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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT. How to evaluate greenness? To evaluate environmental impact of a process or product, unified methodology is needed All stages of.

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Presentation on theme: "LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT. How to evaluate greenness? To evaluate environmental impact of a process or product, unified methodology is needed All stages of."— Presentation transcript:


2 How to evaluate greenness? To evaluate environmental impact of a process or product, unified methodology is needed All stages of product life need to be taken into acccount Raw materials extraction, transportation Production Transportation Use Reuse and recycling Disposal Respective energy inputs This will provide knowledge whether improvements are truly made

3 Example: VOCs adsorption Used to remove various VOCs from air (10 to 10 000 ppm and 1 to 1000 m 3 h -1 ) Efficient Adsorbent gets filled with pollutant Concentrated pollution Change or regeneration needed Change: filled adsorbent disposal Regeneration: secondary concentrated pollutant stream

4 Solution: Life cycle assessment (LCA) Enables the evaluation of real environmental impact of the process Provides universal measurement criteria to evaluate specific impacts Identifies key environmental impacts of various stages of production process Identification of principle environmentally problematic issues allows better resource planning and optimisation Provides information for process/product design/redesign and decision making Identifies information gaps Provides scientific data that can be used by enterprises for marketing schemes (environmental friendly-claims, etc.)

5 LCA standartised by ISO ISO14040 – LCA principles and framework (general principles and requirements for conducting LCA) ISO14041 – goal and scope and inventory analysis ISO14042 – life cycle impact assessment procedure ISO14043 – life cycle interpretation ISO14044 – requirements and guidelines ISO14045 – eco-efficiency assessment of product systems (principles, requirements, guidelines) ISO14046 – water footprint assessment ISO14047 – examples on ISO14044 applications ISO14048 – data documentation format ISO14049 – examples of ISO14044 applications on goal and scope definitions and inventory analysis

6 Product life cycle: cradle to grave

7 LCA step-by-step (1) Defining scopes and goals Intended application Reasons for performing LCA Intended audience Publicity of the results What steps are included or excluded Process flow diagramme examination Flows Energy inputs and outputs Emissions Recycling possibilities Etc.

8 LCA step-by-step (2) Collection of all possible process-related data Calculations Data validation Refining system boundaries Are available calculations sufficient? Is everything that we need included? Is there unnecessary information that can be excluded? Results to be interpreted

9 Phases of LCA Image:

10 Major environmental impacts analysed Greenhouse gas emissions Other atmospheric emissions (toxics, carcinogens, etc.) Aquatic emissions (toxicity, eutrophication, acidification, etc.) Soil emissions Land use Ecotoxicity Ozone layer depletion Ionizing radiation Energy use and sources


12 Pre-requisites Three lamp types chosen: Incandescent lamps (IND) Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) Light emission diodes (LED) Base for calculations: service provided by a single 60-W LED, i.e. 20 million lumen-hours Number of lamps needed to supply 20 million lumen-hours: Image:

13 Major issues How high is the energy consumption at different life cycle phases of LED lamps? How comparable is it to the corresponding energy consumptions of IND and CFL lamps? What are the possible future changes for LED life-cycle energy consumption?

14 Data analysed Production phase Raw materials aquisition Processing Product assembly Transportation phase Usage phase Energy consumption calculated from the assumed watt and lumen characteristics

15 Global warming potential CO 2 is considered to be main greenhouse gas What other greenhouse gases can you name? What about their global warming potential? CO 2 emissions can be converted into energy consumption, and vice versa On producing 1 kW h of energy, 706 g of CO 2 are emitted Major calculations are done by respective software

16 LED lamp composition Component nameMaterialMass, g Content, % Glass bulbGlass10.713 LED board connectorsAu-plated Cu0.50.6 Array (9 LEDs) 1.51.8 Local heat sink ringAl5.76.9 Heat sink outer coneAl18.122 Heat sink inner cylinderAl13.115.8 Edison base insulator Acrylic, polycarbonate 4.25.1 Inner insulation and adhesive connections Acrylic, polycarbonate 6.68 Printed circuit board, capacitors, resistors, transistors, diodes 10.112.2 Edison base and leadsSn-plated steel12.214.8 Total87100 Source: Hendrickson et al., Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010) 014016, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014016

17 Comparison of LED with IND and CFL lamps Component Lamp type LEDCFLIND Edison screwTinplate steel Base assembly Copper, solder, insulate, porcelain Copper, solder, insulate Ballast/Driver Printed circuit board, resistors, transistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, copper wire, Teflon® tubing Printed circuit board, resistors, transistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, copper wire - Heat sink Aluminium, copper, plastic -- LED module LED die, aluminium, plastics, copper wire -- Housing Plastic, glass, copper wire - Filament-ElectrodesTungsten Gas-Mercury- OpticsGlass, plasticGlass Total mass range, g83-29091-11030-32 Adopted from:

18 Average energy consumption for producing lamps providing 20 million lumen-hours ProductionINDCFL 2011 LED (16 LED Package) Future 2015 LED (5 LED Package) Av Bulk Lamp Material 42.217087.358.5 1 LED Package* --1614.6 Total LED Packages contribution --25673 Total42.2170343132 Units – MJ per 20 million lumen-hours Adopted from:

19 Transportation analysis (1) Considers energy consumption on transportation from manufacrturers to retailers Storage facilities are not taken into account: similar for different lamp types Steps: locating the starting point, i.e. the manufacturer origin establish transport type and its load and space capacity total transportation energy per one lamp establishment recalculation to 20 million lumen-hour base

20 Transportation analysis (2) End point: retailers in Washington, DC IND, production: China and Nort-east US Lamps from China shipped from Shanghai to Los Angeles (LA), delivered to Washington by truck Lamps from Nort-eastern US delivered to Washington by truck CFL, production: China Lamps delivered from Shanghai to Washington as previously LEDs: highly fragmented marketoften different parts produced and assembled at different locations Scenario 1: complete LED packages produced in Taiwan, shipped to LA, trucks to Washington Scenario 2: LEDs produced in Taiwan, delivered to South-east US, assembled into complete packages, delivered to Washington by trucks

21 Transportation means characteristics Transportation means Cargo capacity, tEfficiency, L h -1 Fuel type Embodied fuel energy, MJ L -1 Container ship19 2007.1Bunker fuel41.7 Commercial truck2510.4Diesel38.7 Embodied energy is defined as the total energy consumption for the production of goods or services, considered as if consumed energy was incorporated (embodied) in the final product. Adopted from:

22 Energy consumption on transportation Lamp typeEnergy use MJ kg -1 MJ/(20 million lumen-hours) IND7.630.27 CFL15.11.57 LED - present14.82.71 LED – future (2015)14.81.69 Adopted from:

23 Energy consumption upon lamp use Lamp typePower, W Luminous flux, lm LED packages per lamp Lifetime, h Energy use, MJ/(20 million lumen-hours) IND60900-1 00015 100 Halogen43750-1 00013 000 CFL15900-8 5003 780 LED - present 12.58001625 0003 540 LED - future (2015) 5.8800540 0001 630 Adopted from:

24 Total energy consumption of different lamp types Adopted from:

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