7The Cost of Throwing Away Electricity The USA spends over $1.5 billion per year in energy costs from wasted light.= 6 million tons of coal or= 23 million barrels of oil per year
8Light Pollution Is the Easiest Type of Pollution to Fix. Reduce It, Shield It, & Shine It Down.Light the Subject & Hide the Source.Follow IESNA rec. levels.
9Light PollutionOutdoor lighting currently stands as one of the most inefficient uses of energy today.30 to 50% of all light pollution is produced by roadway lighting that shines wasted light upwards and outwards.5
10Light PollutionWe wouldn’t allow 30 to 50% of water from a hose to escape onto the pavement un-used. We wouldn’t run our electric heaters in winter with the windows wide open.5
11Light PollutionThen why do we allow 30 to 50% of light photons from outdoor lighting escape into space?We throw away electricity.5
12Three Million Years of Dark Adaptation The same eyes we have today allowed our ancestors to live and hunt at night by the light of the moon and stars.Let’s be allowed to use our eyes at night.
13Human Eye At Night 250 million years ago: Evolution of the human eye’s binocular vision began with the appearance of mammalsSmaller noses and less sense of smell; Better eyes with acute vision and depth of field1
14Human Eye At Night Two million years ago: Early man huddled around the light of fires on the African savanna500,000 years ago:Homo erectus used fire to cook food (China digs)1
15Human Eye At Night 150,000 years ago: Homo sapiens used fire for cooking and warmth. They used the same eyes we have today to navigate, hunt, cook, eat, and give birth under the light of the moon and stars20,000 years ago:Homo sapiens used shallow stone candles fueled with animal fat and with wicks of plant matter. Stone candles enabled stick figure art work on cave walls (France)1
16Evolution of Light Pollution 3000 BC: first candlesGreeks, Romans through the middle ages: oil lamps1784: hollow wicks used for brighter lightEarly colonists: fish & whale oil lamps2
17Evolution Of Light Pollution 1800’s: kerosene lamps1801: first electric lamp -carbon arc lamp. Sir Humphrey Davy1879: incandescent lamp. Thomas Edison & Sir Joseph swan
18Evolution Of Light Pollution 1930’s: Mercury vapor (terrible beginnings)1939: Fluorescent1940: PAR lamps1950’s: Tungsten HalogenThe End of Night1960’s: Metal Halide and HPS1980’s Compact fluorescents (good – energy savers)1990’s Electrodless (Induction) lamps2000’s: Lighting designers run amok - laser shows; bridge lighting; tower lighting; beacons on buildings
20Thomas EdisonEdison’s electric light in 1879 resulted, over time, in forming an industry dedicated to selling the public the idea that the more outdoor light, the better.
21Today’s Lighting Industry Harsh lighting is sold in the name of “security,” but more often it is used for advertising, and to sell bigger and brighter lighting fixtures.It has proven to be a visual insult to the human eye, and has gradually stolen the night away.
23Steve’s Fundamental Laws of Light Pollution First law:Without local lighting ordinances, bad lighting gets progressively worseSecond law:A. Light pollution is directly proportional to improvements in lighting technology, andB. Inversely proportional to an awareness of the issues at the local level – city planners can reverse the trend4
24Steve’s Fundamental Laws of Light Pollution Examples:Progressive eye insults beginning with incandescent bulbs, then HID lamps, then schemes to light up cities and bridges4
29Types of Light Pollution GlareLight that beams directly into your eyefrom an annoying light fixtureBlinding glare: gas stations, theater effectDisability glare: scattering of light – elderly with cataractsDiscomfort glare: annoyance, fatigue7
30Light Trespass When Light Crosses Property Lines The Spillover of Light Where It’s Unwanted and UnneededLight Trespass: a Neighbor’s Unwelcome Light Can Reduce the Value of One’s Property.
40No lighting awards here Turning night into daywhile insulting the eyewith glare
41What Is Good Lighting?It lights for the human eye using only the amount of light needed (follow the IESNA guidelines).8
42Good Lighting It lights the subject and hides the light source (lamp). It provides adequate light for the intended task, but never over lights.8
43Good Lighting It uses fully shielded light fixtures. It minimizes adverse impacts (light trespass) on adjacent property.It uses high efficiency lamps while considering the color and quality as essential design criteria.
44Illuminance: The perceived brightness measured in candelas/sq meter. The visual effect that luminance produces.Measured in Footcandles = lumens/sq footOr Lux = lumens/sq meter
45Illuminance Foot-candles (fc)= lumens / sq foot. We use fc in the USA Lux = lumens/sq meterA local gas station’s lights peak at 270 fc = over 10,000 times the light from a full moon. The IESNA minimum safe light levels for an urban gas station = 10 fc; rural = 5 fcLighting ordinances should specify limits in lumens not watts9
46Lumens And Watts Idaho Power residential now about 5.7 cents/kwh A watt = one joule per sec., Or a current of one amp. Under an electrical pressure of one volt.Idaho Power residential now about 5.7 cents/kwhUSA’s avg. Rate = 8 cents/kWh.A lumen = a unit of luminous flux or a measure of the intrinsic brightness of a lamp. (An isotropic point source of luminous intensity of 1 candela emits one lumen into a unit solid angle of one steradian (sr), or 4 pi lumens on the spherical surface surrounding the point source).
47A Light’s Efficiency Is Measured in Lumens Per Watt 70 Watt Incandescent Bulb = Lumens 70 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp = Lumens Watt Incandescent Bulb = Lumens 15 Watt Compact Fluorescent Bulb = Lumens Lighting Levels Are Best Expressed in Lumens, Not Watts. All HID Lamps Today (HPS, LPS, MH, MV) Are Over 1800 Lumens
48Light Sources, Watts, and Lumens Source Watts Lumens Life Lu/WIncandescent , hrs 17Tung-Halogen ,000 2,Comp. Fluorescent , ,Merc. Vapor , ,Metal Halide , ,Metal Halide , ,HPS ,HPS , ,LPS , ,Street lights are on 4100 hrs/year.HPS & LPS lamps will last 5.8 yrs
49Pole Heights and Lumen Limits Pole Height Lumens6ft (Incandescent, PAR,8ft fluorescent, halogen)10ft12ft16ft (begin HID lamps)20ft24ft28ft32ft36ft40ft
51Useful Reference Levels for Foot-candle Values 1. Full moon fc2. Living room fc3. Sitting at my computer fc4. Schools fc5. AAA league baseball park fc6. Today’s gas stations fc7. Jewelers counter fc8. Operating table light fc9. Sunlight ,000 fc13
52Native Hog Steelhead -- Steve Smith Salmon River near Stanley April 2000
53The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. IESNA =The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.Sets Minimum Foot-candle Levels Needed to Provide for Safety and Security for Specific Situations, I.E. Parking Lots, Walkways, Roadways, Gas Stations, Etc.14
55Full Cutoff Shielding Essential remedy for glare and skyglow No light rays from the fixture go above the horizontalAt least 90 percent of light is blocked in the near-sideways range from 0 to 20 degrees below the horizontal
62SECURITY More than meets the eye i.e. not just glare lighting More lightdoes not =better security.Security =effective, non-glare lighting.
63Lighting and Safety More light does not equate to better, safer light. You can have less but more efficient lighting and not compromise safety at all.
64We’re Not Saying Let’s Turn Out All the Lights. Glare From Poor Lighting Allows Criminals to Hide in Dark Shadows. Shielded, Non Glare Lighting Allows One to See in the Shadows.We’re Not Saying Let’s Turn Out All the Lights.Lighting for Security Means Effective, Shielded, Non Glare Lighting That Meets the IESNA Minimum Light Levels.15
65Lighting and Crime A complex issue No study proves that more light decreases crimeMore light does give people the feeling of more security11
66Lighting and Crime Most crimes take place during the day Two congressional crime task forces (1979 & 1997) found no relationship between lighting and crime“There are simply no good scientific studies that convincingly show the relationship between lighting and crime.” - (Ref - IDA information sheet 42; 4/98)11
67Crime Deterrents at Night: Best: dog (pit bull?)Next best: shielded, infrared motion detector flood lights combined with a video camera. Some schools have gone dark, used this system, and vandalism has decreased
70Enhances the quality of life for all. Why an Ordinance?Enhances the quality of life for all.Sets a uniform code for all outdoor lighting.Architects don’t need to guess whatwhat you want – saves them time andthe client’s $$$.Enhances safety and security by reducing glareReduces light pollution.
71Allows redress for citizens exposed to a neighbor’s bad lightIt can lead to cost savings
72Without Lighting Ordinances, the Bad Practices of the Last 100 Years Will Simply Escalate in the Name of Economic Progress and “Safety.”
7312 Points For A Good Lighting Ordinance 1. Promote good lighting without compromising safety or security.2. Convert street lights to full cut-off fixtures.That can result in reduced lumen levels, lower wattage lamps, and a savings in electric bills.Can reflectors be used instead of street lights?3. Address glare from unshielded flood lights.
74Address light trespass. Use Kennebunkport formula, not light police. H = 3 + D/35. Require that only the minimum IESNA lighting levels be reached for a given situation – follow the IESNA RP guidelines6. Prohibit upward lighting of all types
757. Require signs to lighted from the top down. 8. Educate all parties on what good lighting should be.9. Promote the use of motion detector lighting and timing devices. Suggest all non essential lighting be turned off by 11 PM.10. Allow local P & Z’s to require lighting for the human eye and safety using IESNA minimums, rather than up lighting for trees, rocks, and buildings. Down light flag poles.11. Never allow for more lighting than what is really needed. Make lighting controlled, efficient, and effective.12. Enforce all lighting ordinances with fines.
76Cost of RetrofittingOften recovered in three years. Depends on formula your utility company uses to bill for light pole maintenance.San Diego is saving $3 million a year in power bills by retrofitting its street light fixtures to LPS.
77Other Benefits Looks pleasant. Smooth, uniform illumination. Reduced glare is safer for motorists You can see pedestrians and objects more easily.The elderly with cataracts are less affected by glare and will be safer drivers.
78Light at Night and Human Health Researchers have shown a definite link between exposure to light at night and lower melatonin levels – in all living things.
79Light at Night and Human Health Exposure to light at night = decreased melatonin levels. Part of our circadian system of light-dark rhythms.Nightly melatonin production by the pineal gland is needed for good health.
805 Retrospective Studies Totally blind women with no light perception have aroughly 30% less incidence of breast cancer.Human breast cancer cells implanted in rats grow fasterwhen the rats are exposed to light at night. Melatonin levelsare reduced by exposure to light at night.Breast cancer rates are highest in industrialized nations wherenight lighting levels are also the highest.Researchers are pursuing these connections.No cause and effect can be made now.Nightly melatonin production in humans is beneficial toour health. Light exposure interferes with that.
81“Light is a drug and that by abusing it, we risk imperiling our health Dr. Russell J. ReiterUniversity of Texas Health Science Center,San Antonio, TX12
82Everybody Wins With Good Lighting Enhances the quality of life for allNo compromise to safety or securityCan save moneyLess pollution
83Everybody Wins With Good Lighting Less glare, light trespass & sky glowRestores dark skies for stargazingPrevents the pervasive spread of light pollutionPreserves the night skies for our children
84Steve’s Modification of the Iroquois’ 7 Generations Principle We should not pass through this life just to make our own liveseasier at the expense of our natural world and futuregenerations of humans.We are OF this planet, not unique to it. We are charged with actingas stewards of our natural world.We must take actions today that better the lives of those who,in 110 years, replace today’s entire population on earth.Each of us can do just one small thing to better the lives ofthose who will be here 110 years from now –i.e. preserve the night sky.
85Ketchum Dark Sky Ordinance- 1999 Incandescent(w)Up to 260 lumens (20w) May be unshielded260 – 1000 lumens (20-60w) No bulb showing; opaque top1000 – 1800 lumens (60-120w) = *Floods0ver 1800 lumens Must be full cutoff fixtures with no (all HID lamps) light above the horizontal*Floods: Lights from lumens:Must have shielding and opening may not tilt upwardsmore than 25 degrees from horizontal.Timers and motion sensors are encouraged.Motion sensors must go off in 5 minutes.
87In Sept. 2001, Idaho Power completed the retrofit of Old drop lens lightIn Sept. 2001, Idaho Power completed the retrofit ofall drop lens street lights to these fco lights.This has reduced glare, sky glow and light trespasswithout compromising safety.