Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 D r a f t Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module b – Overview of LCA.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 D r a f t Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module b – Overview of LCA."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 D r a f t Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module b – Overview of LCA

2 What is LCA? Why LCA? The ISO framework –Goal and scope definition –Inventory analysis –Impact assessment –Interpretation Contents D r a f t

3 3 3 What is LCA? (1) Officially: Life Cycle Assessment Here confined to: quantitative environmental Life Cycle Assessment of products –environmental –Life Cycle –Assessment –quantitative –products

4 4 4 D r a f t What is LCA? (2) At least three different meanings: –LCA as a field of study –LCA as a technique –LCA as a specific study

5 5 5 D r a f t What is LCA? (3) Basically: tool for decision-support –computational aspects which data which models which formulas –procedural aspects who to involve how to report how to use

6 6 6 D r a f t What is LCA? (4) ISO-standardised procedure (ISO 14040, created in ; revised in 2006) –Structured framework: four phases –Rules, requirements and considerations specified –Specific data and calculation steps not specified –Much attention for transparency in reporting

7 ISO framework (1) Source: ISO D r a f t

8 8 8 ISO framework (2) ISO: Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle –International Standard ISO –complementary International Standards ISO 14041, 14042, –no Technical Report to 14040, but Technical Reports to and –14044 merges the revised (2006)

9 9 9 D r a f t Why LCA? (1) Why a product-oriented information tool? –Increased attention for product policy several national policy plans EUs Integrated Product Policy UNEPs International Declaration on Cleaner Production etc. –Influence consumption and production patterns clean(er) production ecolabel product stewardship etc.

10 10 D r a f t Why LCA? (2) Why an integrated information tool? –Prevent problem shifting to other life cycle stages to other substances to other environmental problems to other countries to the future

11 11 D r a f t Why LCA? (3) Why a method? –To structure the large amount of complex data –To facilitate comparisons across product alternatives –To enable benchmarking

12 Why LCA? (4) Why complex data? Product propertyIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp power consumption60 W18 W life span1000 hr5000 hr mass30 g540 g mercury content0 mg2 mg etc…… D r a f t

13 ISO framework (3) Source: ISO D r a f t

14 14 D r a f t Phase 1: Goal and scope definition (1) Phase of life cycle assessment in which the aim of the study, and in relation to that, the breadth and depth of the study is established –goal definition –scope definition

15 15 D r a f t Phase 1: Goal and scope definition (2) Goal definition: –intended application product development and improvement strategic planning public decision making marketing other –reasons for carrying out the study –intended audience

16 16 D r a f t Phase 1: Goal and scope definition (3) Scope definition: –function, functional unit and reference flow –initial choices system boundaries data quality … –critical review and other procedural aspects

17 17 D r a f t Phase 1: Goal and scope definition (4) Functional unit: –comparison on the basis of an equivalent function –example: 1000 liters of milk packed in glass bottles or packed in carton, instead of 1 glass bottle versus 1 carton

18 18 D r a f t Phase 1: Goal and scope definition (5) Critical review and other procedural aspects –critical review to ensure the consistency, scientific validity, transparency of the report, etc. –internal review, external review, review by interested parties –procedural embedding of LCA: LCA as a (participatory) process

19 19 D r a f t Phase 2: Inventory analysis (1) Phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a given product system throughout its life cycle Steps: –preparing for data collection –data collection –calculation procedures –allocation and recycling

20 20 D r a f t Phase 2: Inventory analysis (2) Central position for unit process –smallest portion of a product system for which data are collected Typical examples: –electricity production by coal combustion –PVC production –use of a passenger car –recycling of aluminum scrap

21 Phase 2: Inventory analysis (3) Data collection for unit processes: –flows of intermediate products or waste for treatment –elementary flows from or to the environment electricity production electricitycoal generatorfly ash D r a f t

22 Phase 2: Inventory analysis (4) Combination of unit processes into a product system Graphical representation in a flow diagram electricity production electricity coalgenerator fly ash coal mining equipment generator production steel fly ash treatment gypsum system boundary reference flow product system D r a f t

23 Phase 2: Inventory analysis (5) D r a f t Source:

24 Phase 2: Inventory analysis (6) electricity production with cogeneration of heat (CHP) electricitycoal generatorfly ash heat D r a f t Calculation procedures –relate process data to the functional unit (matrix algebra) –allocation of multiple processes (multiple outputs, multiple inputs, re-use and recycling) –aggregation over all unit processes in the inventory table

25 25 D r a f t Phase 2: Inventory analysis (7) Inventory table Elementary flowIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp CO2 to air kg50000 kg SO2 to air1000 kg80 kg Copper to water3 g20 g Crude oil from earth37000 kg22000 kg etc……

26 26 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (1) Assessment of the importance of the potential environmental effects with the aid of the results of the inventory analysis Steps: –selection and definition of impact categories, indicators and models –classification –characterisation –normalisation –aggregation and/or weighing

27 42 Phase 3: Impact assessment (2) D r a f t

28 28 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (3) Example of a category indicator –Global Warming: Global Warming Potential (GWP): measure for Global Warming in terms of radiative forcing of a mass-unit Example calculation: 5 kg CO 2 (GWP = 1) + 3 kg CH 4 (GWP = 21) = 1 x x 3 kg CO 2 - equivalents (= 68 kg CO 2 – equivalents)

29 29 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (4) Characterisation: Simple conversion and aggregation of GHGs: CO 2, CH 4 climate change GWP (1 and 21) 5 and 3 kg 68 kg CO 2 -eq infrared radiative forcing IPCC climate model

30 30 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (5) Impact categories, characterisation methods and characterisation models: some baseline examples

31 31 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (8) Impact categoryIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp Climate change kg CO2-eq40000 kg CO2-eq Ecotoxicity320 kg DCB-eq440 kg DCB-eq Acidification45 kg SO2-eq21 kg SO2-eq Depletion of resources0.8 kg antinomy-eq0.3 kg antinomy-eq etc……

32 32 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (7) Impact category results still difficult to understand: –difference in units –difference in scale Normalisation step to relate the results to a reference value –e.g., total world impacts in 2002 –result often referred to as the normalised environmental profile

33 33 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (8) Impact categoryIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp Climate change yr yr Ecotoxicity yr yr Acidification yr yr Depletion of resources yr yr etc……

34 34 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (9) Even after normalisation no clear answer –aggregation of (normalized) impact category results into a single index –subjective weighting factors needed

35 35 D r a f t Phase 3: Impact assessment (10) Example of a weighted environmental index Weighed indexIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp Weighted index yr yr

36 36 D r a f t Phase 4: Interpretation (1) Conclusions, recommendations, analysis, all related to goal and scope of the research –among others based on data quality and sensitivity analysis –also: critical review by independent experts

37 37 D r a f t Phase 4: Interpretation (2) Example of a contribution analysis ProcessIncandescent lampFluorescent lamp Electricity production88%60% Copper production5%15% Waste disposal2%10% Other5%15% Total climate change kg CO2-eq40000 kg CO2-eq

38 Phase 4: Interpretation (3) Example of an uncertainty analysis D r a f t


Download ppt "1 D r a f t Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module b – Overview of LCA."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google