Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Infrared Radiation, Microwave, Ultraviolet Radiation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Infrared Radiation, Microwave, Ultraviolet Radiation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infrared Radiation, Microwave, Ultraviolet Radiation.

2 Infrared Infrared lamps emits electromagnetic radiation within frequency range heat absorbed by the matter. Infrared lamps emits electromagnetic radiation within frequency range heat absorbed by the matter. IR is emitted by many sources (e.g. the sun). IR is emitted by many sources (e.g. the sun).

3 Physical Characteristics IR radiation has wave length of 770 nm to 1 mm. IR radiation has wave length of 770 nm to 1 mm. Part of EM spectrum lying between visible light and microwave. Part of EM spectrum lying between visible light and microwave. Divided into 3 bands: Divided into 3 bands: 1- IR-A: 770 to 1400 nm 2- IR-B: 1400 to 3000 nm 3- IR-C: 3000 to 10 6

4 Types of IR radiation (Used clinically) Luminous (visible) Luminous (visible) Non luminous (invisible) Non luminous (invisible) IR lamps available emit radiation of wave length 780 and 1500 nm.

5 Physical Behavior of IRR: Reflected Reflected Absorbed Absorbed Transmitted Transmitted Refracted Refracted Diffracted Diffracted

6 Physiological Effects of IRR: Metabolic effect: Metabolic effect: Increases metabolic activity. Increases metabolic activity. Circular effect: Circular effect: Increases blood flow superficially. Increases blood flow superficially. Neurological effects: Neurological effects: Increases nerve conduction velocity. Increases nerve conduction velocity. Cellular effects: Cellular effects: Increases elastic fibers in upper dermis. Increases elastic fibers in upper dermis. Increases ground substance. Increases ground substance. Alters composition of amino acid proteins. Alters composition of amino acid proteins.

7 Clinical (Therapeutic) Effects of IRR: Pain Pain Muscle spasm Muscle spasm Joint stiffness Joint stiffness Tissue healing Tissue healing Circulation Circulation Edema Edema Skin lesion Skin lesion Others: before stretching, mobilization, traction, massage, exercises, E.S., bile pigments. Others: before stretching, mobilization, traction, massage, exercises, E.S., bile pigments.

8 Modes of Heat Transfer Radiation (lamp to body) Radiation (lamp to body) Convection and conduction ( through the body) Convection and conduction ( through the body) Dosage Sensory report of the patient Sensory report of the patient ِ Adjusted by: ِ Adjusted by: Changing power output of the lamp Changing power output of the lamp Distance of lamp Distance of lamp Angle of incidence Angle of incidence

9 Time of Application 10 – 20 minutes.

10 Microwave E.M.R. between the radio waves and infrared. E.M.R. between the radio waves and infrared. Wavelength between 1 m and 1 cm. Wavelength between 1 m and 1 cm. Frequency between 30MHz – 30GHz. Frequency between 30MHz – 30GHz. Available since 1930 Available since 1930 Effective method of heating (highly vascular tissue) Effective method of heating (highly vascular tissue)

11 Production of M.W. High frequency oscillating current. High frequency oscillating current. Magnetron to generate oscillating currents directly from high velocity electron motion. Magnetron to generate oscillating currents directly from high velocity electron motion. Coaxial cable. Coaxial cable. Antenna (emitter). Antenna (emitter). Intensity control. Intensity control. Meter mean of switching. Meter mean of switching. Can be continuous or pulsed. Can be continuous or pulsed.

12 Ultraviolet Radiations Physical properties of U.V. radiations: Physical properties of U.V. radiations: Electromagnetic radiations. Electromagnetic radiations. Frequency 7.5x10 14 to over 10 15. Frequency 7.5x10 14 to over 10 15. Wavelength 400nm to below 290nm. Wavelength 400nm to below 290nm. Lies between x-ray and visible light. Lies between x-ray and visible light. Divided into three bands, A, B and C band. Divided into three bands, A, B and C band. A and B bands reach the earth, whereas C band is filtered by the ozone layer A and B bands reach the earth, whereas C band is filtered by the ozone layer Produce physiological effect by non thermal mechanism Produce physiological effect by non thermal mechanism

13 Most significant source of U.V. is the sun. Most significant source of U.V. is the sun. Obeys inverse square and cosine law. Obeys inverse square and cosine law. Intensity is proportional to the power of lamp output. Intensity is proportional to the power of lamp output. Deepest penetration with high intensity, long wavelength and lower frequency. Deepest penetration with high intensity, long wavelength and lower frequency. U.V.A penetrate farthest U.V.A penetrate farthest U.V.B and U.V.C are less deep. U.V.B and U.V.C are less deep. Less deep penetration if skin is thick or dark. Less deep penetration if skin is thick or dark.

14 Physiological Effects of U.V.R 1- Erythema production: Redness. Redness. Depends on the amount of U.V. Depends on the amount of U.V. Types of erythema. Types of erythema. High dose destructive. High dose destructive.

15 2- Tanning: Delayed pigmentation of the skin Caused by: Caused by: Increase production and upward migration of melanin granules Increase production and upward migration of melanin granules Oxidation of premelanin in the skin Oxidation of premelanin in the skin Protective response of the body Protective response of the body

16 3- Epidermal hyperplasia Thickening of the superficial layer of skin. Thickening of the superficial layer of skin. 72 hours after exposure. 72 hours after exposure. Persists for several weeks. Persists for several weeks. Protective mechanism. Protective mechanism. 4- Vitamin D Synthesis Conversion of provitamin D to vitamin D. Conversion of provitamin D to vitamin D. 5- Other Effects Bactericidal effect. Bactericidal effect.

17 Erythemal Respons Suberythemal dose (SED) : Suberythemal dose (SED) : No change in 24h after exposure. No change in 24h after exposure. Minimal erythema dose (MED) : Minimal erythema dose (MED) : Smallest dose erythema (8h) Smallest dose erythema (8h) Dissapears within 24 hours Dissapears within 24 hours

18 First-degree erythema (E1) : First-degree erythema (E1) : Definite redness with mild desquamation. Definite redness with mild desquamation. Appears within 6 hours. Appears within 6 hours. Lasts for 1 – 3 days Lasts for 1 – 3 days About 2.5 times MED About 2.5 times MED Second degree erythema (E2) Second degree erythema (E2) Intense erythema with edema, peeling and pigmentation. Intense erythema with edema, peeling and pigmentation. Appears within 2 hours or less. Appears within 2 hours or less. Like severe sun burn. Like severe sun burn. About 5 times MED. About 5 times MED.

19 Third degree erythema (E3) : Third degree erythema (E3) : Erythema with severe blistering, peeling and exudation. Erythema with severe blistering, peeling and exudation. Dose about 10 times MED Dose about 10 times MED

20 Clinical Indications for U.V. radiation Skin disorder Skin disorder Psoriasis and other dermatological conditions Psoriasis and other dermatological conditions Non pulmonary T.B. Non pulmonary T.B. Healing wounds Healing wounds

21 Application Technique Determine patient s sensitivity to U.V radiation Determine patient s sensitivity to U.V radiation Use the same lamp Use the same lamp Dose response assessment Dose response assessment Graded according to individual s erythemal response Graded according to individual s erythemal response

22 The End Good Luck To You All Good Luck To You All


Download ppt "Infrared Radiation, Microwave, Ultraviolet Radiation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google