Presentation on theme: "“We must become the change we want to see in the world"— Presentation transcript:
1“We must become the change we want to see in the world “We must become the change we want to see in the world.” “The earth provides enough for every man’s need, but not for every man’s greed!” Mahatma Gandhi
3ENEL 669 Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday Renewable Energy & Solid State Lighting for Developing World This Course Will Change Your Life!ENEL 669Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday
4ENEL 581 Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday Renewable Energy & Solid State Lighting for Human Development This Course Will Change Your Life!ENEL 581Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday
5ENEL 669 Course Description: This course will cover the basics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Solid State Lighting (SSL) systems. RE and SSL will be introduced as a means of human development. Topics include: history of home lighting, illumination standards, incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes, White LEDs their properties and measurement, SSL system design, photovoltaic, wind power, hydro power, human and animal power, thermoelectric, biomass energy, bio-diesel and fuel cells; SSL project planning and financing, environmental and social impact assessments, carbon credits, SSL system metrics for the developing world, decision support systems: RETScreen® & Homer®;The course consists of lectures, labs, extensive project, exams, video presentations, guest speakers and discussions.
6ENEL 581 Course Description: This course will cover the basics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Solid State Lighting (SSL) systems. RE and SSL will be introduced as a means of human development. Topics include: history of home lighting, illumination standards, incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes, White LEDs their properties and measurement, SSL system design, photovoltaic, wind power, hydro power, human and animal power, thermoelectric, biomass energy, bio-diesel and fuel cells; SSL project planning and financing, environmental and social impact assessments, carbon credits, SSL system metrics for the developing world.The course consists of lectures, tutorials, labs, quizzes, assignments, exams, video presentations, guest speakers and discussions.
7ENEL 669 ObjectivesSafe, healthy, reliable and affordable electrical home lighting is unavailable to one third of humanity, the vast majority of whom are from the developing world.The only practical, appropriate and affordable way to light up the Base of the Pyramid is with Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting.On successful completion of ENEL 669 the student will have sufficient theoretical, technical, financial, environmental and sociological knowledge to design a near optimum Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting system for rural villages in any area of the world.
8ENEL 581 ObjectivesSafe, healthy, reliable and affordable electrical home lighting is unavailable to one third of humanity, the vast majority of whom are from the developing world.The only practical, appropriate and affordable way to light up the Base of the Pyramid is with Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting.On successful completion of ENEL 581 the student will have sufficient theoretical, technical, financial, environmental and sociological knowledge to design a near optimum Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting system for rural villages in any area of the world.
9ENEL 669 Final Grade Determination There will be choice of questions in exams to accommodate students from different faculties and also a wide choice for written assignments.The final grade in ENEL will be based on the following components:Assignments %Laboratory Reports %Final Examination %Project Report %TOTAL %It is necessary to earn a passing grade on the final exam in order to pass the course as a whole.
10ENEL 581 Final Grade Determination There will be choice of questions in exams to accommodate students from different faculties and also a wide choice for written assignments.The final grade in ENEL 581 will be based on the following components:Tutorial Quizzes %Assignments %Laboratory Reports %Midterm Examination 25%Final Examination %TOTAL %It is necessary to earn a passing grade on the final exam in order to pass the course as a whole.
11WHAT IS LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT WHAT IS LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT? Life Cycle Assessment is the methodical environmental profiling of a product, process or service which takes into account all (in theory at least) the stages of its life cycle from "cradle to grave", from the extraction of materials to its end-of-life, considering also the in between stages such as production, transportation, and use. Sometimes some stages are omitted, for example a manufacturer might do a "cradle to gate" LCA which accounts for stages only to the point of sale. In the long term, the objective is use LCA to produce closed loop systems "from cradle to cradle" so that there are few or no emissions to the environment. Total Fire Damage in South Africa – R 104 Billion (US $15 Billion) Includes loss of property, wages, health, incapacitation, unemployment, ….
12Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a decision making tool to identify environmental burdens and evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process or service over its life cycle from cradle to grave (i.e. from extraction of resources through to the disposal of unwanted residuals).
13Example of Need for LCA: Oil Sands Oil sands hit major 'hurdle' in CaliforniaGLOBE AND MAIL – today“While most new laws on cleaner-burning fuel look only at tailpipe emissions, the new California policy, announced this week by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, has an unusual twist. It will count gases discharged during the full life cycle of the petroleum.”“Under the state’s so-called low-carbon fuel standard, all transportation fuel sold will have to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted during its production and final use by at least 10 percent by 2020”
14Concluding Remarks LCA is a powerful/flexible decision-making tool LCA mindset should be applied to all engineering projectsA few words of cautionHelpful to answer some research questions over othersUsing intuition can be dangerousPay close attention to data quality and consistencyInterpretation of resultsDon’t confuse values with scienceUncertainty
15The Miniature Earth Our World – a True Comparison Between the Haves and the Have Nots Car Battery & Radio - Africa
16Overview of the Section 1 “Lighting is a basic necessity for humanity” History of lightingprimitive lighting sourcesSimple oil lampsCandlesGaslightLimelightDawn of Electric lightingSolid State Lighting
17Primitive Lights Fire – discovered 500,000BC Probably an accident The campfire and the torch probably constituted early man's first use of 'artificial' lightingFor the first time man gained some small degree of freedom from the blindness of nightAs early as 400,000 BC, fire was kindled in the caves of Peking man
18Primitive Lights (Ctd.) Prehistoric man, used primitive lamps usually made from naturally occurring materials, such as rocks, shells, horns and stones, were filled with grease and had a fiber wick. Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel.Many of these lamps have been found in the famous Lascaux caves (France), dating to about 15,000 years ago.For centuries families have sat around kitchen fire, or used the light of a fire band.
19Simple Oil Lamps The first wick lamp was invented around 70,000BC A simple oil lamp needs only a vessel for the oil and a piece of fibrous plants for a wickAnimal and vegetable oil served as fuelWith oily bird or fish, it was only necessary to thread a wick through the body: the native Americans in Vancouver island used salmonoid fishthe introduction of pottery lamps were made with refinements such as a cover to keep out bugs and a molded channel to hold the wick in a fixed position.
21Candles The invention of the candle dates back to about 1000 BC The best candles were made of beeswax and were used chiefly in church rituals as beeswax was expensiveCrude tallow candles had to be used by the common people and were smelly and smokyLater improved methods such as molds were used to make them and better materials were used so that it would not smoke and smell.
22Candles (Ctd.)Historically the cost of candles represented a significant part of most peoples budgetEmployers such as mine owners who provided their workers with candles for use at work could detect any theft of themWhen Michael Faraday started work at the Royal Institution in London in 1813 he received £1 per week plus Coal and CandlesEnd of ENEL Lecture1 (11Sep2006)
23Advanced oil Lamps Some advanced oil lamps used in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries
24Agrand Lamp - the first lamp which relied on research The design based on the research conducted byA. L. Lavoisier who discovered that combustion is due tooxygen in the air. The lamp was demonstrated to King George IIIand Agrand was granted an English patent (No. 1425 in 1784).A tubular wick placed withintwo concentric tubes and aglass chimney around the burnerA ten foldgain in light
25Gas lampsgas lighting introduced by Scottish inventor William MurdochIn the early 19th century the gaslight was simply the light of the naked gas flame (Instead of a wick)Gaslight was demonstrated publicly in London on 4 June 1807 to mark the kings birthday by Friedrich Albert Winzer and he established a gaslight company “Charted Gas Light and Coke Company” in 1812
26Gas Lamps (Ctd.) Gaslights marked a new era of lighting Lighting became readily available, with no need to clean and trim the wick of oil lamps or to replace candlesGaslights made it easier to read and write or do other thing. It brightened up streets, making it safer, and in factories it allowed longer work hours
27LimelightLimelight was used in theaters in the 1860’s and 1870’s until superseded by the electric arc.Limelight - the first solid-state lighting device (introduced by Thomas Drummond in 1826)Cylinder of lime (calcium oxide)brought to a state of dazzlingbrilliancy by the flame of theoxy-hydrogen blowpipe
28Candoluminescence and Gas Mantle The emission was due to – candoluminescence - discovered by Goldsworthy Gurney in 1820.Candoluminescence is caused by thermal excitation of ions, which emit in excess of black body incandescenceIn 1886, the candoluminescence - gas mantle – a fabric of cotton soaked in a solution of a metallic salt (a mixture of cerium oxide and thorium oxide with a ratio 1:99 heated by high temperature non-luminous flame from the Bunsen burner light sourceInvented by by Auer von Welsbach and used widely in the first third of the 20th centuryIt still can be found in kerosene and gas lamps.This resisted the fall of gas lamps to electric lamps for a while
29Electric Lighting - Dawn of New Kind of Illumination 17-th century, effect of the luminous discharge of static electricity in mercury vapor was discoveredPractical electric lights need a continuous supply of electricityIt became available with Italian scientist Alessandro Volta’s invention of the battery or the “Pile” in 1800Beginning of the 19th century, Sir Humphrey Davy demonstrated a discharge between two rods of carbon (an arc) and a glowing of a piece of wire heated by electric current (incandescence) and he used Volta’sbattery made of 2000 pairs of copper and zinc elementsHowever lighting using the electric energy from a chemical battery was very expensiveVolta’s Pile
30Electric GeneratorMichael Faraday established the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831Following that the Belgian, Zénob Theophile Gramme, invented the first efficient continuous-current generator (dynamo) in 1870sThat was a key turning point of lighting and many Gramme machines were sold in 1870s mainly for lightingThis decade saw the practical beginning of electric lighting, both by arc and by incandescenceGramme Generator
31Electric Arc LampsFollowing the Sir Humphrey Davy’s initial demonstrations many scientists in the decade of 1870s worked on arc lampsThe principle of the arc lamp is that two pieces of carbon rods connected to an electric supply, touched together and then pulled few millimeters apartA spark or an arc is drawn across the gap making the ends of carbon rods white hotApart from the energy the main problem was the heat of the arc burned away the ends of the carbon rods1876. Pavel Yablochkov fabricated the first practical electric lighting device
32Electric Arc Lamps (Ctd.) Yablochkov candle was the first electric lighting device (1876)This consisted of two parallel carbon rods separated by a thin layer of plaster of ParisA thin connecting link of graphite joins the upper ends of the rodsWhen switched on the current fuses the connecting link and an arc is struck between the upper endsOne candle gave about 700 candlepower of light
33Incandescent Filament Lamp Concluding the decade of 1870s the incandescent filament lamp was successfully demonstrated in 1879The two principle figures were the American inventor Thomas Alva Edison and British Joseph SwanSwan also invented the first electrical distribution systemThe invention of incandescent filament lamp was accompanied by famous patent trialsThomas Alva Edison ( ).Joseph Swan ( )
34Edison LampEdison's first successful lamp used carbonized cotton thread as a filament, installed in a glass bulb, with all air evacuatedOn New Year's Eve, December 31, 1879, Edison gave his first public demonstration of his new invention, at Menlo Park, New JerseyIn 1880 Edison experimented with other materials for filaments and of the over 6000 specimens tested by his laboratory, bamboo, became commonly used for filaments.In 1880, on January 17, Patent number 223,898 was issued to Edison for the T.A. Edison Electric Lamp
35Swan LampJoseph Swan, is also credited with inventing the incandescent lampSwan demonstrated a carbon filament lamp on February 5, 1879Swan's development of the incandescent lamp was reported in the Oct. 29th, 1880 issue of "Engineering"The first premises to be lighted by the new Swan lamp were those of Sir William Armstrong at Cragside near Newcastle in December 1880Swan lamp
36Brief Outline of Important Historical Events 1897. Nernst developed a filament made of cerium oxide-based solid electrolyte which was a very efficient lamp1900. Peter Cooper Hewitt patented the mercury vapor lamp1903. A. Just and F. Hanaman developed tungsten filament1904. C. O. Bastian and A. E. Salisbury combined the mercury vapor lamp with a low-temperature incandescent lamp1904. Moor introduced discharge lamps using air1907 The first electric lamps using tungsten filaments1913 gas filled lamps
37Florescent lamps – A New Rival to Incandescent Lamps In 1901 Peter Cooper Hewitt invented an arc lamp that used mercury vaporIt was found that these low pressure arc lamps would put out large amounts of ultra-violet lightThe scientists then figured that if the inside of the light bulb is coated with a fluorescent chemical which absorbed UV light and re-radiated that energy as visible light, an efficient light source could achievedTogether with Friedrich Meyer and Hans Spanner, Edmund Germer patented an experimental fluorescent lamp in 1927. 1938. GE and Westinghouse Electric Corporation put on the market the new colored and white fluorescent lamps
38Lighting TodayResidential lighting - tungsten incandescent lamps and compact fluorescence lamp (CFL), which provides higher efficiencyWork environments - fluorescence lampStreet lighting – sodium lamp.However, all this is about to change because of explosive development of high brightness visible Light Emitting Diodes
39Solid State Lighting : The future of Lighting 1907 H J Round reports on the first LED in “Electrical World”Thereafter till 1990 the LEDs were merely used as indicators in electronic devicesA major breakthrough occurs with the invention of the GaN material family, almost 110 years after Edison's first commercial incandescent lamp
40Invention of the White Light Emitting Diode In 1990, Dr. Shuji Nakamura a scientist at the Nichia cooperation, Japan invented the Blue high brightness LED with the Indium Gallium Nitride material familyFollowing that Nakamura put a novel phosphor over his blue chip to get a white lightThat lead to one of the greatest inventions of the 20th Century:THE WHITE LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (WLED)Dr Shuji Nakamura
43Even in this space age of lighting there are about 2 billion people around the globe who rely on flame based lighting sources for basic home illuminationSolid State Lighting is the Lighting Solution of the Third Millennium for the Entire World