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Plan for LAMPS at KoRIA Byungsik Hong (Korea University) June 19, 20111NuSYM 2011 Outline - Brief introduction to KoRIA - Physics of Symmetry Energy for Dense Matter - Design of LAMPS detector system - Summary The Second International Symposium on Nuclear Symmetry Energy Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, U.S.A., June 17-20, 2011

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KoRIA: Korea Rare Isotope Accelerator June 19, 2011NuSYM 20112 SCL IFF LINAC Future extension 250 MeV/u, 910 8 pps( 132 Sn) 200 MeV/u, 8p A (U) Stripper 28GHz SC ECR IS Cyclotron p: 70/100MeV, 1mA SCL RFQ SCL H 2 + D+ 17.5 MeV/u ISOL LINAC SCL ECR IS Fragment Separator Nuclear Astrophysics Material Science Bio Science Medical Science Low-energy experiments Atomic Physics High-energy Experiments (LAMPS) ISOL Target In-flight Target β=0.041, β=0.085 QWR QWR β=0.285, β=0.53 HWR HWR β=0.10 QWR β=0.04 QWR Nuclear Data 400KW 70KW Stripper Nuclear Data RFQ Nuclear Physics

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Aim of Technical Specification June 19, 2011NuSYM 20113 1. High-intensity RI beams by ISOL & IFF 70 kW ISOL from direct fission of 238 U induced by 70 MeV protons with the current of 1 mA 400 kW IFF by 200 MeV/u 238 U with the current of 8pμA E.g., 132 Sn at ~250 MeV/u up to 9 10 8 pps (See next page) 2. More exotic RI beams by using multi-step RI production processes Combination of ISOL & IFF 3. Design Philosophy Simultaneous operational mode for maximal use of the facility Keep the diversity

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 20114 Ion Species Z/ A Ion source outputSC linac output Charge Current (pµA) Charge Current (pµA) Energy (MeV/u) Power (kW) Proton1/ 116601 610400 Ar18/ 40842.11833.7300400 Kr36/ 861422.134-3617.5265400 Xe54/ 1361818.647-5112.5235400 U92/ 23833-3411.777-818.4200400 IFF Linac Beam Specification IsotopeHalf-lifeYield at target (pps)Overall eff. (%)Expected Intensity (pps) 78 Zn1.5 s2.75 x 10 10 0.03841.1 x 10 7 94 Kr0.2 s7.44 x 10 11 0.5123.8 x 10 9 97 Rb170 ms7.00 x 10 11 0.886.2 x 10 9 124 Cd1.24 s1.40 x 10 12 0.022.8 x 10 8 132 Sn40 s4.68 x 10 11 0.1929.0 x 10 8 133 In180 ms1.15 x 10 10 0.1842.1 x 10 7 142 Xe1.22 s5.11 x 10 11 2.081.1 x 10 10 Estimated RIBs based on ISOL

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RI from ISOL by Cyclotron June 19, 2011NuSYM 20115 LINAC Experimental Hall Beam line [for acceleration] Beam line [for experiment] Target building IFF LINAC ISOL LINAC Future plan 200 MeV/u (U) Stripper SC ECR IS Cyclotron K~100 Fragment Separator Charge Breeder SCL RFQ SCL Low energy experiments ISOL target In-flight target μ, Medical research Atom trap experiment H 2 + D+ Nuclear Astrophysics Material science Bio science Nuclear data Atomic / Nuclear physics Medical science Nuclear Physics Future extension area 3. ISOL IFF ISOL (trap) 1. ISOL low E RI 2. ISOL high E RI 1 2 ISOL with cyclotron driver (70 kW) 3 High energy experiments

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RI from IFF by High-Power SC LINAC and High-Intensity Stable HI beams June 19, 2011NuSYM 20116 LINAC Experimental Hall Beam line [for acceleration] Beam line [for experiment] Target building IFF LINAC ISOL LINAC Future plan 200 MeV/u (U) Stripper SC ECR IS Cyclotron K~100 Fragment Separator Charge Breeder SCL RFQ SCL Low energy experiments ISOL target In-flight target μ, Medical research Atom trap experiment H 2 + D+ Nuclear Astrophysics Material science Bio science Nuclear data Atomic / Nuclear physics Medical science Nuclear Physics Future extension area 4 5 6 7 6. IFF high E RI 7. High E stable heavy ions 4. Low E stable heavy ions 5. IFF low E RI or ISOL (trap) Stable HI beams IFF with stable heavy ions High energy experiments 17.5 MeV/u (U) > 11 pμA

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RI from ISOL by High-Power SC LINAC (Long term future upgrade option) June 19, 2011NuSYM 20117 LINAC Experimental Hall Beam line [for acceleration] Beam line [for experiment] Target building IFF LINAC ISOL LINAC Future plan 600 MeV, 660 A protons Stripper SC ECR IS Cyclotron K~100 Fragment Separator Charge Breeder SCL RFQ SCL Low energy experiments ISOL target In-flight target μ, Medical research Atom trap experiment H 2 + D+ Nuclear Astrophysics Material science Bio science Nuclear data Atomic / Nuclear physics Medical science Nuclear Physics Future extension area 8. High power ISOL ISOL with IFF LINAC - future high-power driver - 400 kW (or ~MW) ISOL upgrade 8 High energy experiments

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Research Goals June 19, 2011NuSYM 20118 ISOL+IFF+ISOL Nuclear data using fast neutrons Basic data for future nuclear energy Radioactive waste transmutation Nuclear Astrophysics Origin of nuclei Paths of nucleosynthesis Neutron stars and supernovae Material science Production & Characterization of new materials Dynamic image in nm scale Nuclear Physics Exotic nuclei near the neutron drip line Super-Heavy Elements (SHE) Equation-of-state (EoS) of nuclear matter Atomic physics Limits of nuclear existence Fundamental conservation law Medical and Bio sciences Advanced therapy technology Mutation of DNA ISOL+IFF+ISOL(Trap) In this talk, I am going to focus on the isospin dependent EoS. (Large help from B.-A. Li in the WCU program)

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 20119 18 B.-A. Li, L.-W. Chen & C.M. Ko Physics Report, 464, 113 (2008) Nuclear Equation of State ρ 0 Nucleon density Isospin asymmetry Symmetric nuclear matter (ρ n =ρ p ) δ E/A (MeV) (fm -3 ) CDR, FAIR (2001) F. de Jong & H. Lenske, RPC 57, 3099 (1998) F. Hofman, C.M. Keil & H. Lenske, PRC 64, 034314 (2001)

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Nuclear Equation of State June 19, 2011NuSYM 201110 Bao-An Li, PRL 88, 192701 (2002) High (Low) density matter is more neutron rich with soft (stiff) symmetry energy

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Importance of Symmetry Energy June 19, 2011NuSYM 201111 A.W. Steiner, M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer and P.J. Ellis, Physics Report 411, 325 (2005) RIB can provide crucial input. Effective field theory, QCD isodiffusion isotransport + isocorrelation isofractionation isoscaling - / + K + /K 0 n/p 3 H/ 3 He Red boxes: added by B.-A. Li

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Stability of Neutron Stars with Super Soft E sym June 19, 2011NuSYM 201112 If the symmetry energy is too soft, then a mechanical instability will occur when dP/dρ<0, neutron stars will, then, collapse. G.Q. Li, C.-H. Lee & G.E. Brown Nucl. Phys. A 625, 372 (1997) ? TOV equation: a condition at hydrodynamical equilibrium Gravity Nuclear pressure For npe matter, dP/dρ<0, if E sym is big and negative (super-soft)

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Experimental Observables June 19, 2011NuSYM 201113 Signals at sub-saturation densities 1) Sizes of n-skins for unstable nuclei 2) n/p ratio of fast, pre-equilibrium nucleons 3) Isospin fractionation and isoscaling in nuclear multifragmentation 4) Isospin diffusion (transport) 5) Differential collective flows ( v 1 & v 2 ) of n and p 6) Correlation function of n and p 7) 3 H/ 3 He ratio, etc. Signals at supra-saturation densities - / + ratio 2) K + /K 0 ratio (irrelevant to KoRIA energies) 3) Differential collective flows ( v 1 & v 2 ) of n and p 4) Azimuthal angle dependence of n/p ratio with respect to the R.P. Correlation of various observables Simultaneous measurement of neutrons and charged particles

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 201114 Soft E sym Stiff E sym Central density More neutrons are emitted from the n-rich system and softer symmetry energies. Yield Ratio n/p 3 H/ 3 He M. A. Famiano et al. RPL 97, 052701 (2006) Double ratio: min. systematic error ImQMD Y(n)/Y(p) E sym ( )=12.7( / 0 ) 2/3 +17.6( / 0 ) i

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Yield Ratio ( π - /π + ) June 19, 2011NuSYM 201115 Data: FOPI Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 781, 459 (2007) IQMD: Eur. Phys. J. A 1, 151 (1998) Need a symmetry energy softer than the above to make the pion production region more neutron-rich!

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π - /π + Ratio June 19, 2011NuSYM 201116 Stiff E sym Soft E sym (N/Z) reaction system KoRIA, etc

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Isospin Diffusion Parameter: Isospin Tracer June 19, 2011NuSYM 201117 Isospin diffusion occurs only in asymmetric systems A+B (No isospin diffusion between symmetric systems) F. Rami et al., FOPI, PRL 84, 1120 (2000) B. Hong et al., FOPI, PRC 66, 034901 (2002) Y.-J. Kim & B. Hong, FOPI, To be published. R i = +1 R i = 0 for complete isospin mixing R i = - 1

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Isospin Diffusion Parameter June 19, 2011NuSYM 201118 Projectile Target 124 Sn 112 Sn soft stiff Symmetry energy drives system towards equilibrium stiff EOS : small diffusion (| R i | 0) soft EOS : large diffusion & fast equilibrium ( R i 0) M.B. Tsang et al., PRL 92, 062701 (2004)

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Collective Flow June 19, 2011NuSYM 201119 Stiff Super Soft Large N/Z Small N/Z B.-A. Li, PRL 85, 4221 (2000) Also known as v 1

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Design of Detector System 1. We need to accommodate Large acceptance Precision measurement of momentum (or energy) for variety of particle species including +/- and neutrons with high efficiency Keep flexibility for other physics topics in the future 2. This leads to the design of LAMPS Large-Acceptance Multipurpose Spectrometer 3. Unique features of LAMPS Combination of solenoid and dipole spectrometers Movable arms Large acceptance of neutron detector with precision energy measurement June 19, 2011NuSYM 201120

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 201121 Dipole acceptance ~30mSr Dipole length =1.0 m TOF length ~8.0 m Conceptual Design of LAMPS Dipole magnet: We can also consider the large aperture superconducting dipole magnet (SAMURAI type). For B=1.5 T, p/Z 1.5 GeV/c at 30 o For B=1.5 T, p/Z 0.35 GeV/c at 110 o Neutron-detector array Low p/Z High p/Z Solenoid magnet

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Solenoid Spectrometer TPC: large acceptance (~3 Sr) for the measurements of +/- and light fragments Silicon strip detector: 3~4 layers for nuclear fragments Useful for event characterization June 19, 2011NuSYM 201122

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Dipole Spectrometer June 19, 2011NuSYM 201123 Acceptance: > 50 mSr Multiparticle tracking of p, d, t, and He isotopes, etc. Tracking chambers: 3 stations of drift chambers (+pad readout possible) for each arm ToF: Conventional plastic scintillatior detector or multigap RPC technology – t < 100 ps, essential for p/p < 10 -3 @ =0.5

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Simulated Event Display June 19, 2011NuSYM 201124 IQMD(SM) for Au+Au at 250A MeV

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Simulated Event Display June 19, 2011NuSYM 201125 IQMD(SM) for Au+Au at 250A MeV Charged hadrons & fragments only

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Simulated Event Display June 19, 2011NuSYM 201126 IQMD(SM) for Au+Au at 250A MeV Neutral particles ( s+neutrons) only

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 2011 Acceptance of LAMPS 27 p d t 4 He + - Au+Au @ 250A MeV

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June 19, 2011NuSYM 2011 Acceptance of LAMPS 28 p d t 4 He + - Au+Au @ 400A MeV

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Neutron-Detector Array June 19, 2011NuSYM 201129 y z 10 cm 100 cm 200 cm 50 cm x Important to measure neutrons simultaneously with protons and fragments for the nuclear symmetry energy Important to measure wide range of the neutron energy Large detector composed of scintillation slats for the veto and the neutron detectors

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Simulation: Veto Detector June 19, 2011NuSYM 201130 Neutron efficiency of neutron detector for various veto thresholds Energy deposition as a function of proton energy for different thickness of veto detector

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Simulation: Neutron Detector June 19, 2011NuSYM 201131 Assuming Perfect Time Resolution Assuming t = 1.0 ns E det estimated by ToF

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Simulation: Neutron Detector June 19, 2011NuSYM 201132 Energy ResolutionsTail Fractions t = 0.0 ns t = 0.5 ns t = 1.0 ns

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Energy-Deposition Profiles June 19, 2011NuSYM 201133 count neutron 100 MeV MeV neutron 100 MeV proton 100 MeV gamma 100 MeV count MeV

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Magnets June 19, 2011NuSYM 201134 H-type dipole Pole size: (x, z)=(150 cm, 100 cm) Maximum B y : ~1.5 T (~4 T for SC option) Gradient: 1.0 Tm < B y dz < 2.0 Tm Solenoid Size (r, z) : (50 cm, 200 cm) Maximum B z : about 1.0 T by S. Hwang & J. K. Ahn

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Summary 1. Korea Rare Isotope Accelerator (KoRIA) Plan to deliver more exotic RI beams using multi-step production and acceleration processes Keep the diverse operational modes 2. Large-Acceptance Multipurpose Spectrometer (LAMPS) Large acceptance Combination of solenoid and dipole spectrometers Movable arms Keep the flexibility for other physics topics in the future 3. Symmetry Energy in EoS Crucial to understand the neutron matter & several astrophysical objects Long-standing, but yet to be solved problem in nuclear physics LAMPS in KoRIA is willing to contribute to this effort. June 19, 2011NuSYM 201135

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