Presentation on theme: "We must become the change we want to see in the world. The earth provides enough for every mans need, but not for every mans greed! Mahatma Gandhi. 1869."— Presentation transcript:
We must become the change we want to see in the world. The earth provides enough for every mans need, but not for every mans greed! Mahatma Gandhi
Renewable Energy & Solid State Lighting for Developing World This Course Will Change Your Life! ENEL 669 Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday
Renewable Energy & Solid State Lighting for Human Development This Course Will Change Your Life! ENEL 581 Dr. Dave Irvine-Halliday
ENEL 669 Course Description: This course will cover the basics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Solid State Lighting (SSL) systems. RE and SSL will be introduced as a means of human development. Topics include: history of home lighting, illumination standards, incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes, White LEDs their properties and measurement, SSL system design, photovoltaic, wind power, hydro power, human and animal power, thermoelectric, biomass energy, bio-diesel and fuel cells; SSL project planning and financing, environmental and social impact assessments, carbon credits, SSL system metrics for the developing world, decision support systems: RETScreen® & Homer®; The course consists of lectures, labs, extensive project, exams, video presentations, guest speakers and discussions.
ENEL 581 Course Description: This course will cover the basics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Solid State Lighting (SSL) systems. RE and SSL will be introduced as a means of human development. Topics include: history of home lighting, illumination standards, incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes, White LEDs their properties and measurement, SSL system design, photovoltaic, wind power, hydro power, human and animal power, thermoelectric, biomass energy, bio-diesel and fuel cells; SSL project planning and financing, environmental and social impact assessments, carbon credits, SSL system metrics for the developing world. The course consists of lectures, tutorials, labs, quizzes, assignments, exams, video presentations, guest speakers and discussions.
ENEL 669 Objectives Safe, healthy, reliable and affordable electrical home lighting is unavailable to one third of humanity, the vast majority of whom are from the developing world. The only practical, appropriate and affordable way to light up the Base of the Pyramid is with Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting. On successful completion of ENEL 669 the student will have sufficient theoretical, technical, financial, environmental and sociological knowledge to design a near optimum Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting system for rural villages in any area of the world.
ENEL 581 Objectives Safe, healthy, reliable and affordable electrical home lighting is unavailable to one third of humanity, the vast majority of whom are from the developing world. The only practical, appropriate and affordable way to light up the Base of the Pyramid is with Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting. On successful completion of ENEL 581 the student will have sufficient theoretical, technical, financial, environmental and sociological knowledge to design a near optimum Renewable Energy based Solid State Lighting system for rural villages in any area of the world.
ENEL 669 Final Grade Determination There will be choice of questions in exams to accommodate students from different faculties and also a wide choice for written assignments. The final grade in ENEL will be based on the following components: Assignments 20% Laboratory Reports 10% Final Examination 30% Project Report 40% TOTAL 100% It is necessary to earn a passing grade on the final exam in order to pass the course as a whole.
ENEL 581 Final Grade Determination There will be choice of questions in exams to accommodate students from different faculties and also a wide choice for written assignments. The final grade in ENEL 581 will be based on the following components: Tutorial Quizzes 10% Assignments 15% Laboratory Reports 10% Midterm Examination 25% Final Examination 40% TOTAL 100% It is necessary to earn a passing grade on the final exam in order to pass the course as a whole.
WHAT IS LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT? Life Cycle Assessment is the methodical environmental profiling of a product, process or service which takes into account all (in theory at least) the stages of its life cycle from "cradle to grave", from the extraction of materials to its end-of- life, considering also the in between stages such as production, transportation, and use. Sometimes some stages are omitted, for example a manufacturer might do a "cradle to gate" LCA which accounts for stages only to the point of sale. In the long term, the objective is use LCA to produce closed loop systems "from cradle to cradle" so that there are few or no emissions to the environment. Total Fire Damage in South Africa – R 104 Billion (US $15 Billion). Includes loss of property, wages, health, incapacitation, unemployment, ….
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a decision making tool to identify environmental burdens and evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process or service over its life cycle from cradle to grave (i.e. from extraction of resources through to the disposal of unwanted residuals).
Example of Need for LCA: Oil Sands Oil sands hit major 'hurdle' in California GLOBE AND MAIL – today While most new laws on cleaner-burning fuel look only at tailpipe emissions, the new California policy, announced this week by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, has an unusual twist. It will count gases discharged during the full life cycle of the petroleum. Under the states so-called low-carbon fuel standard, all transportation fuel sold will have to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted during its production and final use by at least 10 percent by 2020
14 Concluding Remarks LCA is a powerful/flexible decision-making tool LCA mindset should be applied to all engineering projects A few words of caution –Helpful to answer some research questions over others –Using intuition can be dangerous –Pay close attention to data quality and consistency –Interpretation of results –Dont confuse values with science –Uncertainty
The Miniature Earth Our World – a True Comparison Between the Haves and the Have Nots Car Battery & Radio - Africa
Overview of the Section 1 Lighting is a basic necessity for humanity History of lighting I.primitive lighting sources II.Simple oil lamps III.Candles IV.Gaslight V.Limelight VI.Dawn of Electric lighting VII.Solid State Lighting
Primitive Lights Fire – discovered 500,000BC Probably an accident The campfire and the torch probably constituted early man's first use of 'artificial' lighting For the first time man gained some small degree of freedom from the blindness of night As early as 400,000 BC, fire was kindled in the caves of Peking man
Primitive Lights (Ctd.) Prehistoric man, used primitive lamps usually made from naturally occurring materials, such as rocks, shells, horns and stones, were filled with grease and had a fiber wick. Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel. Many of these lamps have been found in the famous Lascaux caves (France), dating to about 15,000 years ago. For centuries families have sat around kitchen fire, or used the light of a fire band.
Simple Oil Lamps The first wick lamp was invented around 70,000BC A simple oil lamp needs only a vessel for the oil and a piece of fibrous plants for a wick Animal and vegetable oil served as fuel With oily bird or fish, it was only necessary to thread a wick through the body: the native Americans in Vancouver island used salmonoid fish the introduction of pottery lamps were made with refinements such as a cover to keep out bugs and a molded channel to hold the wick in a fixed position.
Simple Oil Lamps
Candles The invention of the candle dates back to about 1000 BC The best candles were made of beeswax and were used chiefly in church rituals as beeswax was expensive Crude tallow candles had to be used by the common people and were smelly and smoky Later improved methods such as molds were used to make them and better materials were used so that it would not smoke and smell.
Candles (Ctd.) Historically the cost of candles represented a significant part of most peoples budget Employers such as mine owners who provided their workers with candles for use at work could detect any theft of them When Michael Faraday started work at the Royal Institution in London in 1813 he received £1 per week plus Coal and Candles
Advanced oil Lamps Some advanced oil lamps used in the late 18 th and early 19 th Centuries
Agrand Lamp - the first lamp which relied on research The design based on the research conducted by A. L. Lavoisier who discovered that combustion is due to oxygen in the air. The lamp was demonstrated to King George III and Agrand was granted an English patent (No in 1784). A tubular wick placed within two concentric tubes and a glass chimney around the burner A ten fold gain in light
Gas lamps gas lighting introduced by Scottish inventor William Murdoch In the early 19 th century the gaslight was simply the light of the naked gas flame (Instead of a wick) Gaslight was demonstrated publicly in London on 4 June 1807 to mark the kings birthday by Friedrich Albert Winzer and he established a gaslight company Charted Gas Light and Coke Company in 1812
Gas Lamps (Ctd.) Gaslights marked a new era of lighting Lighting became readily available, with no need to clean and trim the wick of oil lamps or to replace candles Gaslights made it easier to read and write or do other thing. It brightened up streets, making it safer, and in factories it allowed longer work hours
Limelight Limelight was used in theaters in the 1860s and 1870s until superseded by the electric arc. Limelight - the first solid-state lighting device (introduced by Thomas Drummond in 1826) Cylinder of lime (calcium oxide) brought to a state of dazzling brilliancy by the flame of the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe
Candoluminescence and Gas Mantle The emission was due to – candoluminescence - discovered by Goldsworthy Gurney in Candoluminescence is caused by thermal excitation of ions, which emit in excess of black body incandescence In 1886, the candoluminescence - gas mantle – a fabric of cotton soaked in a solution of a metallic salt (a mixture of cerium oxide and thorium oxide with a ratio 1:99 heated by high temperature non-luminous flame from the Bunsen burner light source Invented by by Auer von Welsbach and used widely in the first third of the 20th century It still can be found in kerosene and gas lamps. This resisted the fall of gas lamps to electric lamps for a while
Electric Lighting - Dawn of New Kind of Illumination 17-th century, effect of the luminous discharge of static electricity in mercury vapor was discovered Practical electric lights need a continuous supply of electricity It became available with Italian scientist Alessandro Voltas invention of the battery or the Pile in 1800 Beginning of the 19th century, Sir Humphrey Davy demonstrated a discharge between two rods of carbon (an arc) and a glowing of a piece of wire heated by electric current (incandescence) and he used Voltas battery made of 2000 pairs of copper and zinc elements However lighting using the electric energy from a chemical battery was very expensive Voltas Pile
Electric Generator Michael Faraday established the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831 Following that the Belgian, Zénob Theophile Gramme, invented the first efficient continuous-current generator (dynamo) in 1870s That was a key turning point of lighting and many Gramme machines were sold in 1870s mainly for lighting This decade saw the practical beginning of electric lighting, both by arc and by incandescence Gramme Generator
Electric Arc Lamps Following the Sir Humphrey Davys initial demonstrations many scientists in the decade of 1870s worked on arc lamps The principle of the arc lamp is that two pieces of carbon rods connected to an electric supply, touched together and then pulled few millimeters apart A spark or an arc is drawn across the gap making the ends of carbon rods white hot Apart from the energy the main problem was the heat of the arc burned away the ends of the carbon rods Pavel Yablochkov fabricated the first practical electric lighting device
Electric Arc Lamps (Ctd.) Yablochkov candle was the first electric lighting device (1876) This consisted of two parallel carbon rods separated by a thin layer of plaster of Paris A thin connecting link of graphite joins the upper ends of the rods When switched on the current fuses the connecting link and an arc is struck between the upper ends One candle gave about 700 candlepower of light
Incandescent Filament Lamp Concluding the decade of 1870s the incandescent filament lamp was successfully demonstrated in 1879 The two principle figures were the American inventor Thomas Alva Edison and British Joseph Swan Swan also invented the first electrical distribution system The invention of incandescent filament lamp was accompanied by famous patent trials Thomas Alva Edison ( ). Joseph Swan ( )
Edison Lamp Edison's first successful lamp used carbonized cotton thread as a filament, installed in a glass bulb, with all air evacuated On New Year's Eve, December 31, 1879, Edison gave his first public demonstration of his new invention, at Menlo Park, New Jersey In 1880 Edison experimented with other materials for filaments and of the over 6000 specimens tested by his laboratory, bamboo, became commonly used for filaments. In 1880, on January 17, Patent number 223,898 was issued to Edison for the T.A. Edison Electric Lamp
Swan Lamp Joseph Swan, is also credited with inventing the incandescent lamp Swan demonstrated a carbon filament lamp on February 5, 1879 Swan's development of the incandescent lamp was reported in the Oct. 29th, 1880 issue of "Engineering" The first premises to be lighted by the new Swan lamp were those of Sir William Armstrong at Cragside near Newcastle in December 1880 Swan lamp
Brief Outline of Important Historical Events Nernst developed a filament made of cerium oxide-based solid electrolyte which was a very efficient lamp Peter Cooper Hewitt patented the mercury vapor lamp A. Just and F. Hanaman developed tungsten filament C. O. Bastian and A. E. Salisbury combined the mercury vapor lamp with a low-temperature incandescent lamp Moor introduced discharge lamps using air 1907 The first electric lamps using tungsten filaments 1913 gas filled lamps
Florescent lamps – A New Rival to Incandescent Lamps In 1901 Peter Cooper Hewitt invented an arc lamp that used mercury vapor It was found that these low pressure arc lamps would put out large amounts of ultra-violet light The scientists then figured that if the inside of the light bulb is coated with a fluorescent chemical which absorbed UV light and re- radiated that energy as visible light, an efficient light source could achieved Together with Friedrich Meyer and Hans Spanner, Edmund Germer patented an experimental fluorescent lamp in GE and Westinghouse Electric Corporation put on the market the new colored and white fluorescent lamps
Lighting Today Residential lighting - tungsten incandescent lamps and compact fluorescence lamp (CFL), which provides higher efficiency Work environments - fluorescence lamp Street lighting – sodium lamp. However, all this is about to change because of explosive development of high brightness visible Light Emitting Diodes
Solid State Lighting : The future of Lighting 1907 H J Round reports on the first LED in Electrical World Thereafter till 1990 the LEDs were merely used as indicators in electronic devices A major breakthrough occurs with the invention of the GaN material family, almost 110 years after Edison's first commercial incandescent lamp
Invention of the White Light Emitting Diode In 1990, Dr. Shuji Nakamura a scientist at the Nichia cooperation, Japan invented the Blue high brightness LED with the Indium Gallium Nitride material family Following that Nakamura put a novel phosphor over his blue chip to get a white light That lead to one of the greatest inventions of the 20 th Century: THE WHITE LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (WLED) Dr Shuji Nakamura
8 September 2006 Millennium Technology Prize Awarded to: Dr. Shuji Nakamura
Historical Evolution of Lighting
Even in this space age of lighting there are about 2 billion people around the globe who rely on flame based lighting sources for basic home illumination Solid State Lighting is the Lighting Solution of the Third Millennium for the Entire World