2This lecture will help you understand: ExcitationEmission SpectraIncandescenceAbsorption SpectraFluorescencePhosphorescenceLampsLasers
3Light EmissionLight emission is understood in terms of the familiar planetary model of the atom.Just as each element is characterized by the number of electrons that occupy the shells surrounding its atomic nucleus, each element also possesses its own characteristic pattern of electron shells, or energy states.These states are found only at certain energies; we say they are discrete. We call these discrete states quantum states.
4ExcitationWhen energy is imparted to an element, an electron may be boosted to a higher energy level. The atom is said to be excited.
5Excitation Excitation The frequency of an emitted photon ~ energy-level difference in de-exciting:E = hf
6Which has less energy per photon? ExcitationCHECK YOUR NEIGHBORWhich has less energy per photon?A. Red lightGreen lightBlue lightAll have the same.A. red light.
7Which has less energy per photon? ExcitationCHECK YOUR ANSWERWhich has less energy per photon?A. Red lightGreen lightBlue lightAll have the same.Explanation:In accord with E ~ f, the lowest-frequency light has the lowest energy per photon.A. red light.
8Excitation is the process in which CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORExcitation is the process in whichA. electrons are boosted to higher energy levels in an atom.atoms are charged with light energy.atoms are made to shake, rattle, and roll.None of the above.A. electrons are boosted to higher energy levels in an atom.
9Excitation is the process in which CHECK YOUR ANSWERExcitation is the process in whichA. electrons are boosted to higher energy levels in an atom.atoms are charged with light energy.atoms are made to shake, rattle, and roll.None of the above.A. electrons are boosted to higher energy levels in an atom.
10Emission Spectra Spectroscope Arrangement of slit, focusing lenses, and prism or diffraction gratingTo see emission spectrum of light from glowing elementWhen an electron is at a higher energy level, atom is excited and temporarily loses the acquired energy when it returns to a lower level and emits radiant energy.
11Emission Spectra Spectral lines Forms an image of the slit on the screen using a spectroscopeEach component of color is focused at a definite position according to frequency.
12Emission Spectra Spectral lines of hydrogen More orderly than other elementsSuccessive lines get closer until the lines merge.Swedish physicist and mathematician Johannes Rydberg discovered that the sum of the frequencies of two lines often equals the frequency of a third line.
13Emission Spectra Ritz combination principle Rydberg’s discovery called the Ritz combination principle:The spectral lines of any element include frequencies that are either the sum or the difference of the frequencies of two other lines.
14Most of what we know about atoms is gained by investigating the Emission SpectraCHECK YOUR NEIGHBORMost of what we know about atoms is gained by investigating theA. masses of elements.electric charge of elements.periodic table of the elements.light they emit.D. light they emit.
15Most of what we know about atoms is gained by investigating the Emission SpectraCHECK YOUR ANSWERMost of what we know about atoms is gained by investigating theA. masses of elements.electric charge of elements.periodic table of the elements.light they emit.Explanation:Light emitted by atoms, their atomic spectra, are considered to be the fingerprints of atoms.D. light they emit.
16Incandescence Incandescence The frequency of radiation emitted by a hot body is proportional to the temperature of the hot body.Radiation curve of brightness versus frequency for emitted light.
17Incandescence Incandescence (continued) Isolated bells ring with a distinct frequency (as atoms in a gas do).Sound from a box of bells crowded together is discordant (like light from an incandescent solid).
18Which lamp is more efficient for emitting light? IncandescenceCHECK YOUR NEIGHBORWhich lamp is more efficient for emitting light?A. Incandescent lampFluorescent lampBoth the same for the same wattageNone of the above.B. fluorescent lamp.
19Which lamp is more efficient for emitting light? IncandescenceCHECK YOUR ANSWERWhich lamp is more efficient for emitting light?A. Incandescent lampFluorescent lampBoth the same for the same wattageNone of the above.B. fluorescent lamp.
20Absorption Spectra Absorption spectra Atoms in a gas absorb light of the same frequency they emit.A spectroscope can detect “dark” lines in an otherwise continuous spectrum.
21Fluorescence Fluorescence Many materials excited by ultraviolet light emit visible light upon de-excitation.
22FluorescenceMany substances undergo excitation when illuminated with ultraviolet light.
23FluorescenceThis excitation and de-excitation process is like leaping up a small staircase in a single bound, andthen descending one or two steps at a time rather than leaping all the way down in a single bound.Photons of lower frequencies are emitted.
24Fluorescence Fluorescent lamps UV emitted by excited gas strikes phosphor material that emits white light.
25An atom that absorbs a photon can then emit one FluorescenceCHECK YOUR NEIGHBORAn atom that absorbs a photon can then emit oneA. only at the same energy.of any energy depending on the situation.only at a higher energy.only at the same or lower energy.D. only at the same or lower energy.
26An atom that absorbs a photon can then emit one FluorescenceCHECK YOUR ANSWERAn atom that absorbs a photon can then emit oneA. only at the same energy.of any energy depending on the situation.only at a higher energy.only at the same or lower energy.D. only at the same or lower energy.
27PhosphorescenceWhen excited, certain crystals as well as some large organic molecules remain in a state of excitation for a prolonged period of time.Unlike what occurs in fluorescent materials, their electrons are boosted into higher orbits and become “stuck.”As a result, there is a time delay between the processes of excitation and de-excitation.Materials that exhibit this peculiar property are said to have phosphorescence.
28PhosphorescenceAtoms or molecules in these materials are excited by incident visible light.Rather than de-exciting immediately, as fluorescent materials do, many of the atoms remain in a metastable state — a prolonged state of excitation—sometimes as long as several hours, although most de-excite rather quickly.If the source of excitation is removed—for instance, if the lights are put out— an afterglow occurs while millions of atoms spontaneously undergo gradual de-excitation.Many living creatures—from bacteria to fireflies and larger animals, such as jellyfish—chemically excite molecules in their bodies that emit light. Such living things are bioluminescent.
29Lamps Incandescent lamp A glass enclosure with a filament of tungsten, through which an electric current is passed.The hot filament emits a continuous spectrum, mostly in the infrared, with smaller visible part.The glass enclosure prevents oxygen in air from reaching the filament, to prevent burning up by oxidation.Argon gas with a small amount of a halogen is added to slow the evaporation of tungsten.The efficiency of an incandescent bulb is 10%
30Lamps Fluorescent lamps UV emitted by excited gas strikes phosphor material that emits white light.
31Lamps Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) Miniaturize a fluorescent tube, wrap it into a coil, and outfit it with the same kind of plug a common incandescent lamp has, and you have a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).CFLs are more efficient than incandescent lamps, putting out about 4 times more light for the same power input.A downside to the CFL is its mercury content, which poses environmental disposal problems.
32Lamps Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) A diode is a two-terminal electronic device that permits a flow of charge in only one direction.One kind of diode design is the reverse of a photocell, in that an impressed voltage stimulates the emission of light! This is a light-emitting diode, LED.
33Lamps LEDs (continued) A semiconductor layer containing free electrons is deposited onto the surface of another semiconductor that contains energy “holes” that can accept the free electrons.An electrical barrier at the boundary of these two materials blocks electron flow.
34Lamps LEDs (continued) When an external voltage is applied, the barrier is overcome and energetic electrons cross over and “drop” into energy “holes.”In a way similar to de-excitation, dropped electrons lose potential energy that is converted into quanta of light—photons.
35LasersLasersIncoherent light (many frequencies and out of phase)
36LasersLasers (continued)Monochromatic light out of phase
37Lasers Lasers (continued) Coherent light of identical frequencies in phase
38Lasers Lasers (continued) A device that produces a beam of coherent lightMany types and many ranges of lightNot a source of energy (as is sometimes thought)
39LasersThe laser consists of a narrow Pyrex tube that contains a low-pressure gas mixture consisting of 85% helium (small black dots) and 15% neon (large colored dots).
40Lasers Lasers (continued) When a high-voltage current zaps through the tube, it excites both helium and neon atoms to their usual higher states, and they immediately undergo de-excitation, except for one state in the helium that is characterized by a prolonged delay before de-excitation—a metastable state.Since this state is relatively stable, a sizable population of excited helium atoms (black open circles) is built up.These atoms wander about in the tube and act as an energy source for neon, which has an otherwise hard-to-come-by metastable state very close to the energy of the excited helium.
41Lasers Lasers (continued) When excited helium atoms collide with neon atoms in their lowest energy state (ground state), the helium gives up its energy to the neon, which is boosted to its metastable state (red open circles).The process continues, and the population of excited neon atoms soon outnumbers neon atoms in a lower-energy excited state.This inverted population is, in effect, waiting to radiate its energy.
42Lasers Lasers (continued) Some neon atoms eventually de-excite and radiate red photons in the tube.When this radiant energy passes other excited neon atoms, the latter are stimulated into emitting photons exactly in phase with the radiant energy that stimulated the emission.Photons pass out of the tube in irregular directions, giving it a red glow.
43Lasers Lasers (continued) Photons moving parallel to the axis of the tube are reflected from specially coated parallel mirrors at the ends of the tube.The reflected photons stimulate the emission of photons from other neon atoms, thereby producing an avalanche of photons having the same frequency, phase, and direction.
44Lasers Lasers (continued) The photons flash to and fro between the mirrors, becoming amplified with each pass.
45Lasers Lasers (continued) Some photons “leak” out of one of the mirrors, which is only partially reflecting. These make up the laser beam.