2 AGENDA Introduction Core Business UV Basics and Advantages CapabilitiesQuestions
3 TROJAN FOUNDING PRINCIPLE Trojan is uniquely positioned to bring innovative, technology-based solutions to municipalities, industrial enterprises, and consumers to solve their water related and process problems in an environmentally responsible way.
4 TROJAN TODAY A Global Environmental Business with staff of 650 Canada London & Guelph (400)US Multiple locations (175)Europe Multiple locations (50)China Multiple locations (25)• Over 6,000 municipal UV installations on 6 continents, treating over 26 billion gallons/day, 4M m³/hr• UV for municipal, industrial, commercial and consumer applications• Environmental Contamination Treatment UV-H2O2 for removal of micro- pollutants, odour and corrosion control• Partnerships: Over 200 offices in 90 countries on 6 continents• Logistics & Manufacturing in Canada, US, Europe and ChinaSales in 2009: US$ 220 M.
5 TROJAN UV COMPANY OVERVIEW Over 30 years of UV water treatment experience650+ employees worldwideAnnual turnover of US$220M in 2009Thousands of UV installations in 6 continentsWorldwide sales & supportUV pioneers with dedicated R&D resourcesISO 9001 Certified, CE, DVGW, UL, CSA, NSFBusiness unit of the Danaher Corporation (DHR)
6 DISINFECTION WATERBORNE MICROORGANISMS Microorganisms in drinking and waste water represent a risk to Public Health.BacteriaVirusesProtozoa(E.coli)(Hepatitis, Polio)(Giardia)(Cryptosporidium)
7 UV DISINFECTION HOW DOES IT WORK? UV light at the 254 nm wavelength penetrates the cell wall of the microorganism.The microorganism is “inactivated” and rendered unable to reproduce or infect.UV EnergyCell WallDNANucleic AcidCytoplasmicMembrane
8 UV AS PART OF MULTI-BARRIER STRATEGY Typical Chlorine CT for GiardiaChlorineDisinfectionAdenovirusUV DoseTypical Design UV dose = 40mJ/cm2UV DisinfectionDualProtectionRotavirusSecond barrier to provide a protection to safeguard drinking water – inactivating virtually all microorganisms treated by chlorine and inactivation chlorine-resistant protozoa (giardia and cyrpto)PoliovirusHepatitus AStreptococcusLegionellaCryptoE.coliGiardiaChlorine CT8
9 WHY UV? ADVANTAGESEffective against bacteria, viruses, and protozoan pathogensNo disinfection by-products formedNot affected by pH, temperatureEasy maintenance and operationEnvironmentally friendly technologyEconomical alternative to other disinfection techs
10 CORE BUSINESS DISINFECTION Trojan develops, builds, sells and services innovative UV technologies for:25,000 GPD to 1.5 MGDDisinfection1.5 MGD to 20 MGDEg. Bacteria, Viruses, SporesMunicipal WastewaterMunicipal Drinking WaterPrivate Potable WaterIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial WastewatersConsumer Drinking Water
11 CORE BUSINESS ORGANICS DESTRUCTION Trojan develops, builds, sells and services innovative UV technologies for:25,000 GPD to 1.5 MGDDisinfection1.5 MGD to 20 MGDOrganics DestructionEg. Bacteria, Viruses, ProtozoaEg. Total Oxidizable Carbon (TOC)Groundwater RemediationIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial WastewaterMunicipal WastewaterMunicipal Drinking WaterPrivate Potable WaterIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial WastewatersConsumer Drinking Water
12 CORE BUSINESS CHEMICAL DESTRUCTION Trojan develops, builds, sells and services innovative UV technologies for:25,000 GPD to 1.5 MGDDisinfection1.5 MGD to 20 MGDChemical DestructionOrganics DestructionEg. Bacteria, Viruses, SporesEg. Pesticides, oils, taste and color, corrosives medicines, carcinogens…Eg. Total Oxidizable Carbon (TOC)Groundwater RemediationIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial WastewaterMunicipal WastewaterMunicipal Drinking WaterPrivate Potable WaterIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial WastewatersConsumer Drinking WaterMunicipal WastewaterMunicipal Drinking WaterGroundwater RemediationIndustrial Process WaterIndustrial Wastewater
14 UV SYSTEM KEY COMPONENTS Control Panel withVisual Displays& AlarmsUV LampsUV SensorPower Supply (Ballasts)QuartzSleevesSleeve WipingSystemReactor Chamber
15 ADVANTAGES OF UV DISINFECTION UV disinfection is a physical processNo hazardous or toxic chemicals are used, eliminating public health concerns associated with THMs, HAAs or other carcinogenic by-productsUV inactivates a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Giardia and CryptosporidiumInactivation of chlorine-resistant parasites protect downstream recreational waters and surface waters used as a potable water sourceUV disinfection takes only seconds to inactivate organismsSince the contact times are short, the footprint required is minimal and existing chlorine contact tanks can be reused
16 ADVANTAGES OF UV DISINFECTION UV disinfection does not leave a residual disinfectantNo de-chlorination or residual monitoring is required, which greatly reduces operation and maintenance costsReceiving waters are not negatively impacted and there is no risk of overdosingUV is an accepted, proven technology in thousands of installations around the worldUV is easily designed by consulting engineers and approved by regulatory bodies, thereby reducing engineering costs and reducing permit approval timeUpgradeable to UV oxidation or photolysis systemTreatment process can be upgraded to treat emerging contaminants, offsetting upgrade costs in the future
17 ULTRAVIOLET (UV) LIGHT “Ultra” Beyond violet light. Consists of electromagnetic energy in the form of vacuum, c,b,a light. UVA is the light that will give us a sun burnCurve- spectral curve of cell inactivation. UVC energy has the greatest potential for cell inactivation
18 UV light penetrates the cell wall HOW DOES UV WORK?UV light penetrates the cell wallThe UV energy permanently alters the DNA of the microorganismMicroorganisms are “inactivated” and unable to reproduce or infectUV EnergyCell WallDNANucleic Acid
19 MECHANISM OF UV DISINFECTION GTUVDNA DoubleStrandDimerizationof ThymineNucleotidesdimerDNA- DNA is a double helix structure with 4 different nucleotidesUV light has enough energy to physically manipulate adjacent thymine groups over thousands of locations throughout the DNA strand through a process called dimerization-because of this dimerization of Thymine nucleotides the bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms can no longer reproduce. Without the ability to reproduce, organisms pass through the host without causing illness.
20 UV Dose = Intensity x Retention Time DEFINITION OF UV DOSEUV Dose = Intensity x Retention Time(mWs/cm2) (mW/cm2) (seconds)Higher dose means greater DNA damage and more bugs are killedDifferent bugs require different doses to achieve same kills (e.g. bacteria vs. viruses)There are factors that effect the intensity and the time ultimately effecting dose.Some factors are easily controlled such as equipment parameters and reactor designs however we have little control over the water quality upstream of the UV.
22 The ability of light to transmit through water UV TRANSMITTANCEThe ability of light to transmit through waterThe ratio of light entering the water to that exiting the waterSample length of 1 cmUV Transmission Scale:20% - 50% 50% - 70% > 70%Primary EffluentBlended EffluentLagoonsCSO, SSOSecondary EffluentFiltered EffluentWW ReuseFixed Film EffluentPost-membraneHigh-level reuseContaminant destruction
23 THE EFFECTS OF PARTICLES UV LampScatterUV LightCompletePenetrationIncomplete Penetration limits DNAdamageShadeParticles
24 What is Fouling? QUARTZ SLEEVE FOULING Accumulation of organic and inorganic material on the quartz surfaceAbsorbs UV light and decreases UV dose available for disinfectionAll water fouls submerged surfacesRate of fouling influenced by various site-specific factors (water quality, hydraulics and velocities, sleeve surface condition)
25 LAMP AGING As lamps age the amount of UV output decreases UV systems should be designed to deliver the required dose at the end of lamp life (EOLL) to ensure disinfection is met under worst case conditionsEOLL should be independently validated to guarantee the system meets the disinfection requirements
26 Parameter Description UV SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIAParameterDescriptionFlow RatesPeak and AverageWater QualityUV Transmission (%)Total Suspended Solids (mg/l)TSS size and densityTotal Iron (mg/l)Upstream TreatmentSuspended Growth or Fixed FilmFiltration?Performance CriteriaUV Dose or Disinfection LimitConfigurationFootprint or Headloss LimitsRedundancyRegulated or preferred
27 UV SYSTEM VALIDATIONAs microbes flow through a UV reactor they will all follow a different pathSome will receive a high dose and some a lower doseTo account for these differences, “Validated” reactors should be used“Validation” involves a full-scale test of the UV system involving live microbes
29 BIODOSIMETERY DETERMINATION Step 2: Inject test organism into full scale reactor to measure inactivation. Use organism from same culture.Organismsin (No)Organismsout (N)UV Reactor
30 BIODOSIMETERY DETERMINATION Step 3: Determine dose from data in Steps 1 and 210123546Dose20304050Viable Microbial PopulationChallenge Organism Dose ResponseInactivation of test organism inreactorUV Dose equivalent deliveredby the reactor
31 UV SYSTEM DESIGN CURVES Validation get us these curvesDose response curves for different UVT’sAs mentioned earlier, Intensity (UVT) and flow have a significant effect on dose.So many things will have an effect on UV Dose. Hydraulics, quality, lamps.With all these factors taken into consideration and the direct relationship between water clarity and UV reactor sizing mentioned above, how do we know how to correctly size the reactor?.... Validation testing