Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The New Power Balance"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 26 The New Power Balance 1850-1900 AP World History
2New Technologies and the World Economy RailroadsBy 1850 every industrializing country began to build railroad lines. Large networks could be found in Britain, France, Germany, Canada, Russia, and Japan, with the largest (by the end of the century) in the US.Why the tremendous explosion in RR building –While RR began in Britain by the end of the century they had been surpassed by all the above (save Japan). Why is that not surprising –Environmental impacts -
5Steamships and Telegraph Cables Shipbuilding developments - iron (then steel) for hulls, propellers, and engines.Allowed for enormous increase in carrying capacity of freighters (200 tons – 1850 to 7500 tons – 1900)Impact of shipping advancements (price, world trade, desire for raw materials and markets, etc) –Submarine telegraph cables used to coordinate movements of ships around the globe.
7The Steel and Chemical Industries Nobel Peace Prize – a love interest? Steel could only be made in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the 19th century (Bessemer process and subsequent improvements changed that)Impact of large scale cheap steel production –19th century brought large-scale manufacture of chemicals(organic and non-organic) and synthetic dyesAlfred Nobel – dynamite (safe nitro); also patented a smokeless gunpowder – more powerful and accurate firearms.Nobel Peace Prize – a love interest?(Did you know that Hitler and Stalin were both nominees)
8Edison – light bulb (1879), first electric grid (1882) Electricity1870s - efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electricity used to power arc lamps, incandescent lamps, streetcars, subways, and electric motors for industry.Edison – light bulb (1879), first electric grid (1882)Edison – DC, Tesla - ACElectricity eventually would help to alleviate pollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles and didn’t pollute air (gas lamps, coal, stoves/ovens, etc).Other impacts of electricity – work, street cars, subways, street lights, settlement patterns, etc
10World’s greatest failure? “I have not failed a thousand times I have found a thousand ways not to be successful”
11World Trade and Finance Between 1850 and 1913 world trade expanded tenfold, while the cost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percentEven cheap and heavy products (agricultural goods, raw materials, and machinery) could be shipped around the world.What helped lead to the dramatic drop in shippingcosts and increase in trade -The growth of trade and close connections between the industrial economies of Western Europe and North America brought great prosperity and increased vulnerability to these areasIncreasing global interdependence increased likelihood that economic impacts would not be isolated to one country aloneNon-industrial areas even more vulnerable to swings in the business cycle. Why (natural phenomenon, overproduction, competition, synthetic replacements, etc) -.
12Population and Migrations Between 1850 and 1914 Europe population almost doubled – approx 265,000,000 to 468,000,000European Emigration spurred growth in US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina.US – 23,000,000 to 92,000,000Canada – 2,500,00 to 7,200,000What were the reasons so many people emigrated from Europe –Proportion of people of European ancestry in the world’s population rose from one-fifth to one-third.European population increases –drop in the death rate (why?) -improved crop yields (why) -canning and refrigeration (impact) –the provision of a more abundant year-round dietetc
13Urbanization and Urban Environments Meteoric rise in urbanization (Europe, America, Japan). Why –Industrialization along with mass transportation (initially benefitting the rich and middle class and later the working class).Improved sewage, water supply systems, gas and electric lighting, police and fire departments, sanitation and garbage removal, building and health inspection, schools, parks, and other amenities made cities much more desirable places to live.Urban planning (often over older areas) made cities easier to navigate and more attractive places to live, cities began to expand outward.Although urban environments improved in many ways, air quality worsened. Coal used as fuel polluted the air. While horses began to be slowly replaced the waste left by their still substantial numbers added to the often noxious miasma of cities (significant reduction in their numbers would be decades in coming)
15Middle-Class Women and the “Separate Sphere” “Victorian Age” - not only to the reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to the rules of behavior and the ideology surrounding the family and relations between men and women.Men and women were thought to belong in “separate spheres,”the men in the workplace, the women in the home.Before electrical appliances, a middle-class home demanded lots of work; technology eliminated some tasks and made others easier.However, new technology raised standards of cleanliness – so a woman could expect just as much work as beforeThe most important duty of middle-class women was to raise their children.Women were excluded from jobs that required higher education. A middle class woman was expected to quit working and stay at home to raise the her children as soon as she had children. Some middle-class women were not satisfied with home life and became involved in volunteer work or in the women’s suffrage movement.Additionally, expected to have at least one servant if middle class
17Working-class women led lives of toil and pain. Domestic servants, facing long hours, hard physical labor, and sexual abuse from their masters or their masters’ sons.Factory workers - poorly paid work in the textiles mills and clothing trades.Married women were expected to stay home, raise children, do housework, and contribute to the family income.
18Socialism and Labor Movements Marx and SocialismBest-known socialist was Karl Marx (1818–1883) who, along with Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867).Marx saw history as a series of class strugglesThe “haves” and the “have nots”Bourgeoisie and the ProletariatBelieved workers would rise up and overthrow owners;establishing a classless societyMarx's theories provided an intellectual framework dissatisfaction with unfettered capitalism.No specific plansFlaws in his ideology? (hint human nature) -
20Labor MovementsLabor unions - organizations of industrial workers to protect their interests as well as better conditions, benefits, etcUniversal male suffrage gave workers greater influence over governmental decisions and convinced many to seek concessions from the government and even to win elections; through the vote rather than violenceWomen were usually not welcome in the male dominated trade unions or in politics in general
21Nationalism as a unifying and divisive force Language and National Identity Before 1871Language was usually the crucial element in creating a feeling of national unity, but language and citizenship did not always coincide.Until the 1860s nationalism was associated with liberalism, as in the case of the Italian liberal nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini. After 1848 conservative political leaders learned how to preserve the social status quo by using public education, universal military service, and colonial conquests to build a sense of national identity that focused loyalty on the state.
23With the help of Camillo di Cavour Victor Emmanuel II united Northern Italy.In the South Guiseppe Garibaldi (leader of the Red Shirts) worked to unite the Italian states.Garibaldi’s followers were called Red Shirts for signature red shirts they wore; including into battle
25Italian unification completed - 1870 Despite unification Italy still had many unsolved economicand social problems.Italy did not become highly industrialized- this would plague Italy well into the 20thcentury!
26Italy’s lack of industrial might would be one of the biggest reasons for the Italian Army’spoor performance in both world wars!!!!!WWIWWII
27The Unification of Germany Until the 1860s the German-speaking people were divided among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and numerous smaller states.Prussia took the lead in the movement for German unity - strong industrial base, militaristic nation with the latest military, transportation, and communications technology.During the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany through a combination of diplomacy and a series of wars with other European powers.
28What did Bismarck mean by each of these statements? The Prussian chancellor Bismarck used warfare as aninstrument of national policy. He used a series of threewars to unify the German states and make Germanythe most powerful country on the continent of Europe.Bismarck is well known for his policy of Realpolitik (theReality of Politics) – power politics. He also stated that the “Blood and Iron” of Germany would make Germany mighty. What represented the blood and the iron of Germany? Lastly, Bismarck was credited with saying that he negotiated and governed with a “Mailed Fist.”What did Bismarck mean by each of these statements?
29Bismarck’s wars of unification. 18641866What three countries did Bismarck provoke war within order to unify Germany?
30Austria and Prussia went to war in 1866. The Prussians had better leaders, better equipment, and utilized superior strategy.
31The Austrian Empire became the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after its defeat at the hands of the Prussians.
32One of the most important factors in the Prussian victory over the Austrians was the Prussian needlegun.The Austrians were using guns which had to be loaded fromthe muzzle (front of the barrel) of the gun.Most of the Prussian troops were using the “Needle Gun”.The “Needle Gun was loaded through the breech (side of theweapon). Furthermore it used a round which contained the shotand powder in a metal jacket.**In what ways was the Prussian weapon far superior to theAustrian weapon?
33In 1871 Wilhelm I was crowned Kaiser of the new German Empire - and the second Reich was born.The Prussian victories andsubsequent unification worriedthe other European powers. The balance of power on the European continent had now swung decisivelyin Germany’s favor.
34Victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War completed the unification of Germany, but it also resulted in German control over the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and thus in the long-term enmity between France and Germany.French military planning for the next four plus decades would revolve around avenging this loss and retaking the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine
36Nationalism after 1871After the Franco-Prussian War all politicians tried to manipulate public opinion in order to bolster their governments by using the press and public education in order to foster nationalistic loyalties. In many countries the dominant group used nationalism to justify the imposition of its language, religion, or customs on minority populations.Europeans (Herbert Spencer 1820–1903) took up Darwin’s ideas “natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” - applied them to human societies to justify European Imperialism and dominance of “big business”
37The Great Powers of Europe 1871-1900 Germany at the Center of EuropeGerman unification undid the balance of power that the Congress of Vienna had tried to restore.Bismarck worked very hard to isolate France by forging a loose coalition with Austria-Hungary and Russia.At home, Bismarck used mass politics and social legislation to gain popular support and to develop a strong sense of national unity and pride amongst the German people.Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed Bismarck and initiated an aggressive German foreign policy that placed emphasis on the acquisition of colonies and the build-up of a “risk fleet”. In the process he succeeded in undoing almost all of Bismarck’s foreign policy successes
38France and Great Britain France was now a second-rate power in EuropeSmaller population (and population growth)Smaller armyLess industrializedWhile Britain, had a stable government and a narrowing in the disparity of wealth it was not without its own problems.Irish resentment of English rule,An economy that that had fallen behind the U.S. and GermanyAn enormous empire that was very expensive to administer and to defend.For most of the 19th century Britain pursued a policy of “splendid isolation” toward Europe; preoccupation with India led the British to exaggerate the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire and to the Central Asian approaches to India while they ignored the rise of Germany.
39How could this create problems concerning Russian EmpireAustrian EmpireThe Austrian and Russian Empires were a collection of many diverse nationalities, languages, and religions.How could this create problems concerningthe administration and ruling of the empire?
40Russia and Austria-Hungary The forces of nationalism weakened Russia and Austria-Hungary. (Austria had alienated its Slavic-speaking minorities by renaming itself the Austro-Hungarian Empire.)Ethnic diversity also contributed to instability in bothIn 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated the peasants from serfdom, but did so in such a way that it only turned them into communal farmers with few skills and little capitalNeither industrialized to any appreciable degreeMiddle-class of each remained small and weak while the land- owning aristocracy dominated politics.Russia was embarrassed on the world stage in the Russo- Japanese War (1904–1905)The Revolution of 1905 demonstrated the dissatisfaction of the masses and caused Tsar Nicholas II to introduce a constitution and the Duma (parliamentary body)reverted to despotism as soon as he had the situation stabilized.
43Japan Joins the Great Powers 1865-1905 China, Japan, and the Western Powers, to 1867China resisted Western influence – ended up divided into spheres of influenceJapan transformed itself into a major industrial and military power.Japan embraced Westernization; China did not (Japanwanted to avoid China’s fate)Dowager Empress (Cixi) and other officials opposed railways or other technologies that would spread foreign influencesTokugawa Shogunate had closed Japan to the West (early 17th century)In 1853, the American Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan with a fleet of steam-powered warships and demanded that the Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships.Dissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation to American and European demands led to a civil war and the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.
45Meiji Restoration and the Modernization of Japan Meiji were willing to change their institutions and their society in order to help transform their country into a world-class industrial and military power.The Japanese government encouraged industrialization, funding industrial development with tax revenue extracted from the rural sector and then selling state-owned enterprises to private entrepreneurs.Sent emissaries to observe German, Britain, and American societies, govt., military, etc.By 1890 Japan had a large modern navy and a modern army of 500,00 men
46Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) Japan was a militaristic society with a foreign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere of influence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part of China (Greater Asian co-prosperity sphere)Anyone who was an obstacle to these plans would have to be removed as suchSino-Japanese War (1894)resulted in ineffectual Chinese reform effort (the Hundred Days Reform) in 1898Russo-Japanese War ( )Annexation of Korea (1910)Takeover of businesses, teaching of Japanese, etc