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Conceptual Physics Notes on Chapter 35 Electric Circuits

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Any path in which electrons flow is a Circuit. There can be no gaps in the flow of electrons. Any path in which electrons flow is a Circuit. There can be no gaps in the flow of electrons.

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Electric Circuits A gap in the circuit is known as an Open Circuit. Electrons will not flow. A gap in the circuit is known as an Open Circuit. Electrons will not flow. A Closed Circuit is when the flow of electrons is possible. A Closed Circuit is when the flow of electrons is possible.

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Electric Circuits Most circuits have more then one devise that receives electrical energy. These connections are in either: Most circuits have more then one devise that receives electrical energy. These connections are in either:Series Parallel Parallel

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Electric Circuits SERIES CIRCUITS : Fig. 35.4 shows three lamps in series connected to a power supply --- a battery. Fig. 35.4 shows three lamps in series connected to a power supply --- a battery. 1.Electric current has ONLY a single path through the circuit. 2.Resistance is the TOTAL resistance of each lamp or resistor along the pathway. 3.The current is equal to the voltage source divided by the total resistance (Ohms Law) 4.As the number of lamps is added, the resistance is INCREASED. The disadvantage of a series circuit is if one lamp fails (burns out) the whole circuit fails.

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Electric Circuits PARALLEL CIRCUITS: Fig. 35.5 shows three lamps connected in parallel. Fig. 35.5 shows three lamps connected in parallel. 1.Each lamp connects the same two points. Therefore, the voltage is the same across each device. 2.The amount of current in each lamp is the same. 3.Total current in the circuit equals the SUM of the currents in each pathway. 4.As the number of lamps is added, the resistance is DECREASED.

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Electric Circuits SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS: See Fig. 35.6 on page 554.See Fig. 35.6 on page 554.

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Electric Circuits Battery SINGLE (Cell) SINGLE (Cell) DOUBLE HIGH (Battery) VOLTAGE

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Electric Circuits Connecting wire – Black line

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Electric Circuits Open switch

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Electric Circuits Closed switch

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Electric Circuits Resistance

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COMBINING RESISTORS: Series and Parallel Series and Parallel See Fig. 35.8 See Fig. 35.8

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Electric Circuits When in series, the resistance ADDS up to a larger resistance. When in series, the resistance ADDS up to a larger resistance. Very bright Bright Dimmest Very bright Bright Dimmest

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Electric Circuits When in Parallel, the resistance SUBTRACTS to a smaller resistance. When in Parallel, the resistance SUBTRACTS to a smaller resistance. Bright Same Bright Same Bright Bright Same Bright Same Bright

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Electric Circuits When lines carry too much current, the heat may melt the wire and start a fire. When lines carry too much current, the heat may melt the wire and start a fire. Fuses or Circuit breakers are used to prevent an overload in the wire. Fuses or Circuit breakers are used to prevent an overload in the wire.

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