Lighting Technologies Lighting Technologies Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 1 Product Training Session-1 Presented by :Karthik Vinayaka Dept: PDD India
Agenda Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 2 LIGHTING INTRODUCTION LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY DIFFERENT LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS TARGET MARKET CONCLUSION
Introduction Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 3 Light is simply a name for a range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye.
What is electromagnetic radiation, then? Is a form of energy that exhibits wave like behaviour as it travels through space. The radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously. Electromagnetic radiation is classified according to the frequency of its wave. V ~ 3.17eV B ~ 2.73eV G ~ 2.52eV Y ~ 2.15eV O ~ 2.08eV R ~ 1.62eV
LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 5 Ambient Light :The light already present in a scene, before any additional lighting is added. Ex: Natural light. More info: Ambient LightAmbient Light Incident Light : Light seen directly from a light source (lamp, sun, etc). Reflected Light : Light seen after having bounced off a surface.
Conventional Methods of converting electrical energy to light: Heating up bits of wire Passing Electricity through gas at near vacuum Passing Electricity through gas above atmospheric pressure DIFFERENT LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY
The top five global lighting technologies include 1.Incandescent light 2.Fluorescent, 3.Halogen 4.High-intensity discharge 5.light-emitting diodes (LED) The Incandescent light bulb : incandescent lamp produces light by heating a metal filament wire to a high temperature until it glows. The hot filament is protected from oxidation in the air with a glass enclosure that is filled with inert gas.glows
Fluorescent lamp: compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) The tube is filled with noble gas (i.e. argon, neon, helium). The tube also contains a small amount of mercury that when heated becomes mercury vapor. The inside of the tube is lined with phosphorescent material (mostly phosphorous). In the base of the bulb, There is an electronic ballast that boosts the line voltage up high enough to ionize the gas inside the bulb. As this happens the mercury also vaporizes inside the tube. The ionized gas and ionized mercury vapor emit ultraviolet light which strikes the phosphorous. The phosphorous, in turn, emits white light that lights up the room.
Halogen : Halogen lamps use a tungsten filament that is encased inside a Small quartz envelope. Similar to an incandescent lamp, the electrical current causes the tungsten filament to heat up to temperatures above 2500°C and get white hot and produce visible light. The envelope is much closer to the filament. Thus, to prevent it from melting
High-Intensity Discharge : HID lamps are available in the form of mercury or sodium vapour and typically are used as street lamps and outdoor lighting for stadiums. These lamps are popular because they are efficient and have a high-brightness output. In the case of sodium vapour, they are twice as efficient as normal fluorescent bulbs. Mercury and sodium vapour lamps produce light using a technique similar to that used in fluorescent lamps, where a low-pressure mercury vapour produces lots of ultraviolet light that excites a phosphor coating on the tube.
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 11 What is an Solid-state lighting Solid-state lighting (SSL): refers to a type of lighting that uses semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs), as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps), or gas. LED is a semiconductor diode that glows when operated in forward biased direction. LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are those little colour lights you see in electronic equipment, household appliances, toys, on signs, and many other places. Red, yellow and green ones are the most common, since they are have been used widely. LEDs are different from ordinary light bulbs because they do not have a filament to break or burn out. They generate very little heat, and are ideal for putting lights into battery-operated equipment like telephones and portable computers.
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 12 Basic Structure of an LED Die – light emitting semiconductor material Encapsulation – translucent case to protect the die and disperse the light Lead frame – the die is placed on it Anode post Epoxy Encapsulation LED die Cathode post Cathode lead Anode lead +-
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 13 Discrete LEDs Available in a variety of shapes and size LED Displays LED multi-segment display LED dot-matrix display Bargraph LED clusters A group or cluster of discrete LEDs are used to provide a bright light source. 7-segment LED Display 14-segment LED Display Dot-matrix LED Display Bargraph Types of LEDs
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 14 Standard LEDs Flashing LEDs Flashing LEDs look like ordinary LEDs but they contain an integrated circuit (IC) which controls LED flash times per seconds. High Power LEDs They give out large amounts of light. The future of lighting Multi-color LEDs Two or more semiconductor chips within one LED package, each producing a different color, usually the three primary colors, Red, Green and Blue. Infrared LEDs (IRLEDs) Invisible LED; infrared light output. Types of Discrete LEDs
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 15 Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value, for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or less.. How to test an LED
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 16 Parameter of standard LEDDescription LED ColorThe color of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material. Forward Current IfIndicates the current flowing through the LED to turn on. It is the maximum average amount of current the diode is able to conduct in forward bias mode Forward VoltageForward voltage is the voltage required to activate an LED Luminous IntensityBrightness of the LED at the given current, mcd = millicandela Lens ShapeThis attribute the exact shape of LED. Ex: Round, Rectangular, Square, Dome Wavelength TypThe peak wavelength of the light emitted, this determines the colour of the LED.nm = nanometre Bulb SizeThis attribute indicates the size of the LED Viewing AngleAngle is the width of the beam of light produced by an LED LED MountingThis attribute refers to type of LED mounting, TH, SMD, Panel Key Parameter of LED
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 17 Why Use an LED?
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 18 LED Market Segmentation Automotive General Illumination Other Markets Head lamps High Beam Lights Interior Lighting Dashboard Lighting Rear Lights Turn Signals Emergency Vehicle Lighting Aftermarket Accent Lighting Bulb replacement –Home –Office –Flashlights Traffic lights and signs Signage –Billboards –Community Information –Security, Exits Indicator / Fun lights –Gaming Machines –Clavilux (Disco) Medical / Dental –Endoscopes –MRI / CAT scan Backlighting –Monitors –TVs –Portable devices –Camera/Camcorders –Handsets –Instruments Camera Flash User experience –Handset fun lights –Handset indicators –Toys –Instruments
www.element-14.com 19 Indicators and signs Status indicator; LED panels; Traffic lights; Exit signs… Lighting Replacement light bulbs; Flashlights; Streetlights; Architectural lighting; Vehicle lighting; LED dental curing light … Non visual applications Remote control; Touch sensing; Movement sensing… LED Application
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 20 Low Power LED High Power LED Single color or RGB LEDs Blue Vf~3.7 Green Vf ~3.1 Red Vf ~2.0 White LEDs Vf ~ 3.3…3.7 I~ 0…25mA White Flash LEDs Vf ~ 4…6V I~ 0.4…0.6A/LED High current white LEDs Vf ~ 3.5…6V I~ up to 1A/LED Multi Die LED modules Vf ~ 5…8V I~ up to 1.5A/LED Typical LEDs Characteristics and Applications
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 21 LEDs have gained widespread use and now can be found nearly everywhere. Target Markets
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 22 Associated ProductsAccessory Products Panel assemblies Cartridge holders LED mounting kits LED testers LED Driver module LED Lens PC board standoffs Light pipes Bezels LED spacers Adhesive -Thermal conductive Associated and Accessory Products It is always important to ask the customer about associated and accessory products.
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 23 OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) OLED is an organic layer of resources that emits light when electricity is passed through it. OLED is proving to consume even less power and have a clean, crisp picture than an LED TV. An OLED is Organic light emitting diode which emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. OLED invented by Ching Tang and Steve Van Slyke in 1987 at Kodak Labs. Features Flexible / bendable lighting Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space Transparent lighting doubles as a window Continued in Next session
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 24 In this training, we had an opportunity to learn the basic knowledge of Lighting and LEDs. LED (light emitting diode). An LED will emit light when the current is passed through it. The color of the light depends on the semiconductor material of the LED. There are many advantages which make LEDs eye-catching for high-performance modern electronics. For example, their low power consumption extends battery life and thus they are well suited for portable applications. LED's fast turn-on/turn-off characteristics fit perfectly with the needs of automotive tail lights, especially the brake lights. LEDs are environmental friendly, LEDs do not contain lead or mercury. LED lighting facilitates a full-spectrum light source with larger color range. LEDs have an exceptionally long lifespan, which enables their use in applications where long-term reliability is highly desirable, such as traffic lights. Machine vision systems require a focused, bright and homogeneous light source – LEDs are a great match. Conclusion
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 25 How good is our website for selection of products Farnell/Newark/element14 extensive offering of solid-state lighting components can support the most demanding design requirements. Find lighting (visible/non visible) products from world leaders like Avago, Bridgelux, Cree, CML, Dialight, Lumex, Optek, Vishay and more. Products span all types of LEDs, emitters/arrays, optics, drivers, thermal and mounting accessories, and tools under the classification --- Optoelectronics and Display http://www.newark.com/optoelectronics-displays Selection of products on our webpage Featured Products linked on the web page Lighting Microsite for developments, solutions, Design resources are available http://www.newark.com/jsp/bespoke/bespoke7.jsp?bespokepage=common/en/technology- first/applications/lighting/home.jsp Associates and Accessories linked for SKUs Alternative available for SKUs Products separated in different classification for easy selection Attribute filter option available for SKU selection based on parametric search Keyword search results can be viewed through search tab Link to design guide on element14 KNODE http://www.element14.com/community/static/knode/design_elements?ICID=knodenav_deselements
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 26 How good is our website for selection of products
Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 27 Attribute selection view http://www.newark.com/leds-standard-under-75ma
THANK YOU Your Feedback is most valuable Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 28 Please Send your feedback to email@example.com@farnell.com
Interactive Video Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 29 Link: \\flcspnfp\canalrd\General Transfer\Lighting presentation video
Q & A When were LED invented? The first practical LED was invented in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working for General Electric Company. What is Haitz law? Haitz's law is an observation and forecast about the steady improvement, over many years, of light-emitting diodes (LED)light-emitting diodes The Law said the cost per lumen of LED lighting would fall to 10% of its original price every 10 years. During the same period, the lumen power of LEDs would increase 20 times. When were White LEDs first available? White LEDs became a reality around 1995 invented by Japans Nichia Corporation. Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 30
Q & A Which of the following statement about LED is not correct? a. An LED is a semiconductor device. b. An LED is able to give off light when current passes through it. c. An LED has no polarity. d. The basic structure of an LED consists of die, encapsulation, and lead frame. Correct answer is c. Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 31
Q & A Tri-colour LEDs The most popular type of tri-colour LED has a red and a green LED combined in one package with three leads. They are called tri-colour because mixed red and green light appears to be yellow and this is produced when both the red and green LEDs are on. The diagram shows the construction of a tri-colour LED. Note the different lengths of the three leads. The centre lead (k) is the common cathode for both LEDs, the outer leads (a1 and a2) are the anodes to the LEDs allowing each one to be lit separately or both together to give the third colour. Bi-colour LEDs A bi-colour LED has two LEDs wired in 'inverse parallel' (one forwards, one backwards) combined in one package with two leads. Only one of the LEDs can be lit at one time and they are less useful than the tri-colour LEDs described above. Thursday, June 12, 2014www.element-14.com 32