Prize – a love interest?
Steel could only be made in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the 19th century (Bessemer process and subsequent improvements changed that) Impact of large scale cheap steel production – 19th century brought large-scale manufacture of chemicals(organic and non-organic) and synthetic dyes Alfred Nobel – dynamite (safe nitro); also patented a smokeless gunpowder – more powerful and accurate firearms. Nobel Peace Prize – a love interest? (Did you know that Hitler and Stalin were both nominees)

8 Edison – light bulb (1879), first electric grid (1882)
Electricity 1870s - efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electricity used to power arc lamps, incandescent lamps, streetcars, subways, and electric motors for industry. Edison – light bulb (1879), first electric grid (1882) Edison – DC, Tesla - AC Electricity eventually would help to alleviate pollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles and didn’t pollute air (gas lamps, coal, stoves/ovens, etc). Other impacts of electricity – work, street cars, subways, street lights, settlement patterns, etc


10 World’s greatest failure?
“I have not failed a thousand times I have found a thousand ways not to be successful”

11 World Trade and Finance
Between 1850 and 1913 world trade expanded tenfold, while the cost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percent Even cheap and heavy products (agricultural goods, raw materials, and machinery) could be shipped around the world. What helped lead to the dramatic drop in shipping costs and increase in trade - The growth of trade and close connections between the industrial economies of Western Europe and North America brought great prosperity and increased vulnerability to these areas Increasing global interdependence increased likelihood that economic impacts would not be isolated to one country alone Non-industrial areas even more vulnerable to swings in the business cycle. Why (natural phenomenon, overproduction, competition, synthetic replacements, etc) - .

12 Population and Migrations
Between 1850 and 1914 Europe population almost doubled – approx 265,000,000 to 468,000,000 European Emigration spurred growth in US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. US – 23,000,000 to 92,000,000 Canada – 2,500,00 to 7,200,000 What were the reasons so many people emigrated from Europe – Proportion of people of European ancestry in the world’s population rose from one-fifth to one-third. European population increases – drop in the death rate (why?) - improved crop yields (why) - canning and refrigeration (impact) – the provision of a more abundant year-round diet etc

13 Urbanization and Urban Environments
Meteoric rise in urbanization (Europe, America, Japan). Why – Industrialization along with mass transportation (initially benefitting the rich and middle class and later the working class). Improved sewage, water supply systems, gas and electric lighting, police and fire departments, sanitation and garbage removal, building and health inspection, schools, parks, and other amenities made cities much more desirable places to live. Urban planning (often over older areas) made cities easier to navigate and more attractive places to live, cities began to expand outward. Although urban environments improved in many ways, air quality worsened. Coal used as fuel polluted the air. While horses began to be slowly replaced the waste left by their still substantial numbers added to the often noxious miasma of cities (significant reduction in their numbers would be decades in coming)


15 Middle-Class Women and the “Separate Sphere”
“Victorian Age” - not only to the reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to the rules of behavior and the ideology surrounding the family and relations between men and women. Men and women were thought to belong in “separate spheres,” the men in the workplace, the women in the home. Before electrical appliances, a middle-class home demanded lots of work; technology eliminated some tasks and made others easier. However, new technology raised standards of cleanliness – so a woman could expect just as much work as before The most important duty of middle-class women was to raise their children. Women were excluded from jobs that required higher education. A middle class woman was expected to quit working and stay at home to raise the her children as soon as she had children. Some middle-class women were not satisfied with home life and became involved in volunteer work or in the women’s suffrage movement. Additionally, expected to have at least one servant if middle class


17 Working-class women led lives of toil and pain.
Domestic servants, facing long hours, hard physical labor, and sexual abuse from their masters or their masters’ sons. Factory workers - poorly paid work in the textiles mills and clothing trades. Married women were expected to stay home, raise children, do housework, and contribute to the family income.

18 Socialism and Labor Movements
Marx and Socialism Best-known socialist was Karl Marx (1818–1883) who, along with Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867). Marx saw history as a series of class struggles The “haves” and the “have nots” Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat Believed workers would rise up and overthrow owners; establishing a classless society Marx's theories provided an intellectual framework dissatisfaction with unfettered capitalism. No specific plans Flaws in his ideology? (hint human nature) -


20 Labor Movements Labor unions - organizations of industrial workers to protect their interests as well as better conditions, benefits, etc Universal male suffrage gave workers greater influence over governmental decisions and convinced many to seek concessions from the government and even to win elections; through the vote rather than violence Women were usually not welcome in the male dominated trade unions or in politics in general

21 Nationalism as a unifying and divisive force
Language and National Identity Before 1871 Language was usually the crucial element in creating a feeling of national unity, but language and citizenship did not always coincide. Until the 1860s nationalism was associated with liberalism, as in the case of the Italian liberal nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini. After 1848 conservative political leaders learned how to preserve the social status quo by using public education, universal military service, and colonial conquests to build a sense of national identity that focused loyalty on the state.


23 With the help of Camillo di Cavour Victor Emmanuel II united Northern
Italy. In the South Guiseppe Garibaldi (leader of the Red Shirts) worked to unite the Italian states. Garibaldi’s followers were called Red Shirts for signature red shirts they wore; including into battle


25 Italian unification completed - 1870
Despite unification Italy still had many unsolved economic and social problems. Italy did not become highly industrialized - this would plague Italy well into the 20th century!

26 Italy’s lack of industrial might would be one
of the biggest reasons for the Italian Army’s poor performance in both world wars!!!!! WWI WWII

27 The Unification of Germany
Until the 1860s the German-speaking people were divided among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and numerous smaller states. Prussia took the lead in the movement for German unity - strong industrial base, militaristic nation with the latest military, transportation, and communications technology. During the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany through a combination of diplomacy and a series of wars with other European powers.

28 What did Bismarck mean by each of these statements?
The Prussian chancellor Bismarck used warfare as an instrument of national policy. He used a series of three wars to unify the German states and make Germany the most powerful country on the continent of Europe. Bismarck is well known for his policy of Realpolitik (the Reality of Politics) – power politics. He also stated that the “Blood and Iron” of Germany would make Germany mighty. What represented the blood and the iron of Germany? Lastly, Bismarck was credited with saying that he negotiated and governed with a “Mailed Fist.” What did Bismarck mean by each of these statements?

29 Bismarck’s wars of unification.
1864 1866 What three countries did Bismarck provoke war with in order to unify Germany?

30 Austria and Prussia went to war in 1866.
The Prussians had better leaders, better equipment, and utilized superior strategy.

31 The Austrian Empire became the Austrian-Hungarian Empire
after its defeat at the hands of the Prussians.

32 One of the most important factors in the Prussian
victory over the Austrians was the Prussian needle gun. The Austrians were using guns which had to be loaded from the muzzle (front of the barrel) of the gun. Most of the Prussian troops were using the “Needle Gun”. The “Needle Gun was loaded through the breech (side of the weapon). Furthermore it used a round which contained the shot and powder in a metal jacket. **In what ways was the Prussian weapon far superior to the Austrian weapon?

33 In 1871 Wilhelm I was crowned Kaiser of the new
German Empire - and the second Reich was born. The Prussian victories and subsequent unification worried the other European powers. The balance of power on the European continent had now swung decisively in Germany’s favor.

34 Victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War completed the unification of Germany, but it also resulted in German control over the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and thus in the long-term enmity between France and Germany. French military planning for the next four plus decades would revolve around avenging this loss and retaking the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine


36 Nationalism after 1871 After the Franco-Prussian War all politicians tried to manipulate public opinion in order to bolster their governments by using the press and public education in order to foster nationalistic loyalties. In many countries the dominant group used nationalism to justify the imposition of its language, religion, or customs on minority populations. Europeans (Herbert Spencer 1820–1903) took up Darwin’s ideas “natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” - applied them to human societies to justify European Imperialism and dominance of “big business”

37 The Great Powers of Europe 1871-1900
Germany at the Center of Europe German unification undid the balance of power that the Congress of Vienna had tried to restore. Bismarck worked very hard to isolate France by forging a loose coalition with Austria-Hungary and Russia. At home, Bismarck used mass politics and social legislation to gain popular support and to develop a strong sense of national unity and pride amongst the German people. Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed Bismarck and initiated an aggressive German foreign policy that placed emphasis on the acquisition of colonies and the build-up of a “risk fleet”. In the process he succeeded in undoing almost all of Bismarck’s foreign policy successes

38 France and Great Britain
France was now a second-rate power in Europe Smaller population (and population growth) Smaller army Less industrialized While Britain, had a stable government and a narrowing in the disparity of wealth it was not without its own problems. Irish resentment of English rule, An economy that that had fallen behind the U.S. and Germany An enormous empire that was very expensive to administer and to defend. For most of the 19th century Britain pursued a policy of “splendid isolation” toward Europe; preoccupation with India led the British to exaggerate the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire and to the Central Asian approaches to India while they ignored the rise of Germany.

39 How could this create problems concerning
Russian Empire Austrian Empire The Austrian and Russian Empires were a collection of many diverse nationalities, languages, and religions. How could this create problems concerning the administration and ruling of the empire?

40 Russia and Austria-Hungary
The forces of nationalism weakened Russia and Austria-Hungary. (Austria had alienated its Slavic-speaking minorities by renaming itself the Austro-Hungarian Empire.) Ethnic diversity also contributed to instability in both In 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated the peasants from serfdom, but did so in such a way that it only turned them into communal farmers with few skills and little capital Neither industrialized to any appreciable degree Middle-class of each remained small and weak while the land- owning aristocracy dominated politics. Russia was embarrassed on the world stage in the Russo- Japanese War (1904–1905) The Revolution of 1905 demonstrated the dissatisfaction of the masses and caused Tsar Nicholas II to introduce a constitution and the Duma (parliamentary body) reverted to despotism as soon as he had the situation stabilized.



43 Japan Joins the Great Powers 1865-1905
China, Japan, and the Western Powers, to 1867 China resisted Western influence – ended up divided into spheres of influence Japan transformed itself into a major industrial and military power. Japan embraced Westernization; China did not (Japan wanted to avoid China’s fate) Dowager Empress (Cixi) and other officials opposed railways or other technologies that would spread foreign influences Tokugawa Shogunate had closed Japan to the West (early 17th century) In 1853, the American Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan with a fleet of steam-powered warships and demanded that the Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships. Dissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation to American and European demands led to a civil war and the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.


45 Meiji Restoration and the Modernization of Japan
Meiji were willing to change their institutions and their society in order to help transform their country into a world-class industrial and military power. The Japanese government encouraged industrialization, funding industrial development with tax revenue extracted from the rural sector and then selling state-owned enterprises to private entrepreneurs. Sent emissaries to observe German, Britain, and American societies, govt., military, etc. By 1890 Japan had a large modern navy and a modern army of 500,00 men

46 Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)
Japan was a militaristic society with a foreign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere of influence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part of China (Greater Asian co-prosperity sphere) Anyone who was an obstacle to these plans would have to be removed as such Sino-Japanese War (1894) resulted in ineffectual Chinese reform effort (the Hundred Days Reform) in 1898 Russo-Japanese War ( ) Annexation of Korea (1910) Takeover of businesses, teaching of Japanese, etc



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