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1 Training Session on Energy Equipment Lighting Presentation from the Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia www.energyefficiencyasia.org © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
2 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Lighting Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
3 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Lighting energy consumption 20-45% in commercial buildings 3-10% in industrial plants Significant energy savings can be realized with a minimal capital investment Background Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
4 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Light: electromagnetic waves in space Light is emitted through: a)Incandescence b)Electric discharge c)Electro luminescence d)Photoluminescence Basic Theory Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
5 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Lumen 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 of a sphere with 1 m radius and a 1 candela isotropic light source at the centre 1 watt = 683 lumens at 555 nm wavelength Lux metric unit of measure for illuminance on a surface: 1 lux = 1 lumen / m2
6 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Luminous intensity (I) measured in Candela (cd) Luminous flux (lm) 4 x luminous intensity
7 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Installed load efficacy Average maintained illuminance on a working plane: lux/W/m2 Installed load efficiency ratio Target load efficacy / Installed load Rated luminous efficacy Rated lumen output of the lamp / rated power consumption Lumens per watt
8 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Room index Ratio for the plan dimensions of the room Target load efficiency Installed load efficacy considered achievable under best efficiency Lux/W/m² Utilization factor A measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme
9 E = I / d 2 E1 d1 2 = E2 d2 2 E = I / d 2 E1 d1 2 = E2 d2 2 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting The inverse square law Defines the relationship between illuminance from a point source and distance E = Iluminance I = Luminous intensity d = distance
10 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Color temperature Color appearance of a lamp and the light it produces Measured in Kelvin (K) Incandescent lamps: true value color temperature Fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps: correlated color temperature
11 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Color rendering index (CRI) Color rendering groups CIE general color rendering Index (R a ) Typical application 1A R a > 90 Wherever accurate color rendering is required e.g. color printing inspection 1B 80 < R a < 90 Wherever accurate color judgments are necessary or good color rendering is required for reasons of appearance e.g. display lighting 2 60 < R a < 80 Wherever moderate color rendering is required 3 40 < R a < 60 Wherever color rendering is of little significance but marked distortion of color is unacceptable 4 20 < R a < 40 Wherever color rendering is of no importance at all and marked distortion of colour is acceptable Table 1. Applications of color rendering groups (Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2005)
12 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
13 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Incandescent lamps Tungsten Halogen Lamps Fluorescent lamps High pressure sodium lamps Low pressure sodium lamps Mercury vapour Metal halide Blended LED lamps HID lamps
14 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Incandescent Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Emit radiation mainly in the visible region Bulb contains vacuum or gas filling Efficacy: 12 lumen / Watt Color rendering index: 1A Color temperature: 2500 – 2700 K Lamp life <2000 hrs (BEE India, 2005)
15 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Tungsten-Halogen Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Tungsten filament and a halogen gas filled bulb Tungsten atoms evaporate from the hot filament and move to cooler wall of bulb Efficacy: 18 lumens/Watt Color rendering index: 1A Color temperature: warm Lamp life < 4000 hrs Tungsten halogen lamps (BEE India, 2005) Advantages: More compact Longer life More and whiter light Disadvantages: Cost more Increased IR and UV Handling problems
16 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Fluorescent Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting 3 – 5 times as efficient as standard incandescent lamps and last 10 – 20 times longer Electricity passes through a gas or metallic vapor and causes radiation Fluorescent tubes are hot cathode lamps (BEE India, 2005)
17 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Fluorescent Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Different types (T12, T10, T8 and T5) differing in diameter and efficiency Most efficient at ambient temperature of 20-30 o C, Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) have much smaller luminaries Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) (BEE India, 2005) Features: Halo-phosphate Efficacy – 80 lumens/Watt (HF gear increases this by 10%) Color Rendering Index –2-3 Color Temperature – Any Lamp Life – 7-15,000 hours Tri-phosphor Efficacy – 90 lumens/Watt Color Rendering Index –1A-1B Color Temperature – Any Lamp Life – 7-15,000 hours
18 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting BEE India, 2005 Used in outdoor and industrial applications Consist of: ballast, high- voltage electronic starter, ceramic arc tube, xenon gas filling, sodium, mercury No starting electrodes High efficacy: 60 – 80 lumen/Watt Color rendering index: 1 - 2 Color temperature: warm Lamp life < 24,000 hrs
19 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Commonly included in the HID family Highest efficacy: 100 - 200 lumen/Watt Poorest quality light: colors appear black, white or grey shades Limited to outdoor applications Efficacy: Color rendering index: 3 Color temperature: yellow Lamp life < 16,000 hours
20 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Mercury Vapor Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Oldest HID lamp Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argon gas and quartz envelope, third electrode, outer phosphor coated bulb, outer glass envelope Long life and low initial costs Very poor efficacy: 30 – 65 lumens/Watt Color rendering index: 3 Color temperature: intermediate Lamp life: 16000 – 24000 hours
21 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Metal Halide Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting BEE India, 2005 Works similar to tungsten halogen lamps Largest choice of color, size and rating Better efficacy than other HID lamps: 80 lumen/Watt Require high voltage ignition pulse but some have third electrode for starting Color rendering index: 1A – 2 Color temperature: 3000 – 6000 K Lamp life: 6000 – 20,000 hours
22 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Blended Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Two-in-one: 2 light sources in 1 gas filled bulb Quartz mercury discharge tube Tungsten filament Suitable for flame proof areas Fit into incandescent lamps fixtures Efficacy: 20 – 30 lumen/Watt Lamp life < 8000 hours High power factor: 0.95 Typical rating: 160 W BEE India, 2005
23 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems LED Lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Newest type of energy efficient lamp Two types: red-blue-green array phosphor-coated blue lamp Emit visible light in a very narrow spectrum and can produce white light Used in exit signs, traffic signals, and the technology is rapidly progressing Significant energy savings: 82 – 93% Longest lamp life: 40,000 – 100,000 hours
24 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Reflectors Impact how much light reaches area and distribution pattern Diffuse reflectors: 70-80% reflectance but declining in time painted or powder coated white finish Specular reflectors: 85-96% reflectance and less decline in time Polished or mirror-like Not suitable for industrial open-type strip fixtures BEE India, 2005
25 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Gear Ballast Current limiting device Helps voltage build-up in fluorescent lights Ignitors Start metal halide and sodium vapor lamps
26 © UNEP 2006 Types of Lighting Systems Comparing lamps Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Type of Lamp Lum / Watt Color Rendering Index Typical Application Life (Hours) Rang e Av g. Incandescent8-1814ExcellentHomes, restaurants, general lighting, emergency lighting 1000 Fluorescent Lamps46-6050Good w.r.t. coating Offices, shops, hospitals, homes 5000 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) 40-7060Very goodHotels, shops, homes, offices 8000-10000 High pressure mercury (HPMV) 44-5750FairGeneral lighting in factories, garages, car parking, flood lighting 5000 Halogen lamps18-2420ExcellentDisplay, flood lighting, stadium exhibition grounds, construction areas 2000-4000 High pressure sodium (HPSV) SON 67- 121 90FairGeneral lighting in factories, ware houses, street lighting 6000-12000 Low pressure sodium (LPSV) SOX 101- 175 150PoorRoadways, tunnels, canals, street lighting 6000-12000
27 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
28 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Designing with Light Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Better lighting: increased productivity Two main questions for designer: Choose correct lighting level Choose quality of light (color rendering)
29 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Designing with Light Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Illuminance level (lux) Examples of Area of Activity General Lighting for rooms and areas used either infrequently and/or casual or simple visual tasks 20Minimum service illuminance in exterior circulating areas, outdoor stores, stockyards 50Exterior walkways & platforms. 70Boiler house. 100Transformer yards, furnace rooms etc. 150Circulation areas in industry, stores and stock rooms. General lighting for interiors 200Minimum service illuminance on the task 300Medium bench & machine work, general process in chemical and food industries, casual reading and filing activities. 450Hangers, inspection, drawing offices, fine bench and machine assembly, colour work, critical drawing tasks. 1500Very fine bench and machine work, instrument & small precision mechanism assembly; electronic components, gauging & inspection of small intricate parts (may be partly provided by local task lighting) Additional localized lighting for visually exacting tasks 3000Minutely detailed and precise work, e.g. Very small parts of instruments, watch making, engraving. Recommended light levels for different tasks (BEE India, 2005)
30 Assessment of Lighting Systems Recommended Illuminance Levels Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Scale of illuminance Illuminance for all non-working interiors > 20 Lux Factor 1.5 is the smallest significant difference in effect of illuminance Therefore the following scale is recommended: 20–30–50–75–100–150–200–300–500–750–1000 –1500–2000, …Lux © UNEP 2006
31 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Recommended Illuminance Levels Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Illuminance ranges recommended for interior or activity Middle value (R) for working interiors Higher value (H) for visual work Lower value (L) where accuracy is non- important
32 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Step 1: Make inventory of lighting system elements and transformers S. N o. Plant Locati on Lighting Device & Ballast Type Rating in Watts Lamp & Ballast Population Numbers Use / Shifts as I / II / III shifts / Day S. N o. Plant Locatio n Lighting Transformer Rating (kVA) Numbers Installed Measurement Provisions Available Volts / Amps / kW/ Energy Table: Device rating, population and use profile Table: Lighting transformer/rating and population profile
33 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Step 2: Measure and document the Lux levels Step 3: Measure and document the voltage and power consumption at input points Step 4: Compare the measured Lux values with standard values as reference Step 5: Analyze the failure rates of lamps, ballasts and the actual life expectancy levels
34 © UNEP 2006 Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Step-6 : identify improvement options, for example: Maximum sunlight use options through transparent roof sheets Replacements of lamps and ballasts to more energy efficient types Selecting interior colors for light reflection Modifying layout as per needs Providing individual / group controls for lighting
35 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
36 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Use Natural Day Lighting Electrical Equipment/ Lighting North lighting Glass strips across the roof Sky lights with fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) Atrium with FRP dome Natural light from windows
37 © UNEP 2006 De-lamping to Reduce Excess Lighting Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Effective method to reduce energy consumption Reducing lamp height combined with de-lamping: illuminance hardly affected Complicated for series wired ballasts Less problematic with parallel wired ballast Energy Efficiency Opportunities
38 © UNEP 2006 Task Lighting Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Low wattage lamps at task General illuminance at lower level Benefits: Reduce number of lighting fixtures Reduce lamp wattage Save considerable energy Better illuminance Aesthetically pleasing ambience Energy Efficiency Opportunities
39 © UNEP 2006 High Efficiency Lamps & Luminaries Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Examples (9 – 75% savings): Metal halide lamps to replace mercury / sodium vapor lamps HPSV lamps where color rendering is not critical LED panel indicator lamps to replace filament lamps Luminaries with mirror optics instead of conventional painted ones Energy Efficiency Opportunities
40 © UNEP 2006 Reduction of Lighting Feeder Voltage Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Can save energy Provided drop in light output is acceptable Percentage Supply voltage percentage 1) Lamp current 2) Circuit power, 3) Lamp power, 4) Lamp output 5) lamp voltage 6) lamp efficiency Effect of voltage variation of fluorescent tube light parameters (BEE India, 2005) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5656 6 Energy Efficiency Opportunities
41 © UNEP 2006 Electronic Ballasts instead of Electromagnetic Ballasts Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Oscillators that convert supply frequency to about 20,000 – 30,000 Hz Available for fluorescent tube lights, LPSV and HPSV lamps Benefits in fluorescent tube lights: Reduced power loss: 1 Watt instead of 10-15 Watt Improved efficacy at higher frequencies Elimination of starter: no flickering Energy Efficiency Opportunities
42 © UNEP 2006 Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Low Loss Electromagnetic Ballasts for Tube Lights Loss per tube lights: Standard ballasts: 10 – 15 Watts Low loss ballasts: 8 - 10 Watts Energy Efficiency Opportunities
43 © UNEP 2006 Timers, Twilight Switches & Occupancy Sensors Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Timers: switching of unnecessary lights Twilight switches: depending on availability of daylight Occupancy sensors: depending on presence of people Applicable for general areas, conference rooms, cubicles, restrooms, exteriors Energy Efficiency Opportunities
44 © UNEP 2006 T5 Fluorescent Tube Light Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Slimmer tubes than T12 and T8 tubes Improved luminaire efficiencies by 7%, and with super-reflective aluminum luminaire by 11-30% Mercury reduction: 3 mg instead of 15 mg per lamp Can only be operated with electronic ballasts and not existing luminaries Energy Efficiency Opportunities
45 © UNEP 2006 Lighting Maintenance Electrical Equipment/ Lighting Light levels decrease >50% due to aging lamps and dirt on fixtures, lamps and room surfaces Maintenance options: Clean equipment Replace lenses Keep spaces bright and clean Re-lamping Energy Efficiency Opportunities
46 Training Session on Energy Equipment Lighting THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION © UNEP GERIAP Electrical Equipment/ Lighting
47 Electrical Equipment/ Lighting © UNEP 2006 Disclaimer and References This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific (GERIAP). While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced, UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication. © UNEP, 2006. The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on www.energyefficiencyasia.org
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