Presentation on theme: "Commercial Lighting Requirements"— Presentation transcript:
1Commercial Lighting Requirements 2009 IECCCommercial Lighting RequirementsU.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes ProgramPNNL-SA-661701
2Commercial Lighting Requirements in 2009 IECC Commercial provisions contained in Chapter 5…with reference to ASHRAECovers lighting controls and power density for interior and exteriorException: Lighting within dwelling unitsMajor changes in the 2009 versionDaylight zone controlNew exterior lighting zonesis an alternate compliance path referenced in the 2009 IECC, but Section “Application” now requires 90.1 to be used in “its entirety”.Dwelling units – refers to personal, complete living spaces, for example, an apartment –the lighting within the dwelling unit is exempt, but lighting in common areas such as corridors and lobbies would need to meet the requirements.The lighting power densities have not changed related to stringency, but the format has changed to one table.There is a new, detailed exterior lighting section in the 2006 IECC that is from ASHRAE 90.1 and was adopted by the 2006 IECC.
3The IECC Code Compliance Process Must the Project Comply with the IECC?Comply with the Envelope RequirementsComply with the Mechanical/SWH RequirementsComply with thePower & Lighting RequirementsSection 50290.1 Section 5Sections 503 and 50490.1 Section 6Section 50590.1 Section 9Document Compliance with the IECCPlan ReviewInspectionFirst, need to determine whether your project must comply with the 2009 IECC. There are different compliance sections for Envelope, Mechanical, and Lighting and Power. Compliance may be shown using the applicable chapters in the IECC or in 90.1 depending upon which compliance method is chosen.
4Does My Project Need to Comply with the Commercial Requirements of IECC ? First: Is IECC (2009) the applicable code in your state or jurisdiction?…If yes, is the building commercial or high-rise residential other than:One- and two-family residentialR-2, R-3, R-4 three stories or less in height…If you don’t know, check out the Status of State Codes atTo answer the first question, you need to confirm that the 2009 IECC is the applicable code in your state or jurisdiction. Next, you need to determine whether your building is a commercial building as defined by the code.
5When do the Lighting and Power Requirements Apply? Original Installed Lighting System in a New Building, Addition, or Tenant Build-outExisting Lighting System that is AlteredChange in Occupancy that Increases EnergyExceptions:Historic buildingsState or National listingEligible to be listedAlterations where less than 50% of the luminaires are replaced and power is not increasedLighting within dwelling unitsWhere ≥ 50% of permanently installed fixtures are high-efficacy lampsThere are other historic listings that may be applicable, such as regional listings. Confirm these exceptions with the building official.
6High-Efficacy Lamps Defined in the 2009 IECC as: Lamp Wattage Efficacy Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy based on lamp wattageLamp WattageEfficacy> 40 watts60 lumens/watt15-40 watts50 lumens/watt< 15 watts40 lumens/wattDefinition of high-efficacy added in 2009 IECC.
7The IECC Code Compliance Process Must the Project Comply with the IECC?Comply with the Envelope RequirementsComply with the Mechanical/SWH RequirementsComply with thePower & Lighting RequirementsSection 50290.1 Section 5Sections 503 and 50490.1 Section 6IECCSection 505Section 9Document Compliance with the IECCPlan ReviewInspectionSection 506Building PerformanceMethodLighting compliance can be shown in three different ways: IECC Section 505, 90.1 Section 9, or IECC Section Section 506 is a whole building performance method that involves the use of modeling software. It compares a building built just meeting the code requirements to your building. If the energy use of your building is less than the “base” building, your building complies.The performance method is typically used only for complex buildings or when the other compliance options do not work.
8Mandatory Interior Lighting requirements What’s Covered Under Electrical Power and Lighting Systems Requirements?Mandatory Interior Lighting requirementsRequired ControlsWattage/Efficiency LimitsInterior Lighting Power Allowances (watts/ft2)Exterior Lighting ControlsLamp EfficiencyExterior Lighting Power Allowances (watts/ft2)Electric Metering
9Interior Lighting Control (505.2): Basic Control Independent Lighting Control required for each space surrounded by floor-to-ceiling partitionsMust be located in the space served, or -Switched from a remote locationMust have indicator that identifies the lights served and their status (off or on)ExemptionsSecurity or emergency areas that must be continuously lightedLighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egressIntent: Allow occupants to control unneeded lighting!
10Interior Lighting Control: Light Reduction Light Reduction Controls must allow the occupant to reduce connected lightingBy at least 50%In a reasonably uniform illumination patternNote: Alternate Standard ASHRAE/IESNA does not require Light Reduction ControlIntent: Allow occupants to moderate light levels to save energy!
11Light Reduction Control Options Controlling all lamps or luminairesDual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or lampsSwitching middle lamp luminaires independently from the outer lampsEach luminaire or each lampOptions are: dimming, dual switching in a uniform patter across the ceiling grid, or, for three-lamp fixtures, switch the middle lamps independently from the outer lamps. You can also do each luminaire or each lamp although this isn’t common due to cost and practicality.DimmingAlternating LuminairesAlternating lampsDimmer SwitchDSS
12Interior Lighting Control: Light Reduction Exemptions Light Reduction Control Not required for the following:Areas with only one luminaireAreas controlled by occupancy sensorCorridors, storerooms, restrooms or public lobbiesSleeping unitsSpaces with <0.6 w/ft2A sleeping unit is different than a dwelling unit. A sleeping unit refers to the bedroom in a hotel/motel, boarding house, etc.
13Interior Lighting Control: Automatic Shutoff Automatic lighting shutoff control device required in all buildings larger than 5,000 ft2Building Defined:“Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy”Building area surrounded by exterior walls and fire wallsExempted spacesSleeping unitsLighting for patient careWhen an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or securityTwo ways to define “building”. In the second, “fire walls” is the important distinction. For example, a strip mall with different units in it may be over 5000 sf, but if the individual units are separated by fire walls and are less than 5000 sf, automatic shutoff would not be required.Also, if there is a space such as a mechanical room in which equipment is maintained, automatic shutoff might endanger people working on or near the equipment and this space may therefore be exempted.Intent: Eliminate after hours lighting waste!
14Interior Lighting Control: Automatic Shutoff Options Automatic Lighting Shutoff Compliance OptionsControl lights on a scheduled basis (automatic time switch)Time-of-day controllerControls ≤ 25,000 ft2 and not more than one floor, orOccupant sensorTurn lights off within 30 minutes of occupant leaving the spaceSignal from another control or alarm that indicates the area is unoccupiedCourtesy Britt-Makela Group
15Interior Lighting Control: Automatic Shutoff Override Readily accessibleWithin view of the lights or area controlledManually operated≤ 2 hour overrideControls an area ≤ 5,000 ft2ExemptionsCan be over 2 hour override in malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail space, industrial facilities and arenas when using captive key overrideOverride in malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail space, industrial facilities and arenas can cover up to 20,000 ft2
16Interior Lighting Control: Holiday Scheduling Feature that turns off all loads for 24 hours then resumes the normally scheduled operationExceptions:Retail stores and associated mallsRestaurantsGrocery storesPlaces of religious worshipTheaters
17Daylight Zone Definition – Under Skylights The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension plus the smaller of:The floor-to-ceiling height, orThe distance to a ceiling height opaque partition, orOne-half the distance to adjacent skylights or windowsNew in the 2009 IECC.17
18Daylight Zone Definition – Adjacent to Vertical Fenestration The daylight zone depth is assumed to be 15 feet into the space or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is lessThe daylight zone width is assumed to be:the width of the window plus 2 feet on each side, orthe window width plus distance to opaque partitions, orthe window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.18
19Daylight Zone Control Daylight zones Must have individual control of the lights independent of general area lightingContiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestrationCan be controlled by a single controlling device if the zone doesn’t include areas facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e., north, east, south, west)Daylight zones under skylights > 15 ft from the perimeterMust be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestrationExceptionDaylight spaces 1) enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and 2) containing two or fewer light fixturesnot required to have a separate switch for general area lightingNote: required controls may be manual or automatic
20Interior Lighting Control: Sleeping Unit Lighting Control Applies to hotels, motels, boarding houses, or similarMaster switch required at each room or main room entryMust control all permanently wired luminaires or switched receptaclesExceptions: bathroomsIntent: Allow occupant to turn off lights at exit point!In the example diagrams, the standard room requires a control at the exit door, and the suite would have a switch at the exit to each room.
21Tandem Wiring (505.3)Tandem Wiring for all Odd Numbered Lamp ConfigurationsExceptions:Where electronic high frequency ballasts are usedLuminaires on emergency circuitsLuminaires with no available pair in the same areaWith the proliferation of electronic ballasts, this doesn’t happen much any longer.Intent: Eliminate the use of magnetic ballasts driving single lamps!
22Exit Signs (505.4) Exit Signs Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per sideWith the use of LEDs and other technology today, this is commonly done and not a hard requirement to meet.
23Interior Lighting Power Limits (505.5) Connected Interior Lighting Power must not exceed Interior Lighting Power AllowanceCalculate Interior Lighting Power AllowanceBuilding Area type allowanceAdditional allowancesCalculate proposed connected lighting powerWattage calculation “rules”Exempted lightingCompare values: proposed wattage must be less than or equal to allowed wattageIntent: Eliminate waste from sloppy lighting design and application!
24Interior Lighting Power Allowances TableBuilding Area TypeNote: Alternate Standard ASHRAE/IESNA provides whole building and space-by-space options
25Interior Lighting Power Allowance Calculation First, choose an appropriate “Building Area Type” from the allowance table ( ).“Building Area” includes all spaces that are associated with that business or function type. For example a space with:Corridors,Restrooms,A lobby, andOffice space…would be considered an Office Building Area TypeThen...multiply the lighting power density (W/ft2) by the building square footage to get allowed watts for compliance
26Office - Example 1.0 W/ft2 = 200,000 W Office: 200,000 ft2 TableA 200,000 ft2 office building that contains corridor, restrooms, break rooms and a lobby is given 1.0 W/ft2 for the entire buildingOffice: 200,000 ft21.0 W/ft2 = 200,000 W
27Interior Lighting Power Allowance for Multiple Occupancy Building How is an allowance determined if the building has more than one Building Area Type?Example – A building contains the following area typesMuseum: 40,000 ft2Retail: 5,000 ft2Cafeteria: 10,000 ft2Use the more specific building area type where more than one area type exists in the buildingSum the individual (lighting power density X area square footage) values for Total Power Allowance
28Multiple Occupancy Building - Example TableMuseum: 40,000 ft2at 1.1 W/ft2 = 44,000 WCafeteria:10,000 ft2at 1.4 W/ft2 = 14,000 WRetail: 5,000 ft2at 1.5 W/ft2 = 7,500 WTotal watts allowed = 65,500 WIn this example, add the individual allowances to arrive at the total allowed watts.
29Additional Retail Lighting Power Allowance (Table 505.5.2 – Footnotes) Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = 1000 watts +(Retail Area 1 x 0.6 W/ft2) +(Retail Area 2 x 0.6 W/ft2) +(Retail Area 3 x 1.4 W/ft2) +(Retail Area 4 x 2.5 W/ft2),Where:Retail Area 1 = the floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.Retail Area 2 = the floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.Retail Area 3 = the floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.Retail Area 4 = the floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal, and china.Exception: Other merchandise categories may be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided that justification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.Specific accommodation has been made for retail merchandise highlighting in the 2009 IECC. These are IN ADDITION TO general lighting.Display area is the specific area to highlight merchandise. For example, track lighting installed to highlight a wall display of shoes – would qualify. Overhead, general lighting not specifically aimed at the wall of shoes would not qualify.Intent: Allow flexibility in design for critical retail applications!
30Proposed Lighting Power Calculation Sum the wattage of all proposed connected lighting powerThis must include all lighting that is part of the design for the space including:Overhead lightingTask lightingDecorative lightingMust include all lighting that is part of the design. If individual task lighting is part of the design it must be included. One example of lighting that would NOT have to be included is if the tenant purchases furniture with under shelf task lighting that wasn’t part of the original design.The calculation includes the lamp plus ballast values.Note: Wattage must be calculated based on actual power draw…not just nominal lamp rating
31Proposed Lighting Calculation: Rules Lighting wattage must be documented in accordance with SectionScrew lamp holders: maximum labeled wattage of the luminaireLow voltage lighting: transformer wattageLine voltage track:specified wattage with minimum of 30 W/linear ft ORwattage limit of system’s circuit breaker ORwattage limit of other permanent current limiting devicesOther: manufacturer’s rated wattage of lamp and associated ballast
32Exemptions to Proposed Lighting Power Calculation Connected power for following not included in calculations:Professional sports arena playing fieldSleeping unit lightingEmergency lighting automatically off during normal building operationLighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including visual impairment and other medical and age related issuesLighting in interior spaces specifically designated as a registered interior historic landmarkCasino gaming areasLighting equipment used for the following exempt if in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control deviceTask lighting for medical and dental proceduresDisplay lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monumentsTheatrical, stage, film, and video productionUsed for photographic processesIntegral to equipment or instrumentation installed by manufacturerPlant growth or maintenanceAdvertising or directional signageFood warming and food prep equipment (in restaurant buildings and areas)Lighting equipment that is for saleLighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilitiesApproved because of safety or emergency considerations, exclusive of exit lightsIntegral to both open and glass-enclosed refrigerator and freezer casesIn retail display windows when the display is enclosed by ceiling-height partitionsFurniture-mounted supplemental task lighting controlled by automatic shutoffThese types of lighting do not have to be counted. These are considered to be IN ADDITION TO general lighting.
33What if My Proposed Design Does Not Meet Code? Check calculations and designAppropriate area type allowances used?Actual lighting equipment wattages used?…and designReasonable illuminance levels provided?Efficient light sources used?Use alternate Standard *Use total Building Performance Method*Section Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance pathIf using default values, you might want to use the actual values.does have space-by-space option available, but the numbers (in terms of stringency) are the same for the same types.Building Performance Method – typically for larger, more complex buildings.
34Exterior Lighting Control Requirements (505.2.4) For dusk-to-dawn lighting: astronomical time switch or photosensorFor all other: astronomical time switch OR photosensor + time switchAll time switches must have 10 hour battery backup
35Exterior Efficiency Requirement (505.6.1) Building grounds lighting luminaires over 100 watts must have source efficacy of at least 60 lumens per wattAs the table shows, incandescent and halogen lighting is not efficient enough; some CFL and linear fluorescents will work.If claiming an exception, document if for the building official.Exceptions:Controlled by motion sensorAny of the exterior lighting power allowance exceptionsAs approved for a historical, safety, signage, or emergency consideration
36Exterior Lighting Power Limits (505.6.2) Connected Exterior Lighting Power must not exceed Exterior Lighting Power AllowanceCalculate exterior Lighting Power AllowanceLighting power densities by exterior function and by applicable lighting zoneCalculate proposed connected lighting powerWattage calculation “rules”Exempted lightingCompare values: proposed wattage must be less than or equal to allowed wattageSimilar to interior lighting power limits.Same steps to calculate as for interior.
37Exterior Lighting Power Limits (505.6.2) What areas are covered under exterior lighting allowances?Tradable surfacesCommon exterior lighted needs that can be traded for other needs.For example, wattage allowed for parking lot lighting can be “traded” and used for canopy lighting.Nontradable surfacesLess common exterior lighted needs that cannot be traded for other needs.These applications have more specific security or task illuminance needs.Two sections to the table: tradable and non-tradable.Tradable – when calculating the allowance based on all surfaces; can be used for any fixture you want. Typically, the most common surfaces are included as tradable (example: parking lot lighting). If you don’t use it all, you can use it elsewhere (example: canopy lighting).Non-tradable – typically related to specific security requirements. “Extra” cannot be used for other fixtures.
38Tradable Surfaces Uncovered parking lots and areas Walkways (under and over 10 feet wide)StairwaysPedestrian tunnelsMain building entrancesOther doorsEntry canopiesFree-standing and attached sales canopiesOpen sales areasStreet frontage sales areas
39Nontradable Surfaces Building facades Automated teller machines and night depositoriesEntrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilitiesLoading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency vehiclesDrive-up windows/doorsParking near 24-hour retail entrancesAlthough building facades are common, they are included as non-tradable surfaces. Cannot use “extra” wattage elsewhere.
40Exterior Lighting Zones [Table 505.6.2(1)] Description1Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas2Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas3All other areas4High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authorityNew in the 2009 IECC.
41Exterior Lighting Zones Zone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Base Site Allowance500 W600 W750 W1300 WTradable SurfacesUncovered Parking AreasParking areas and drives0.04 W/ft20.06 W/ft20.10 W/ft20.13 W/ft2Building GroundsWalkways less than 10 feet wide0.7 W/linear foot0.8 W/linear foot1.0 W/linear footWalkways 10 feet wide or greater0.14 W/ft20.16 W/ft20.2 W/ft2Plaza areasSpecial Feature AreasStairways0.75 W/ft21.0 W/ft2Pedestrian Tunnels0.15 W/ft20.3 W/ft2Requirements are by Zones in the 2009 IECC.
42Exterior Lighting Zones con’t Zone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4 Tradable SurfacesBuilding Entrances and ExitsMain entries20 W/linear foot of door width30 W/linear foot of door widthOther doorsEntry Canopies0.25 W/ft20.4 W/ft2Sales CanopiesFree-standing and attached0.6 W/ft20.8 W/ft21.0 W/ft2Outdoor SalesOpen areas (including vehicle sales lots)0.5 W/ft20.7 W/ft2Street frontage forvehicle sales lots inaddition to “openarea” allowanceNo allowance10 W/linear foot30 W/linear foot
43Exterior Lighting Zones con’t Non-Tradable SurfacesBuilding FacadesNo allowance0.1 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length0.15 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 3.75 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length0.2 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface lengthAutomated teller machines and night depositories270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per locationEntrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded fac.0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered areaLoading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered areaDrive-up windows/doors400 W per drive-throughParking near 24-hour retail entrances800 W per main entry
44Exemptions from Exterior Calculation (505.6.2) The following lighting does not need to be included in the proposed lighting calculation:Specialized signal, directional, and marker lighting associated with transportationAdvertising signage or directional signageLighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by its manufacturerLighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production, and video productionLighting for athletic playing areasTemporary lightingLighting for industrial production, material handling, transportation sites, and associated storage areasTheme elements in theme/amusement parksLighting used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildingsThese do not need to be included when doing your calculation.
45What if My Proposed Exterior Lighting Does Not Meet Code? Check calculations and designAppropriate surface allowances used?Actual lighting equipment wattages used?…and designReasonable illuminance levels provided?Efficient light sources used?Use alternate Standard *Use total Building Performance Method*Section Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance path
46Electrical Energy Consumption Mandatory Requirement (505.7) Separate metering required for each dwelling unitSpecific requirement for dwelling units.Intent: Occupant understanding of actual energy use can promote effective energy use!