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Shining the Light on LEDs

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Presentation on theme: "Shining the Light on LEDs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Shining the Light on LEDs
Robert Ebbert, LC LED Sales Project Manager – Streetworks™ Lighting Certified by the National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions Member of the Illuminating Engineering Society

2 A History of Light Sources
~400,000 BCE - Fire is discovered. ~3000 BCE - Oil lamps are open bowls with a spout to hold the wick. ~400 - The candle is invented. Sir Humphrey Davey demonstrates electrical discharge lighting to the Royal Institution in London, using an open-air arc between two carbon rods. The result is a very intense, and very pure white light. Unfortunately, as the arc runs, carbon boils off and the rods wear away: constant attention must be paid to readjusting the arc, feeding more carbon in. Frederick DeMoleyns patented incandescent lamp using filaments of platinum and carbon, protected by a vacuum. Thomas Edison receives U.S. patent #223,898 for the carbon filament incandescent lamp. Low pressure sodium lamps are first used commercially. The high-pressure mercury lamp is introduced. First commercial sale of the fluorescent lamp The quartz halogen lamp (A.K.A. tungsten halogen lamp) is invented. In conventional tungsten lamps, the filament metal slowly evaporates and condenses on the glass envelope, leaving a black stain. In this case, the halogen removes the deposited tungsten and puts it back on the filament. First light emitting diode (LED) Commercial introduction of the high pressure sodium lamp A new form of metal halide lamp, the HMI lamp (mercury medium arc iodides) is introduced. The H stands for mercury (atomic symbol "Hg"), M is for Metals and the I is for halogen components (iodide, bromide). It provides a daylight type spectrum.

3 LED vs Traditional Light Sources
Strengths No filaments like incandescent lamps. No electrodes like gas discharge lamps (HPS, Metal Halide, and Fluorescent). No Mercury in the Light Source Instant On, Full Color, 100% Light; Cold Start Capable Promise of Long Life – Reduced Maintenance Costs Weakness High initial cost compared to traditional sources. Electronic LED driver life can be drastically reduced if exposed to high heat levels. Electronic LED drivers provide only a fraction of the surge protection that is offered by HID core and coil ballasts.

4 LED Luminaire and Component Testing
Reliability System Testing Humidity Salt Spray Water IPX6 Dust IP6X Vibration testing Thermal testing on luminaires at -30°C (-30°F) degree to 40°C(104°F) standard, -40°C to 50°C for certain models. Thermal testing on components from -40°C to 90°C Require UL accredited test laboratory

5

6 Light Control HID vs. LED with overlay Optics 90° 70° 0° 0°
LED Chip Lens 70° 70° of Light Escapes Unaimed 100% Aimable Light 190W ,000 lms 155W ,500 lms Point-By-Point (20’ MH, 80’ Spacing) Ave Max Min Max/Min Point-By-Point (20’ MH, 80’ Spacing) Ave Max Min Max/Min

7 Is used to measure the color metrics (chromaticity, CCT, and CRI).
Photometric Testing Integrating Sphere Is used to measure the color metrics (chromaticity, CCT, and CRI).

8 Common product performance metrics
IES LM-79-08 Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting Products Luminaire based absolute photometry Total Luminous Flux Luminous Intensity Distribution Electrical Power Luminous Efficacy (LPW - calculated) Color Characteristics Chromaticity CCT CRI LM79 was approved in 2008 Created to build one common performance metric for measuring solid state lighting. Absolute vs. Relative Photometry Common product performance metrics 8

9 Measuring Luminaire Performance
Goniophotometer An apparatus for measuring the directional light distribution characteristics of light sources, luminaires, media, and surfaces. PLAN VIEW Luminaire Mirror Photocell Indirect Light Shield 25’ distance, measures the output of a fixture at specified point readings. The fixture is placed in the middle, the room is black the mirror rotates around the fixture and sends readings back into the photocell. The LED’s are placed in the sphere (all white, do not need the whole fixture, testing the LED’s for the color metrics, not distribution or efficacy)

10

11 Same source, same ballast, different performance
150 WATTS Why the “lumens per watt method” of calculating lighting fixture performance alone does not equate to energy efficiency. Although the luminaire on the left is 27% higher in fixture LPW, it produces less than half the average illumination on the ground To give the same illumination as the lower LPW fixtures, over twice as many of the higher LPW fixtures would be needed, resulting in a net energy increase of 102% Same source, same ballast, different performance 25’ 0.46 Average Illuminance 0.93 Average Illuminance 85 Lumens per Watt 67 Lumens per Watt

12 High LWP post top on left, lower LPW shoebox on right
Three dimension rendering of light distributions and relative footcandles on ground High LWP post top on left, lower LPW shoebox on right

13 Luminaire Dirt Depreciation?
How much light is coming out of this HID luminaire?

14 HID │LED LIGHT LOSS FACTORS
HID (High Pressure Sodium) LED with IP66 optical enclosure LLF = BF * LDD * LLD BF (Ballast Factor) BF (Ballast Factor) LDD (Luminaire Dirt Depreciation) LDD (LUMINAIRE DIRT DEPRECIATION) LLD (Lamp Lumen Depreciation) LLD (Lamp Lumen Depreciation) LLD = Mean Lumens 50,000+ hours) / Initial Lumens LLD = Mean Lumens 50% of lamp life) / Initial Lumens (12,000 hours) LLF = 0.9 * 0.90 = LLF = 0.95 * 0.96 = 0.912 14

15 HID │LED Lumens 100 HPS (125 watts) watt LED 100W HPS ,500 lumens 1 square ~3,700 lumens ~70% optic eff ,650 lumens Included per LM ~3,700 lumens Street Side Lumens (53%) ,524 lumens Street Side lumens (80%) ,960 lumens 0.81 LLF ,854 lumens LLF ,699 lumens LED Product Providing Equal Task Lumens While Saving 57% Energy. 15

16 Quality of Light Excellent Light Quality, No Sacrifice in Performance
High Pressure Sodium (2000K) Metal Halide (Quartz, Ceramic) COLD LED ( K) (4000K) Excellent Light Quality, No Sacrifice in Performance

17 Task Lumens and Light Distribution
100 watt HPS and 175MV OVX Cobra Head. Large amount of spill light, hot spots under the pole and low light levels between the poles. 54 watt LED with 2,643 lumens and AccuLED™ optics with majority of light on the roadway. Low amount of spill light with lower light levels below the poles and higher minimum levels (3 times the HPS level) between the poles. Even distribution of light. 25’ Mounting height, 150’ spacing, 6’ arm, 5’ setback, 30’ wide roadway AccuLED™ LED HPS MV Light control and distribution is the key to great lighting

18 160’ between poles (320’ same side), staggered spacing 30’ MH.
LED luminaires installed in Nebraska The luminaires in the above photo feature an internal mirror optical system with initial lumen output of 6,959 lumens. Eliminating hot spots, raising minimum light levels and controlling backlight produces amazing results. Optical distribution and control is the key to a great lighting project.

19 External Shields

20 Controlled Optic Advantage Over External Shields
40’ Grid 25’ MH Type 2 Short , 7928 lumens, 78 lumens per watt, with light more than 40’ behind the pole. Type 2 Short with an external shield, 6090 lumens, 60 lumens per watt, light reduced to 20’ behind the pole. Internal Mirror Type 2 Short SL2 optics, 7403 lumens, 73 lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10’ to 23’ behind the pole for sidewalk illumination. External shields can reduce luminaire efficiency by as much as 23% Internal Mirror optics maintain luminaire efficiency by re-directing the light evenly along the roadway.

21 Light control at night is an important health issue.
Unplug! Too Much Light at Night May Lead to Depression Mood disorders join a long list of ailments linked to late-night exposure to artificial lighting, TVs and computer screens By Laura Blue | July 24, 2012 | 9

22 LED Type 3 Photometric Comparison
Type 3 short - 9,354 lumens Type 3 short - 9,600 lumens Internal Mirror Type 3 short- 9,063 lumens 40 foot grid, 25’ mounting height Comparison summary: Superior distribution patterns lead to increased pole spacing. High percentage of street side lumens, more light on the road. Reduced hot spot beneath the pole, even illumination along the roadway.

23 Compare .5 FC lines, less lumens with better distribution.
LED luminaire with 13,730 lumens Internal Mirror 10,999 lumens

24 How much light is on the roadway?
LED vs Induction 40’ Grid 25’ MH Internal mirror LED with Type 2 Short optics, 7403 lumens (103 watts), 73 delivered lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10’ to 23’ behind the luminaire for sidewalk illumination. Competitors 165 watt Induction luminaire (180 total watts)Type 3 Short with 8414 delivered lumens, 47 lumens per watt. Light behind the pole for over 40’. How much light is on the roadway?

25 Why field rotatable optics on a roadway fixture?
Single 2 square LED with one optical square rotated 90 30’ Mounting Height Illuminate the intersection and roadway with a single luminaire.

26 LED post top comparison to 100 watt HPS and 175 watt MV
25’ Grid, 15’ Mounting Height ~50,000 hrs ~12,000 hrs UTR 175 watt MV (205 watts) 51 watts UTR 100 watt HPS (125 watts) ~12,000 hrs

27 Post Top LED comparison
25’ Grid, 15’ Mounting Height 51 watts (86 watts) With 10% less lumens the luminaire on the left is outperforming the competitors product 3,880 lumens 4,350 lumens The optic on the left provides even illumination along the sidewalk and roadway. This competitor provides only 2 optical distributions. The UTLD is available with 10 optical distributions to meet all your lighting requirements. House side Street side House side Street side

28 Consistent way to measure life-time
IES LM-80-08 Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Approved method for measuring lumen depreciation of solid-state (LED) light sources, arrays and modules Does not cover measurement of luminaires Does not define or provide methods for estimation of life. 55C, 85C and 3rd LED mfg selected temperature 6000 hours min testing period. 10K preferred. Minimum at least every 1000 hours Separate estimation method (TM-21) LM80 was approved in September 2008. Developed to enforce LED suppliers to have one way of testing LED life-time Allows for a correlation between LED package and luminaire One weakness is the ability to estimate life-time. This element was controversial and ended up being pulled out and placed in TM21 to develop. Consistent way to measure life-time 28

29 LM-80-08 LM-80 -- LED test standard to define Lumen Maint. Life:
L90 (hours): 90% lumen maintenance L70 (hours): 70% lumen maintenance Does not consider ‘catastrophic’ failures. Does not cover predictive estimations or extrapolation. Test Method: Min. of 20 samples Testing (aging) at the LED case temperatures 55°C, 85°C, and a 3rd temp. selected by mfr., for 0 to 6000 h or longer, at every 1000 h. Ambient temperature within - 5°C from the case temperature. Measured color and any failures shall also be reported. The ambient temperature during lumen and chromaticity measurements shall be 25°C ± 1°C. LM-80 is a standard for testing the LED chips (before any optical component is applied) – gives lumen maintenance at different temperatures and tests chromaticity (an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance)

30 Rebel LED Flux Output at 1.0081 after 10,000 hours
Note 85°C case temperature lumen depreciation.

31 Delta UV at after 10,000 hours Minimal kelvin temperature shift means white light over the life of the LED

32 This LED is showing 4.6 % depreciation after 6,000 hours at the 700mA drive current at a case temperature of 85°C

33 This LED is showing a depreciation of 4% at 10,000 hours with a chromaticity shift of at the 85°C case temperature at 460mA .

34 TM-21-11 LM-80 -- only an LED testing standard
IES TM mathematical framework for LM-80 data and making useful LED lifetime projections Key points of TM-21: Developed by major LED suppliers with support of NIST, PNNL Projection limited to 6x the available LM-80 data set Projection algorithm: least squares fit to the data set L70, L80, L90, Lxx projections easily possible Nomenclature: Lp(Yk)where p is Lumen Maintenance percentage and Y is length of LM-80 data set in thousands of hours ie: L85(10k)

35 TM-21 – Use the latest data
Initial data variability (i.e. “hump”) is difficult for models to evaluate ( hr) Later data exhibits more characteristic decay curve of interest Non-chip decay (encapsulant, etc.) occurs early and with varying effects on decay curve Later decay is chip-driven and relatively consistent with exponential curve Verification with long duration data sets (>10,000 hr) shows better model to reality fit with last 5,000 hours of 10,000 hour data For 6,000 hours of data (LM-80 minimum) and up to 10,000 hours: Use last 5,000 hours For > 10,000 hours: Use the last ½ of the collected data Earlier decay is usually from the materials used to enclose the LED chip

36 TM-21, L70, L80, L90 Description of LED light source tested (Manufacturer, model, catalog number) LumiLeds Rebel ES Sample Size 25 Number of Failures LED Drive Current Used in Test (mA) 1000 Test Duration (Hours) 10,000 Test Duration Used For Projection (Hours) Projected Case Temperature (°C) 67 a 1.2275E-06 B 1.0131 Calculated L70 (Hours) 301,194 Reported L70 (Hours) 60000 TM-21 limits reported L70 hours to 6 times the LED test data and combines the Luminaire thermal report information with the LED manufactures LM-80 data to provide accurate prediction of lumen maintenance. L70 = 70% of initial light output. L80 = 80% of the initial light output. L90 = 90% of the initial light output.

37 Luminaire Classification System (B.U.G.)
UH UL FVH FH FM FL BH BVH BM BL 30° 60° 80° 90° 180° 100° Zonal distribution of the fixture are broken up into 10 distinct sections. Values are often in terms of a percentage of overall lamp lumens. Any one rating is determined by the maximum rating obtained for that table. For example, if the BH zone is rated B1, the BM zone is rated B2, and the BL zone is rated B1, then the backlight rating for the luminaire is B2.

38 Ingress Protection (IP) Ratings

39 ANSI C136 Exterior Label C American National Standard for Roadway and Area Lighting Equipment – Luminaire Field Identification

40

41 Class 2 drivers = low voltage to the LED
Class 2 LED Driver Class 2 drivers = low voltage to the LED

42 Class 1 LED Driver Class 1 LED luminaires will require impact testing on the LED due to high voltage to the LED

43 Cool running drivers last longer.
Driver T case temperature will affect longevity.

44

45 Surge protection is also essential for driver life
Magnetic ballast designs tend to meet 7 kV or 10kV BIL requirements not uncommon to see 10kV to 15 kV or more capability ANSI C82.6 Mandates 10kV for Roadway Application, 6kV for all other Outdoor Applications. Electronic Drivers tend to meet a 2-6kV BIL fine for many applications far more susceptible to lighting strike induced transients than magnetic. ... Unless very specific provisions have been incorporated in their design

46 Make sure the SPD meets UL1449

47 Check the kA rating of the SPD

48 What to Look For on a Surge Protector
Does not display a UL or CSA marking; non-compliance with Article 285.5 Does not describe short circuit current rating; non-compliance with Article 285.6 Does not incorporate fusing such that SPD becomes disconnected after MOV failure; non-compliance with Article May not be 14AWG Wires; possible non-compliance with Article Insufficient protection will reduce fixture life.

49 IES RP8 Table Recommended minimum illuminance levels and maximum uniformity levels for roadways

50 The IES file will provide the most information on the luminaire.
• IES classification •Total lumens • Wattage

51 Street Side Lumens vs House Side Lumens and BUG Ratings

52 LED Control Options LED Luminaire integral motion sensor – bi-level dimming and continuous dimming. Luminaire mounted photo controls. Multiple circuits for bi-level dimming. Wireless monitoring and dimming.

53 Wireless remote monitoring and dimming

54 NEMA – Metal Halide Rulemaking
Expect requirement for lower wattage Metal Halide to have requirements between 88 – 92%. This could push to electronics on most products less than 200 Watt. Requirement on the higher wattages could possibly be 92 – 94%. This will likely require a redesign of current HID Magnetic designs. It is possible that this will drive the price of Metal Halide up at a time when LED products are becoming more affordable. This action could expedite the acceptance of Solid State Lighting

55 HID Lamp Rulemaking Expect Final Rule to be set in 2013
Expect Effective date to be 2016 Focus will be on Probe Start Metal Halide Lamps Likely in wattages from 150 – 500 W Will also include Mercury Lamp Phase out in the event Legislation does not pass

56 Improper installation leads to poor performance
How not to install the LED luminaire. Make sure the proper brackets are provided for proper luminaire orientation and installation.

57 400W Metal Halide 452 Watts (4000K, 65 CRI)
PTC Parking Lot-HID 400W Metal Halide 452 Watts (4000K, 65 CRI) Before: HID Source Calculation Summary Unit Avg Max Min Avg/Min Ratio Max/Min Parking Lot Illuminance FC 1.4 4.3 .26 5.38 16.53

58 Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio
PTC Parking Lot -LED 309W LED (4000K, Nominal 70 CRI) 32% Energy Saving After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Average Maximum Minimum Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 2.53 4.1 1.4 1.81 2.93 After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Avg Max Min Avg/Min Ratio Max/Min Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 2.5 4.1 1.4 1.81 2.93

59 Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio
PTC Parking Lot -LED 206 W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI) 54% Energy Saving After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Average Maximum Minimum Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 2.53 4.1 1.4 1.81 2.93 After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Avg Max Min Avg/Min Ratio Max/Min Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 1.9 3.1 1.1 1.81 2.93

60 Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio
PTC Parking Lot -LED 103 W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI) 77% Energy Saving After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Average Maximum Minimum Average/Minimum Ratio Maximum/Minimum Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 2.53 4.1 1.4 1.81 2.93 After: LED Source Calculation Summary Unit Avg Max Min Avg/Min Ratio Max/Min Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC 1.4 2.3 .8 1.81 2.93

61 Existing 400 (464 watt) HPS Luminaire
Existing HPS luminaires with 2100K, 22 CRI provide high footcandle levels, but poor visibility and poor color rendition.

62 260 watt LED luminaire Retrofitting with the premium LED optical system with 4000K color temperature and nominal 70 CRI LEDs provides visual clarity and energy savings using existing pole positions and mounting heights. Even distribution of light is the key to great lighting.

63 Media company 175 watt Metal Halide Luminaire Before 210W per fixture
Atlanta, Georgia

64 LED Luminaire After 53W per fixture Media company Atlanta, Georgia

65 HPS to LED conversion on the New Jersey Turnpike

66 241 watt LED Luminaires on 40’ poles New Jersey Turnpike

67 Questions?


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