Presentation on theme: "Shining the Light on LEDs"— Presentation transcript:
1Shining the Light on LEDs Robert Ebbert, LCLED Sales Project Manager – Streetworks™Lighting Certified by the National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting ProfessionsMember of the Illuminating Engineering Society
2A History of Light Sources ~400,000 BCE - Fire is discovered.~3000 BCE - Oil lamps are open bowls with a spout to hold the wick.~400 - The candle is invented.Sir Humphrey Davey demonstrates electrical discharge lighting to the Royal Institution in London, using an open-air arc between two carbon rods. The result is a very intense, and very pure white light. Unfortunately, as the arc runs, carbon boils off and the rods wear away: constant attention must be paid to readjusting the arc, feeding more carbon in.Frederick DeMoleyns patented incandescent lamp using filaments of platinum and carbon, protected by a vacuum.Thomas Edison receives U.S. patent #223,898 for the carbon filament incandescent lamp.Low pressure sodium lamps are first used commercially.The high-pressure mercury lamp is introduced.First commercial sale of the fluorescent lampThe quartz halogen lamp (A.K.A. tungsten halogen lamp) is invented. In conventional tungsten lamps, the filament metal slowly evaporates and condenses on the glass envelope, leaving a black stain. In this case, the halogen removes the deposited tungsten and puts it back on the filament.First light emitting diode (LED)Commercial introduction of the high pressure sodium lampA new form of metal halide lamp, the HMI lamp (mercury medium arc iodides) is introduced. The H stands for mercury (atomic symbol "Hg"), M is for Metals and the I is for halogen components (iodide, bromide). It provides a daylight type spectrum.
3LED vs Traditional Light Sources StrengthsNo filaments like incandescent lamps.No electrodes like gas discharge lamps (HPS, Metal Halide, and Fluorescent).No Mercury in the Light SourceInstant On, Full Color, 100% Light; Cold Start CapablePromise of Long Life – Reduced Maintenance CostsWeaknessHigh initial cost compared to traditional sources.Electronic LED driver life can be drastically reduced if exposed to high heat levels.Electronic LED drivers provide only a fraction of the surge protection that is offered by HID core and coil ballasts.
4LED Luminaire and Component Testing Reliability System TestingHumiditySalt SprayWater IPX6Dust IP6XVibration testingThermal testing on luminaires at -30°C (-30°F) degree to 40°C(104°F) standard, -40°C to 50°C for certain models.Thermal testing on components from -40°C to 90°CRequire UL accredited test laboratory
6Light Control HID vs. LED with overlay Optics 90° 70° 0° 0° LED ChipLens70°0°0°70° of Light Escapes Unaimed100% Aimable Light190W ,000 lms155W ,500 lms0°0°Point-By-Point (20’ MH, 80’ Spacing)Ave Max Min Max/MinPoint-By-Point (20’ MH, 80’ Spacing)Ave Max Min Max/Min
7Is used to measure the color metrics (chromaticity, CCT, and CRI). Photometric TestingIntegrating SphereIs used to measure the color metrics (chromaticity, CCT, and CRI).
8Common product performance metrics IES LM-79-08Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting ProductsLuminaire based absolute photometryTotal Luminous FluxLuminous Intensity DistributionElectrical PowerLuminous Efficacy (LPW - calculated)Color CharacteristicsChromaticityCCTCRILM79 was approved in 2008Created to build one common performance metric for measuring solid state lighting.Absolute vs. Relative PhotometryCommon product performance metrics8
9Measuring Luminaire Performance GoniophotometerAn apparatus for measuring the directional light distribution characteristics of light sources, luminaires, media, and surfaces.PLAN VIEWLuminaireMirrorPhotocellIndirect Light Shield25’ distance, measures the output of a fixture at specified point readings. The fixture is placed in the middle, the room is black the mirror rotates around the fixture and sends readings back into the photocell.The LED’s are placed in the sphere (all white, do not need the whole fixture, testing the LED’s for the color metrics, not distribution or efficacy)
11Same source, same ballast, different performance 150 WATTSWhy the “lumens per watt method” of calculating lighting fixture performance alone does notequate to energy efficiency.Although the luminaire on the left is 27% higher in fixture LPW, it produces less than half theaverage illumination on the groundTo give the same illumination as the lower LPW fixtures, over twice as many of the higherLPW fixtures would be needed, resulting in a net energy increase of 102%Same source, same ballast, different performance25’0.46 Average Illuminance0.93 Average Illuminance85 Lumens per Watt67 Lumens per Watt
12High LWP post top on left, lower LPW shoebox on right Three dimension rendering of light distributions and relative footcandles on groundHigh LWP post top on left, lower LPW shoebox on right
13Luminaire Dirt Depreciation? How much light is coming out of this HID luminaire?
15HID │LED Lumens100 HPS (125 watts) watt LED100W HPS ,500 lumens 1 square ~3,700 lumens~70% optic eff ,650 lumens Included per LM ~3,700 lumensStreet Side Lumens (53%) ,524 lumens Street Side lumens (80%) ,960 lumens0.81 LLF ,854 lumens LLF ,699 lumensLED Product Providing Equal Task Lumens While Saving 57% Energy.15
16Quality of Light Excellent Light Quality, No Sacrifice in Performance High Pressure Sodium (2000K)Metal Halide (Quartz, Ceramic)COLD LED ( K)(4000K)Excellent Light Quality, No Sacrifice in Performance
17Task Lumens and Light Distribution 100 watt HPS and 175MV OVX Cobra Head.Large amount of spill light, hot spots under the pole and low light levels between the poles.54 watt LED with 2,643 lumens and AccuLED™ optics with majority of light on the roadway.Low amount of spill light with lower light levels below the poles and higher minimum levels (3 times the HPS level) between the poles. Even distribution of light.25’ Mounting height, 150’ spacing, 6’ arm, 5’ setback, 30’ wide roadwayAccuLED™ LED HPS MVLight control and distribution is the key to great lighting
18160’ between poles (320’ same side), staggered spacing 30’ MH. LED luminaires installed in NebraskaThe luminaires in the above photo feature an internal mirror optical system with initial lumen output of 6,959 lumens. Eliminating hot spots, raising minimum light levels and controlling backlight produces amazing results. Optical distribution and control is the key to a great lighting project.
20Controlled Optic Advantage Over External Shields 40’ Grid25’ MHType 2 Short , 7928 lumens, 78 lumens per watt, with light more than 40’ behind the pole.Type 2 Short with an external shield, 6090 lumens, 60 lumens per watt, light reduced to 20’ behind the pole.Internal Mirror Type 2 Short SL2 optics, 7403 lumens, 73 lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10’ to 23’ behind the pole for sidewalk illumination.External shields can reduce luminaire efficiency by as much as 23% Internal Mirror optics maintain luminaire efficiency by re-directing the light evenly along the roadway.
21Light control at night is an important health issue. Unplug! Too Much Light at Night May Lead to DepressionMood disorders join a long list of ailments linked to late-night exposure to artificial lighting, TVs and computer screensBy Laura Blue | July 24, 2012 | 9
22LED Type 3 Photometric Comparison Type 3 short - 9,354 lumensType 3 short - 9,600 lumensInternal Mirror Type 3 short- 9,063 lumens40 foot grid, 25’ mounting heightComparison summary:Superior distribution patterns lead to increased pole spacing.High percentage of street side lumens, more light on the road.Reduced hot spot beneath the pole, even illumination along the roadway.
23Compare .5 FC lines, less lumens with better distribution. LED luminaire with 13,730 lumensInternal Mirror 10,999 lumens
24How much light is on the roadway? LED vs Induction40’ Grid25’ MHInternal mirror LED with Type 2 Short optics, 7403 lumens (103 watts), 73 delivered lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10’ to 23’ behind the luminaire for sidewalk illumination.Competitors 165 watt Induction luminaire (180 total watts)Type 3 Short with 8414 delivered lumens, 47 lumens per watt. Light behind the pole for over 40’.How much light is on the roadway?
25Why field rotatable optics on a roadway fixture? Single 2 square LED with one optical square rotated 9030’ Mounting HeightIlluminate the intersection and roadway with a single luminaire.
26LED post top comparison to 100 watt HPS and 175 watt MV 25’ Grid, 15’ Mounting Height~50,000 hrs~12,000 hrsUTR 175 watt MV (205 watts)51 wattsUTR 100 watt HPS (125 watts)~12,000 hrs
27Post Top LED comparison 25’ Grid, 15’ Mounting Height51 watts(86 watts)With 10% less lumens the luminaire on the left is outperforming the competitors product3,880 lumens4,350 lumensThe optic on the left provides even illumination along the sidewalk and roadway.This competitor provides only 2 optical distributions. The UTLD is available with 10 optical distributions to meet all your lighting requirements.House sideStreet sideHouse sideStreet side
28Consistent way to measure life-time IES LM-80-08Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light SourcesApproved method for measuring lumen depreciation of solid-state (LED) light sources, arrays and modulesDoes not cover measurement of luminairesDoes not define or provide methods for estimation of life.55C, 85C and 3rd LED mfg selected temperature6000 hours min testing period. 10K preferred.Minimum at least every 1000 hoursSeparate estimation method (TM-21)LM80 was approved in September 2008.Developed to enforce LED suppliers to have one way of testing LED life-timeAllows for a correlation between LED package and luminaireOne weakness is the ability to estimate life-time. This element was controversial and ended up being pulled out and placed in TM21 to develop.Consistent way to measure life-time28
29LM-80-08 LM-80 -- LED test standard to define Lumen Maint. Life: L90 (hours): 90% lumen maintenanceL70 (hours): 70% lumen maintenanceDoes not consider ‘catastrophic’ failures.Does not cover predictive estimations or extrapolation.Test Method:Min. of 20 samplesTesting (aging) at the LED case temperatures 55°C, 85°C, and a 3rd temp. selected by mfr., for 0 to 6000 h or longer, at every 1000 h. Ambient temperature within - 5°C from the case temperature.Measured color and any failures shall also be reported.The ambient temperature during lumen and chromaticity measurements shall be 25°C ± 1°C.LM-80 is a standard for testing the LED chips (before any optical component is applied) – gives lumen maintenance at different temperatures and tests chromaticity (an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance)
30Rebel LED Flux Output at 1.0081 after 10,000 hours Note 85°C case temperature lumen depreciation.
31Delta UV at after 10,000 hoursMinimal kelvin temperature shift means white light over the life of the LED
32This LED is showing 4.6 % depreciation after 6,000 hours at the 700mA drive current at a case temperature of 85°C
33This LED is showing a depreciation of 4% at 10,000 hours with a chromaticity shift of at the 85°C case temperature at 460mA .
34TM-21-11 LM-80 -- only an LED testing standard IES TM mathematical framework for LM-80 data and making useful LED lifetime projectionsKey points of TM-21:Developed by major LED suppliers with support of NIST, PNNLProjection limited to 6x the available LM-80 data setProjection algorithm: least squares fit to the data setL70, L80, L90, Lxx projections easily possibleNomenclature: Lp(Yk)where p is Lumen Maintenance percentage and Y is length of LM-80 data set in thousands of hours ie: L85(10k)
35TM-21 – Use the latest data Initial data variability (i.e. “hump”) isdifficult for models to evaluate ( hr)Later data exhibits more characteristicdecay curve of interestNon-chip decay (encapsulant, etc.) occursearly and with varying effects on decay curveLater decay is chip-driven and relativelyconsistent with exponential curveVerification with long duration data sets(>10,000 hr) shows better model to realityfit with last 5,000 hours of 10,000 hour dataFor 6,000 hours of data (LM-80 minimum)and up to 10,000 hours: Use last 5,000 hoursFor > 10,000 hours: Use the last ½ of thecollected dataEarlier decay is usually from the materials used to enclose the LED chip
36TM-21, L70, L80, L90Description of LED light source tested (Manufacturer, model, catalog number)LumiLeds Rebel ESSample Size25Number of FailuresLED Drive Current Used in Test (mA)1000Test Duration (Hours)10,000Test Duration Used For Projection (Hours)Projected Case Temperature (°C)67a1.2275E-06B1.0131Calculated L70 (Hours)301,194Reported L70 (Hours)60000TM-21 limits reported L70 hours to 6 times the LED test data and combines the Luminaire thermal report information with the LED manufactures LM-80 data to provide accurate prediction of lumen maintenance.L70 = 70% of initial light output.L80 = 80% of the initial light output.L90 = 90% of the initial light output.
37Luminaire Classification System (B.U.G.) UHULFVHFHFMFLBHBVHBMBL0°30°60°80°90°180°100°Zonal distribution of the fixture are broken up into 10 distinct sections.Values are often in terms of a percentage of overall lamp lumens.Any one rating is determined by the maximum rating obtained for that table. For example, if the BH zone is rated B1, the BM zone is rated B2, and the BL zone is rated B1, then the backlight rating for the luminaire is B2.
45Surge protection is also essential for driver life Magnetic ballast designs tend to meet 7 kV or 10kV BIL requirementsnot uncommon to see 10kV to 15 kV or more capabilityANSI C82.6 Mandates 10kV for Roadway Application, 6kV for all other Outdoor Applications.Electronic Drivers tend to meet a 2-6kV BILfine for many applicationsfar more susceptible to lighting strike induced transients than magnetic.... Unless very specific provisions have been incorporated in their design
48What to Look For on a Surge Protector Does not display a UL or CSA marking; non-compliance with Article 285.5Does not describe short circuit current rating; non-compliance with Article 285.6Does not incorporate fusing such that SPD becomes disconnected after MOV failure; non-compliance with ArticleMay not be 14AWG Wires; possible non-compliance with ArticleInsufficient protection will reduce fixture life.
49IES RP8 TableRecommended minimum illuminance levels and maximum uniformity levels for roadways
50The IES file will provide the most information on the luminaire. • IES classification•Total lumens• Wattage
51Street Side Lumens vs House Side Lumens and BUG Ratings
52LED Control OptionsLED Luminaire integral motion sensor – bi-level dimming and continuous dimming.Luminaire mounted photo controls.Multiple circuits for bi-level dimming.Wireless monitoring and dimming.
54NEMA – Metal Halide Rulemaking Expect requirement for lower wattage Metal Halide to have requirements between 88 – 92%. This could push to electronics on most products less than 200 Watt.Requirement on the higher wattages could possibly be 92 – 94%. This will likely require a redesign of current HID Magnetic designs.It is possible that this will drive the price of Metal Halide up at a time when LED products are becoming more affordable. This action could expedite the acceptance of Solid State Lighting
55HID Lamp Rulemaking Expect Final Rule to be set in 2013 Expect Effective date to be 2016Focus will be on Probe Start Metal Halide Lamps Likely in wattages from 150 – 500 WWill also include Mercury Lamp Phase out in the event Legislation does not pass
56Improper installation leads to poor performance How not to install the LED luminaire.Make sure the proper brackets are provided for proper luminaire orientation and installation.
58Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio PTC Parking Lot -LED309W LED (4000K, Nominal 70 CRI)32% Energy SavingAfter: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverageMaximumMinimumAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC2.5220.127.116.112.93After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC18.104.22.168.812.93
59Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio PTC Parking Lot -LED206 W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI)54% Energy SavingAfter: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverageMaximumMinimumAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC2.522.214.171.1242.93After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC126.96.36.199.812.93
60Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio PTC Parking Lot -LED103 W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI)77% Energy SavingAfter: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverageMaximumMinimumAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC2.5188.8.131.522.93After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min RatioParking LotIlluminanceFC184.108.40.206.812.93
61Existing 400 (464 watt) HPS Luminaire Existing HPS luminaires with 2100K, 22 CRI provide high footcandle levels, but poor visibility and poor color rendition.
62260 watt LED luminaireRetrofitting with the premium LED optical system with 4000K color temperature and nominal 70 CRI LEDs provides visual clarity and energy savings using existing pole positions and mounting heights. Even distribution of light is the key to great lighting.
63Media company 175 watt Metal Halide Luminaire Before 210W per fixture Atlanta, Georgia
64LED LuminaireAfter53W per fixtureMedia companyAtlanta, Georgia
65HPS to LED conversion on the New Jersey Turnpike
66241 watt LED Luminaires on 40’ poles New Jersey Turnpike