Presentation on theme: "CEO LIGHTING WORKSHOP FOR CODE ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS"— Presentation transcript:
1 CEO LIGHTING WORKSHOP FOR CODE ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS AND OTHERS WITH SIMILAR JOB RESPONSIBILITIES
2 WHY THIS WORKSHOP? There’s a lot of bad lighting out there. CEOs can be an important line of defense against bad lighting.This workshop will provide the tools needed to recognize and combat bad lighting.
3 WHAT WE’LL COVER How to identify good and bad lighting Consequences of bad lightingCommon lighting termsLight sources and fixturesReviewing a lighting planEvaluating a lighting installationDealing with citizen lighting complaints
4 WHY SO MUCH BAD LIGHTING? People don’t know or don’t carePermit commitments not honoredAdvertising/Vanity“Security” lightingWeak ordinancesWeak enforcementMcMansion LightingHey, Ain’t I Somethin’?
5 BAD-LIGHTING ISSUES BAD-LIGHTING IMPACTS ON: Environment Economy Safety/SecurityHealthNight sky
6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES WASTED LIGHT AT NIGHT Disrupts birds’ migration patterns and disorients them, causing needless deathsDisrupts animal feeding/breeding habitsExposes animals to predatorsCreates needless air pollution from power plantsDisrupts atmosphere’s natural cleansing process
7 Light at night impacts plants and trees ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESLight at night impacts plants and trees
8 ECONOMIC ISSUESEstimated $2 billion wasted annually in US on bad outdoor lightingMoney wasted lighting up the skyMoney wasted lighting neighbors’ propertiesMoney wasted on all-night lighting when there’s no one there to see what’s being lightedMoney and resources wasted generating wasted electricity
9 SAFETY ISSUES Good lighting guides the way. Good lighting highlights potential hazards.Good lighting helps us react quickly.Bad lighting creates shadows and hides hazards.Bad lighting creates glare that hampers vision.
10 “SECURITY LIGHTING” ISSUES Feeling secure is state of mind.“Security lighting” creates false sense of safety“Security lighting,” on when no one is looking, is a waste of energy and money and a needless source of pollution.More crime occurs during the day than at night.
11 “SECURITY LIGHTING” ISSUES Lighting, by itself, is seldom an effective security means.
12 HEALTH ISSUESLight shining in bedroom windows at night can disrupt sleep, causing sleep deprivation and reduced performance.
13 HEALTH ISSUESLight at night can adversely impact our immune system, leading to health concerns.
14 Light from earth outshines the stars NIGHT SKY ISSUESLight from earth outshines the stars
18 Sky glow blocks seeing stars Natural light from the starsSKY GLOWAIR POLLUTION AND MOISTURE PARTICLESHOME LIGHTINGFLOODLIGHTSPOSTTOPSPARKING LOTSLight pollution from below
19 WHAT IS “GOOD LIGHTING” Lighting is good when it’s:the right amount for the taskaimed and shielded so it goes where it is needed and doesn’t produce glareon only when neededWe don’t leave water on all night.Why is it OK to leave lights on all night?
20 IMPORTANCE OF GOOD LIGHTING The POLC is not against lighting. We’re against bad lighting.Good lighting is important to work, travel and play effectively and safely.
22 DEFINITIONS Luminaire: Complete assembly (fixture) Ballast: Provides proper electricity to lampIlluminance: Amt. of light received on surfaceInvisibleFootcandle: Unit of illuminanceHorizontal FootcandlesLight received on a horizontal surfaceVertical FootcandlesLight received on a non-horizontal surface
23 DEFINITIONS (CONTD)Footcandle Plot: A way to show predicted light levels across a surfaceTypically values on 10’ x 10’ centers
24 DEFINITIONS (Contd) Iso-Footcandle Plot Points of common illuminance value connectedShows beam patternSometimes used in combination with point by point
25 DEFINITIONS (CONTD) Lamp: The “bulb” that is the light source Light Loss Factor: Multiplier applied to the lamp’s rated output to compensate for lamp depreciation, dirt accumulation and other factors before burnout.Run between 0.90 and 0.60 depending upon lamp type, fixture sealing and ambient conditions.Lumen: Unit of light output of lamp.E.g., 400-watt HPS lamp = 50,000 lumens40-watt incandescent = 500 lumens
26 DEFINITIONS (Contd)Brightness: Light being emitted from a source or reflected off of a surface.Glare – The sensation produced by excessive brightness in the field of viewVaries with viewer’s age and other factorsCan’t be measuredNuisance, disablingIn the eye of the beholder
27 DEFINITIONS (Contd)Light Trespass – Light where it isn’t needed or wanted, e.g. neighbor’s yardHID – High intensity discharge. Generic reference to HPS, MH lamps
28 Cutoff Classifications DEFINITIONS (Contd)Cutoff ClassificationsAmount of light emittedin 2 critical zones:90º - 180º (up light)80º - 90º (Glare Zone)Non CutoffAnything goesFully ShieldedNo light emitted above 90º0% light above 90ºFULL CUTOFFNo more than 10% between 80º & 90º2.5% max. above 90ºCUTOFFNo more than 10% between 80º & 90º5% max. above 90ºSEMI-CUTOFFNo more than 20% between 80º and 90º
29 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS Light sources (lamps, bulbs)High Pressure Sodium HPSThings look somewhat gray under it.High efficacy: lumens/wattLong life: 24,000+ hoursColor of Light: Yellow-whiteRun up time: 1 – 3 minutesRestrike time: 10 minutesDimming: No
30 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS Light sources (lamps, bulbs)Metal Halide MHRelatively high efficacy: 90 to 100 lumens/wattLife: 7,500 to 20,000 hoursColor of light: Blue/whiteRun up time: 2 minutesRestrike time: 3 to 4 minutesDimming: Limited
31 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS Light sources (lamps, bulbs)Induction (enhanced and advanced form of florescent)Efficacy: 64 to 73 lumens/wattLife: 60,000 to 100,000 hoursColor of light: WhiteRun up time: InstantRestrike time: InstantDimming: Limited
32 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS Light sources (lamps, bulbs)LEDEfficacy: 50 to 80 lumens/watt (and climbing)Life: ~50,000 hours ?Color of light: Bluish to warmRun up time: InstantRestrike time: InstantDimmable: YesLED vs. HPS
33 LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS Lighting fixture (luminaire) typesPole-Mount Area LuminairesAdjustable Mount Shoebox Not FCOFlat-lens ShoeboxFCOSag Lens ShoeboxNot FCOLED ShoeboxFCO
38 LIGHTING ORDINANCESIf your municipality doesn’t have a strong lighting ordinance you’ll be:Less equipped to enforce corrective action for bad lightingShooting from the hip and open to possible legal actionPlaying by their rulesBest located in zoning ordinancePOLC can help your municipality draft an ordinance.
39 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Lighting plans are seldom thoroughly reviewed during Building Permit Application phase.There is so much else to look at.Building Permit Plans – Where’s the Lighting?
40 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Too often lighting on approved land development plans doesn’t get on building permit submissions.Why?The Stone WallLand DevelopmentCivil EngineersFree lighting layoutLandscapersSite PlannersBuilding PermitArchitectElectrical EngineerGeneral ContractorElectrical Contractor
41 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Here’s what needs to be checked:Plan Content Check ListIlluminance plot provided and compliant?Fixture catalog cuts on plan?Fixture catalog numbers, including accessories?Statistical Area Summary?Lamp ordering nomenclature?Mounting heights for all fixture types?Aiming angles for directional fixtures?Control device details?
42 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Plan ContentIlluminance plot provided and compliant?Light Trespass
43 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Illuminances and uniformities per ordinance?0.2 FC Min.20:1 Max.
44 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Fixtures fully described in Luminaire Schedule?
45 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Catalog Cuts of Luminaires on Plan?
46 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Mounting heights per ordinance?Poles Protected?
47 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS On/Off Control Specified?Turn-off time settings?Type of device?BatteryBackupMechanical TimeclockDoes not reset time after outageProgrammable Controller
48 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Security (dusk-to-dawn) LightingAll-night fixtures clearly marked on plan?Number-of-fixtures allowance to remain on not exceeded?Properly circuited to achieve results?
49 REVIEWING SUBMISSIONS Tree conflicts?Luminaires plotted on landscape plan?Will trees, initially or at maturity, block intended light distribution?Would a less dense tree variety help?
50 INSPECTIONS & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Conducting post-install inspectionFixtures and lamps as specified?Fixtures have the same appearance as cut? Hard to be sure at 20’ upIf in doubt, ask for evidence, e.g., packing slips or invoicesIf footcandles vary significantly from approved plan, it’s likely not the specified fixture.
51 INSPECTIONS & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Conducting post-install inspectionPoles located per approved plan?Relocated poles excessively alter uniformity?Protected from backing vehicles?Fixtures aimed straight down?Poles plumb?
52 INSPECTIONS & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Conducting post-install inspectionFloodlights aimed and protected as specified?Lawn Maintenance Casualty
55 INSPECTIONS & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Conducting post-install inspectionIlluminances as predicted on plan?Measure hot spots and dark spotsDon’t block light from reaching meterMeasure horizontal and vertical fc at property lines for light trespass conformance.
56 INSPECTIONS & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Conducting post-install inspectionLighting control usually in electrical closetAfter-hours lighting scheme as specified?Controller properly set?Controller have memory backup?Photocell aimed in right direction?
57 INSPECTION & COMPLIANCE MONITORING Undiscovered mistakes made during construction often come back to bite the municipality.
58 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSomeone has a gripe, someone doesn’t careIs the complaint valid or petty?Is there ordinance language that covers the issue?Is there a simple amicable fix?
59 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintAssessing glare – It’s your callIs it annoying?Is it excessive?Is it dangerous?Is it unnecessary?Is it easily remedied?
60 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintMeasuring light trespass with meterStand at boundary, aim meter at luminaire, orTake reading on side of house receiving the light.
61 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintMeasuring light trespass with meterKonica-Minolta T-10Range: – 29,990 footcandlesPrice: $969Cooke Cal-Light 400Range: 0.1 – 40,000 fcPrice: $395
62 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSimple remedial solutions to require:Reaiming down to 45º or less
63 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSimple remedial solutions to require:ShieldingWallpack ShieldBarn DoorsPAR Shields
64 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSimple remedial solutions to require:Shielding a barn or dusk-to-dawn lightReplace Photocell w/ Photocell/TimerReplace Refractor with ReflectorAdd Light Blocker or Paint Refractor
65 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSimple remedial solutions to require:Lowering of wattage if incandescent or self-ballasted CFL40-watt incandescent or 9-watt CFL often plentyHPS, mercury and metal halide wattages cannot be lowered just by changing lamp.
66 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS When you receive a complaintSome remedial solutions to require:Use of motion sensor or interval timer or time clock set for 10:30 p.m. shutoffPhotocell-TimerPhotocell-Motion SensorInterval TimerBasic Timeclock
67 RESPONDING TO COMPLAINTS Thanking a neighbor for lighting up your bedroom all night.
68 CONCLUSIONYou now have the tools you’ll need to help create and maintain a friendlier nighttime environment in your community.
69 CONCLUSIONIf the POLC can be of further help to you or your municipality in upgrading your ordinance or answering questions, don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at: where you’ll find a ton of helpful resources on lighting.