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Enlightened by lasers Q. Charles Su Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit Illinois State University CAS Lecture 2006 Illinois State University April 25, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightened by lasers Q. Charles Su Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit Illinois State University CAS Lecture 2006 Illinois State University April 25, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Enlightened by lasers Q. Charles Su Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit Illinois State University CAS Lecture 2006 Illinois State University April 25, 2006 Support National Science Foundation US Department of Energy Research Corporation College of Arts & Sciences Department of Physics

3 Light Newton, Edison (1879) lights up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

4 In the beginning there was no light …

5 fire makes us happy

6 IN THE BEGINNING - (c 4.5 Billion BC) THE SUN - (c 4 Billion BC) THE EARTH - (c 4 Billion BC) EARLY LIFE - (c 3 Billion BC) PHOTOSYNTHESIS - (c 2 Billion BC) FIRST MAN - (c 1 Million BC) EARLY MAN - (c 500,000 BC) FIRE, FLAME and TORCH - (c 400,000 BC) PRIMITIVE LAMPS - (c 13,000 BC) ANIMAL LAMPS - (c 5000 BC) EARLY LIGHTING - (3000 BC) SUNDIAL - (c 1500 BC) OIL POTTERY LAMPS - GREEK - (600 BC) OIL RESERVOIR LAMP - (500 BC) ROMAN - LIFE & LIGHT - (400 BC - 80 AD) COLOR AND MUSIC (SOUND) - (c 350 BC) EARLY OPTICS & LENSES - (c 300 BC) HORN LANTERN - (c 100 AD) CANDLE - (c 400) CAMERA OBSCURA - (c 1000) COLORS OF THE SPECTRUM - (1666) POLARIZATION/POLARIZED LIGHT - (1678) PHOTOGRAPHY, EARLY - (1727) ADDITIVE COLOR MIXING - (1769) BETTY LAMP (& BETSY LAMP) - (1790) FIRST - GAS LIGHTING - (1792) INFRARED - (c 1800) ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT (UV) - (1801) ELECTRIC ARC LIGHT/ CARBON ARC LIGHT - (1809) PHOTOGRAPHY, MODERN - (1826) SPEED OF LIGHT - (1849) SPECTROSCOPE - (c 1850) KEROSENE LAMP - (1853) FIRST - FOLLOWSPOT SPOTLIGHT - (c 1856) PHOTOGRAPHY, MOTION PICTURES - EARLY - (1872) FIRST - ELECTRIC FILAMENT (INCANDESCENT) LAMP - (1874) EDISON LAMP - (1879) SWAN LAMP - (1879) FIRST - PHOTOCELL - (1880) ELECTRICITY - (1899) HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) LAMP - (1901) MERCURY-VAPOR LAMP - (1901) TUNGSTEN FILAMENT LAMP - (1907) GAS FILLED LAMP - (1913) FLASHBULB - (1930) SODIUM LAMP - (LOW PRESSURE) - (1932) FLUORESCENT LAMP - (1937) PHOTOGRAPHY - POLAROID CAMERA - (1947) FIBER OPTICS - (1955) LASER - (1960) HOLOGRAM/HOLOGRAPHY - (a 1960) QUARTZ HALOGEN LAMP - (1960) LIGHT EMITTING DIODE - (a 1965) A very brief history of light

7 wave theory corpuscular theory Christiaan Huygens 1629–1695 James Clerk Maxwell 1831–1879 Sir Isaac Newton 1643 –1727 Electromagnetic waves Albert Einstein 1879–1955 photons Theories of light

8 laying of the mains and installation of the world's first permanent, commercial central power system in lower Manhattan, which became operative in September Edison practically lit up the world

9 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

10 Laser usages precision CD player scanner printer power cutting, laser surgery temporal precision probe fast processes high temperature fusion photodynamic therapy cheaper / safer imaging photo density waves

11 In the movies

12 Laser shows

13 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

14 Active medium (hurdles in a stadium) Hurdles ~ Atoms Hurdle in up position ~ population inversion Hurdle reset after fall down ~ external pumping

15 A hurdle goes down, energy releases, a pigeon flies away pigeon ~ photon down randomly ~ spontaneous emission of light

16 After many hurdles are down … No laser

17 Now a pigeon with the right energy knocks down a hurdle… + = hurdle is down + 2 pigeons fly off exactly the same way ~ stimulated emission of light (Einstein)

18 … (after 29 rounds) 536,870,912 > US population … (after 33 rounds) 8,589,934,592> world population all in concert with each other ~ light amplification Start with one pigeon

19 Let pigeons turn around in the stadium and work hard… Then open up the stadium gate from time to time ~ Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

20 Ingredients of a laser (1)Active medium with population inversion (2) Stimulated emission (3) Light amplification with resonator

21 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

22 Laser laboratories and how they are related to my research Lab for Laser Energetics (U. Rochester) Laser fusion experiments Diagnostics temperature and density determinations x-ray imaging ISU-UR collaboration through the DOE NLUF grants Intense laser facilities around the world Saclay-FranceFOM-HollandMPQ-GermanyLund-Sweden SIOFM-ChinaU Tokyo-JapanQOLS-UKURC-Canada ATTBrookHavenU MichiganLLL ISU: Numerical/Gedanken experiments Ultra relativistic laser experiments planed DESY, HamburgGSI-Darmstadt SLAC-StanfordCUOS-Ann Arbor ISU: Computer simulations, NSF grants Bio-optical imaging research Labs: U Penn, UC Irvine, U Mass, UI ISU: light scattering lab and MC computations

23 Modeling laser action on computers Physics and equations Computer programming Simulations of experiments Result visualization Explanation More simulations Great space for (undergraduate) student involvement x,t U(t)=T exp{–i 0 t dt [c ·p– ·A(x,t)+ c 2 +V(x,t)]}

24 Laboratory experiments guide theory Multiphoton ionization 1960s Above threshold ionization 1979– Higher order harmonic generation 1980s Computer experiments predict new physics? Atomic stabilization 1990 Cycloatom 2000 Klein paradox 2004 Bioimaging 2005 Fishing or cleaning fish ?

25 Laser atom + – + – + – Laser-atom interaction A microscopic view Outcome 1: boundOutcome 2: ionized How does ionization vary with laser intensity ?

26 J. Javanainen, J.H. Eberly and Q. Su Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430 (1988) Computer simulation of atomic ionization Pick a laser intensity I Model atom (Rochester model) Interaction with laser Solve: Schr ö dinger equation Compute ionization for each state Current QM state future state

27 Gedanken experiment on computer: Ionization beyond W/cm 2 ionization 100% 0 laser intensity ? ININ weak all ionized strong super strong

28 L A S E R I N T E N S I T Y P(t) I1I1 I3I3 I2I2 I4I4 I4I4 I5I5 I6I6 I7I7 Su, Eberly, Javanainen PRL, 64, 862, 90 Ionization P(T) Laser intensity, I Ionization Suppression! I > W/cm 2

29 Electron spatial density Su, Laser Phys. 3, 241 (1993) Gavrila, Atoms in Intense Fields (1992) Laser intensity space 0 atom Outcome 1: bound + – stabilization + – Outcome 3: stabilized ionization + – Outcome 2: ionized

30 Computer prediction: Stabilization Normally Increased intensity increases ionization more chance for electron to pick up energy around nucleus At super-strong fields Laser also distorts electron orbits reduces the chance of interaction with nucleus Other theoretical studies and experimental evidence Kulander et al, Atoms in Intense Laser Fields Ed Gavrila, (1992) Keitel and Knight, Phys. Rev. A 51,1420 (1995) van Druten, et al Phys. Rev. A (1997) Longhi, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, (2005) + – + –

31 n = S S Stabilization and recoveries of ionization Su, Irving*, Johnson*, Eberly, J. Phys. B 29, 5755 (1996) Su, Irving*, Eberly, Laser Phys. 7, 568 (1997)

32 > 128 groups in 23 countries Users of the Rochester model atom

33 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

34 safer than x-ray CT cheaper than MRI better resolved than ultrasound Dream: to build an imaging device … Possible solution: IR laser based imaging

35 Imaging schemes shadow x-ray shadow-gram (like x-ray, CAT) reflection-gram (like ultra-sound) scatter-gram (infrared lasers) ultra- sound laser

36 medium > scattered light medium < scattered light Forward problems (predict the future) Inverse problems (predict the past)

37 Light-medium interaction computer simulations Pane of glass Random medium FFT on the grid method Wanare, Su and Grobe, PRE 62, 8705 (2000)

38 X-rays vs laser light Monte Carlo Simulation S. L. Jacques and L.-H. Wang, in Optical Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, edited by A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert (Plenum Press, New York, 1995), pp

39 Complication of laser-based image reconstruction X-ray Laser

40 Modulation of light induces beam narrowing = 0 0 wide beam narrow beam

41 Transverse light beam waist Pulse width shrinks with increasing frequency Distance from optical axis Intensity I ISU filed patent application in 2005

42 Beyond theory: experiment? Input Laser Output Fiber z

43 Laboratory measurements for on axis light intensity S. Campbell, A. OConnell, S. Menon, Q. Su and R. Grobe, PRE, submitted

44 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

45 Matter creation from light? E = mc 2 Light = electron + positron Mourou, Yanovsky Opt. Ph. News 15, 40 (2004) Laser intensity >

46 Conjuring matter from light Science, Aug, 29, 1997 Real photons create matter Physics News, Sept. 18, 1997 Light work New Scientist, Sept. 27, 1997 Boom! From light comes matter Photonics Spectra, Nov Matter from light CERN Courier, Nov E=mc 2, really Scientific American, Dec Let there be matter Discover, Dec Gamma rays create matter by plowing into laser light Phys. Today, Feb 1998 Popular science articles on matter creation from light

47 Wave or particle description of matter ? Traditional wave view Dirac Equation (1928) deals with physics after creation (no creation) Particle view Quantum Field Theory (1940s) deals with # of creation (no wave nature) Computational QFT Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004) wave nature during creation (new framework) ?????????????

48 Many body quantum field theory What are these nice graphs?

49 From quantum field theory to quantum mechanics i t x,t = [ c ·p– ·A+ c 2 +V ] x,t (x,y,t) = vacuum state positive frequency part charge conjugation initial state S.S. Schweber, An introduction to relativistic quantum field theory Krekora, Su, Grobe, PRL 92, (2004) ; PRL 93, (2004) Braun, Su, Grobe, PRA 59, 604 (1999) C.H. Keitel, Cont. Phys. 42, 353 (2001) A.D. Bandrauk, H. Shen J. Phys. A, 7147 (1994) Solution of the field operator for e – and e + Dirac equation for field Solution where x,t U(t)=T exp{–i 0 t dt [c ·p– ·A(x,t)+ c 2 +V(x,t)]} Of course! Now everything makes sense!

50 The space-time resolved pair creation e–e– e+e+ energy

51 Sample projects that employed the new CQFT method (1) Space time resolved pair creation (2) Klein paradox, 70 years old Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, (2004) Phys. Rev. A 72, (2005) (3) Localization and Zitterbewegung Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, (2004) (4) Entanglement J. Mod. Opt. 52, 489 (2005) (5) Modified Schwinger formula Las. Phys. 15, 282 (2005) (6) Supercritical bound states Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005) (7) Interpretational difficulty in QED Phys. Rev. A, 73, (2006)

52 Experimental verification? Time dependent colliding ions (existing) Static supercritical field Experimental plans: CUOS Ann Arbor, Michigan DESY Hamburg, Germany GSI Darmstadt, Germany SLAC Stanford, California

53 Zeptotechnology is just around the corner The Economist, page 77 Feb Laser fields lead to new unions of Particle Gravitational Atomic Plasma Astro-physics Cosmology Zetta-watt Zepto-seconds

54 Enlightened ?

55 Light Newton, Edison lights (1879) up Manhattan (1882) Laser usages CD writer, player, laser pointer, scanner, light knife, cosmetic treatment, laser show Whats in a laser active medium, stimulated emission, resonator Maiman, Townes, MIT echo off moon Probing matter with lasers Ionization process, world map Medical imaging, patent Matter creation, Klein Research vs education ILP approach

56 Graduate or Undergraduate US, best graduate school system in the world > 50% Nobel in Science after WWII good research-industry relation What about our pre-graduate education Cuts in education funding Flat science funding Math/Science not cool in school Do we need to change the perception?

57 Large number of students Large number faculty mentors National awards Show cased at conferences Center or Research and Education on Nanostructures Center for Research and Instruction in Space Physics Intense Laser Physics Theory Unit Surface Science Lab Polarized Electron Lab Atomic Structure Statistical Mechanics Nonlinear Dynamics Mathematical Physics Undergraduate physics research at ISU

58 Undergraduate research at ILP Our approach Start early Small group collaboration Project design, execution, completion Know physics, math, programming Use intuition, catch misconception Communicate result with others

59 Thanks to funding agencies Big thanks to colleagues past and present Support from CAS, RSP, Honors Program Physics faculty colleagues Postdoctoral fellows All 35 undergraduate students Especially Prof. Grobe for collaborations

60 Thanks to Alex, Christina, and Jean!

61 Thanks for attending and enjoy some refreshment !


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