Presentation on theme: "Pacific school of Engineering"— Presentation transcript:
1Pacific school of Engineering Topics1.) Lumen requirement for different categories.2.)Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances.3.)Electric Shock.Submitted toSubmitted By:Vidhi ModyHitesh PatelArpit Bandil ( )Kakadiya Amrish ( )Ladva Piyush ( )Unadakad Smith ( )
21. Lumen requirement for different categories. Q: What is Lumen?Ans:The most common measure of light output (or luminous flux) is the lumen. Light sources are labelled with an output rating in lumens. A light fixture's output can be expressed in lumens.
31. Lumen requirement for different categories (cont.…) Light LevelLight intensity measured on a plane at a specific location is called illuminance. Illuminance is measured in footcandles, which are workplane lumens per square foot. (Lux is the metric unit for illuminance, measured in lumens per square meter.)
41. Lumen requirement for different categories (cont.…) Quantity MeasuresLuminous flux is commonly called light output and is measured in lumens (lm).Illuminance is called light level and is measured in (fc) footcandles (lumens per square foot).Luminance is referred to as brightness and is measured in footlamberts (fL) or candelas/m2 (cd/m2).
51. Lumen requirement for different categories (cont.…) Efficiency of LampsSome lamp types are more efficient in converting energy into visible light than others. The efficacy of a lamp refers to the number of lumens leaving the lamp compared to the number of watts required by the lamp (and ballast). It is expressed in lumens per watt. Sources with higher efficacy require less electrical energy to light a space.Traditional Bulb(15 lumens watt)CFL Bulb(50 Lumens watt)LED Bulb(100 Lumens watt)
62.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Never neglect electric repairing tasks – It is a common tendency for many to ignore small frays, or a tiny spark, that might be visible whenever an electronic appliance is switched on.These apparently ‘minor’ problems can, however, go on to assume serious proportions later, with possibly fatal consequences. Check all the electronic wires at your home on a periodic basis, for probable signs of damages, or wear and tear. If you detect anything that requires attention, get in touch with an electrical contractor as soon as possible.
7Importance of safety while handing electrical appliances There was a quote that “ Precaution is better than Cure”.While we handing electrical appliances there many accidents will occurred like Electric shock , Short circuit , explode or blast appliance and catching fire ,etc. If we not used proper way these accidents will happened .If we not use properly electrical appliances may be damage.
82.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances. Do not let the wires and cables become disorganized – Messy wires are often the most common cause for electrical fires.Apart from the risks of getting electrocuted, wires lying about in a disorganized manner on the floor can also result in accidental trips and falls. You can use cable ties to bundle wires together, so that there are no causes for confusion. If necessary, you can label the wires as well.
92.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Turn off switches, before working on electrical gadgets – You might be pretty much conversant with the operations of domestic electronic appliances, but that does not make working on ‘live’ wires advisable.If you feel you need to take a look at any particular functional part of your television, mixer, fan, or any other electronic gadget, make it a point to switch off the concerned equipment first. The same should remain a priority, even when you avail the services of a professional contractor.
102.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Do not put excessive load on any particular circuit – Using a multi-plug to operate several electronic appliances from a single point is, seemingly, a convenient proposition. However, such arrangements are fraught with risks too.If a circuit gets overloaded, both your personal health, as well as your valuable appliances, might get adversely affected. Check the electric ratings of each of the gadgets that you plan to use, before deciding whether it would be advisable to operate them from the same board.
112.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Check the electrical cable is not damaged and has not been repaired with insulating tape or an unsuitable connector. Damaged cable should be replaced with a new cable by a competent person.Check that the outer cover of the equipment is not damaged in a way that will give rise to electrical or mechanical hazards.
122.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Check that the electrical equipment is in good conditionmany faults with work equipment can be found during a simple visual inspectionSwitch off and unplug the equipment before you start any checks.Check that the plug is not damaged and that the cable is properly secured with no internal wires visible.
132.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Never bring liquids in close proximity of wires – Do not put your own safety at risk, by keeping a glass of drinks on your computer desk. Having refreshments while working on an electronic gadget is NEVER a good idea.Chances of the liquid getting spilled on the wires remain, which can increase the risks of electrocution.Keep water bottles, tea cups and drinks glassesaway from your electronic tools, andkeep yourself safe.
142.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Get rid of dampness – Regularly check for any tell-tale signs of dampness, at and/or around your electrical boards. Such dampness can increase the risk factor while handling the wires and cables.Make sure that all the switches and cable circuits in your home are set up at clean, dry places.
152.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) Use a Residual Current Device (RCD)A Residual Current Device (RCD) can reduce the likelihood of an electrical injury but a shock can still cause very serious or fatal injuries, so an RCD should only be used as a secondary means of reducing the risk of people being injured by electricity. RCD’s are not designed to prevent the ignition of an explosive atmosphere and should not be used for this purpose.
162.Safety precautions for handling electrical appliances (cont.….) The best place for an RCD is built into the main switchboard, as this means that the electrical supply is permanently protected. If this is not possible, an electrical socket outlet incorporating an RCD, or a plug in RCD adaptor, can also provide additional safetyIf an electrical socket outlet incorporating an RCD, or a plug in RCD adaptor is used it should be tested, by the user, prior to use by operating the Test button.
173. Electric shockElectric shock occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair. Typically, the expression is used to describe an injurious exposure to electricity. Very small currents can be imperceptible. Larger current passing through the body may make it impossible for a shock victim to let go of an energized object.Still larger currents can cause fibrillation of the heart and damage to tissues. Death caused by an electric shock is called electrocution.
183. Electric shock (cont.…) MagnitudeThe minimum current a human can feel depends on the current type (AC or DC) and frequency. A person can feel at least 1 mA (rms) of AC at 60 Hz, while at least 5 mA for DC.At around 10 milliamperes, AC current passing through the arm of a 68 kg (150 lb) human can cause powerful muscle contractions; the victim is unable to voluntarily control muscles and cannot release an electrified object. This is known as the "let go threshold" and is a criterion for shock hazard in electrical regulations
193. Electric shock (cont.…) BurnsSecond-degree burn after a high tension line accident.Heating due to resistance can cause extensive and deep burns.Voltage levels of 500 to 1000 volts tend to cause internal burns due to the large energy (which is proportionalto the duration multiplied by the squareof the voltage divided by resistance) availablefrom the source.
203. Electric shock (cont.…) Medical usesElectric shock is also used as a medical therapy, under carefully controlled conditionsElectroconvulsive therapy or ECT is a psychiatric therapy for mental illness. The objective of the therapy is to induce a seizure for therapeutic effect.There is no sensation of shock because the patient is anesthetized. The therapy was originally conceived of after it was observed that depressed patients who also suffered from epilepsy experienced some remission after a spontaneous seizure.The first attempts at deliberately inducing seizure as therapy used not electricity but chemicals; however electricity provided finer control for delivering the minimum stimulus needed. Ideally some other method of inducing seizure would be used, as the electricity may be associated with some of the negative side effects of ECT including amnesia.
213. Electric shock (cont.…) EntertainmentElectrifying machine at Musée Mécanique that actually works with vibration.Mild electric shocks are also used for entertainment, especially as a practical joke for example in such devices as a shocking pen or a shocking gum.However devices such as a joy buzzerand most other machines in amusementparks today only use vibration that feelssomewhat like an electric shock tosomeone not expecting it.