Presentation on theme: "1 Shining the Light on LEDs Robert Ebbert, LC LED Sales Project Manager – Streetworks Lighting Certified by the National Council on Qualifications for."— Presentation transcript:
1 Shining the Light on LEDs Robert Ebbert, LC LED Sales Project Manager – Streetworks Lighting Certified by the National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions Member of the Illuminating Engineering Society
2 A History of Light Sources ~400,000 BCE - Fire is discovered. ~3000 BCE - Oil lamps are open bowls with a spout to hold the wick. ~400 - The candle is invented Sir Humphrey Davey demonstrates electrical discharge lighting to the Royal Institution in London, using an open-air arc between two carbon rods. The result is a very intense, and very pure white light. Unfortunately, as the arc runs, carbon boils off and the rods wear away: constant attention must be paid to readjusting the arc, feeding more carbon in Frederick DeMoleyns patented incandescent lamp using filaments of platinum and carbon, protected by a vacuum Thomas Edison receives U.S. patent #223,898 for the carbon filament incandescent lamp Low pressure sodium lamps are first used commercially The high-pressure mercury lamp is introduced First commercial sale of the fluorescent lamp The quartz halogen lamp (A.K.A. tungsten halogen lamp) is invented. In conventional tungsten lamps, the filament metal slowly evaporates and condenses on the glass envelope, leaving a black stain. In this case, the halogen removes the deposited tungsten and puts it back on the filament First light emitting diode (LED) Commercial introduction of the high pressure sodium lamp A new form of metal halide lamp, the HMI lamp (mercury medium arc iodides) is introduced. The H stands for mercury (atomic symbol "Hg"), M is for Metals and the I is for halogen components (iodide, bromide). It provides a daylight type spectrum.
LED vs Traditional Light Sources No filaments like incandescent lamps. No electrodes like gas discharge lamps (HPS, Metal Halide, and Fluorescent). No Mercury in the Light Source Instant On, Full Color, 100% Light; Cold Start Capable Promise of Long Life – Reduced Maintenance Costs 3 Strengths Weakness High initial cost compared to traditional sources. Electronic LED driver life can be drastically reduced if exposed to high heat levels. Electronic LED drivers provide only a fraction of the surge protection that is offered by HID core and coil ballasts.
LED Luminaire and Component Testing 4 Reliability System Testing –Humidity –Salt Spray –Water IPX6 –Dust IP6X –Vibration testing –Thermal testing on luminaires at -30°C (- 30°F) degree to 40°C(104°F) standard, - 40°C to 50°C for certain models. –Thermal testing on components from - 40°C to 90°C –Require UL accredited test laboratory
6 Light Control HID vs. LED with overlay Optics 0° 90° 100% Aimable Light 0° 70° of Light Escapes Unaimed 70° Point-By-Point (20 MH, 80 Spacing) Ave Max Min Max/Min Point-By-Point (20 MH, 80 Spacing) Ave Max Min Max/Min W 11,000 lms155W 9,500 lms 0° LED Chip Lens
Photometric Testing 7 Integrating Sphere Is used to measure the color metrics (chromaticity, CCT, and CRI).
IES LM Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting Products –Luminaire based absolute photometry Total Luminous Flux Luminous Intensity Distribution Electrical Power Luminous Efficacy (LPW - calculated) Color Characteristics Chromaticity CCT CRI 8 Common product performance metrics
Goniophotometer An apparatus for measuring the directional light distribution characteristics of light sources, luminaires, media, and surfaces. PLAN VIEW Luminaire Mirror Photocell Indirect Light Shield Measuring Luminaire Performance
150 WATTS Why the lumens per watt method of calculating lighting fixture performance alone does not equate to energy efficiency. Although the luminaire on the left is 27% higher in fixture LPW, it produces less than half the average illumination on the ground To give the same illumination as the lower LPW fixtures, over twice as many of the higher LPW fixtures would be needed, resulting in a net energy increase of 102% 150 WATTS Same source, same ballast, different performance Average Illuminance0.93 Average Illuminance 85 Lumens per Watt67 Lumens per Watt
Three dimension rendering of light distributions and relative footcandles on ground High LWP post top on left, lower LPW shoebox on right
Luminaire Dirt Depreciation? 13 How much light is coming out of this HID luminaire?
15 HID LED Lumens 100 HPS (125 watts) 54 watt LED 100W HPS 9,500 lumens 1 square ~3,700 lumens ~70% optic eff. 6,650 lumens Included per LM-79 ~3,700 lumens Street Side Lumens (53%) 3,524 lumens Street Side lumens (80%) 2,960 lumens 0.81 LLF 2,854 lumens LLF 2,699 lumens LED Product Providing Equal Task Lumens While Saving 57% Energy.
16 Quality of Light Excellent Light Quality, No Sacrifice in Performance COLD LED ( K)High Pressure Sodium (2000K) Metal Halide (Quartz, Ceramic) (4000K)
Task Lumens and Light Distribution watt HPS and 175MV OVX Cobra Head. Large amount of spill light, hot spots under the pole and low light levels between the poles. 54 watt LED with 2,643 lumens and AccuLED optics with majority of light on the roadway. Low amount of spill light with lower light levels below the poles and higher minimum levels (3 times the HPS level) between the poles. Even distribution of light. AccuLED LED 100 HPS 175 MV Light control and distribution is the key to great lighting 25 Mounting height, 150 spacing, 6 arm, 5 setback, 30 wide roadway
160 between poles (320 same side), staggered spacing 30 MH. 18 The luminaires in the above photo feature an internal mirror optical system with initial lumen output of 6,959 lumens. Eliminating hot spots, raising minimum light levels and controlling backlight produces amazing results. Optical distribution and control is the key to a great lighting project. LED luminaires installed in Nebraska
External Shields 19
Controlled Optic Advantage Over External Shields 20 Type 2 Short, 7928 lumens, 78 lumens per watt, with light more than 40 behind the pole. Internal Mirror Type 2 Short SL2 optics, 7403 lumens, 73 lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10 to 23 behind the pole for sidewalk illumination. Type 2 Short with an external shield, 6090 lumens, 60 lumens per watt, light reduced to 20 behind the pole. 40 Grid 25 MH External shields can reduce luminaire efficiency by as much as 23%. Internal Mirror optics maintain luminaire efficiency by re-directing the light evenly along the roadway.
21 Light control at night is an important health issue. Unplug! Too Much Light at Night May Lead to Depression Mood disorders join a long list of ailments linked to late-night exposure to artificial lighting, TVs and computer screens By Laura Blue | July 24, 2012 | 9Laura Blue9
22 LED Type 3 Photometric Comparison Type 3 short - 9,600 lumensInternal Mirror Type 3 short- 9,063 lumens Comparison summary: Superior distribution patterns lead to increased pole spacing. High percentage of street side lumens, more light on the road. Reduced hot spot beneath the pole, even illumination along the roadway. 40 foot grid, 25 mounting height Type 3 short - 9,354 lumens
Compare.5 FC lines, less lumens with better distribution. 23 LED luminaire with 13,730 lumens Internal Mirror 10,999 lumens
How much light is on the roadway? 24 Internal mirror LED with Type 2 Short optics, 7403 lumens (103 watts), 73 delivered lumens per watt with light evenly dispersed 10 to 23 behind the luminaire for sidewalk illumination. Competitors 165 watt Induction luminaire (180 total watts)Type 3 Short with 8414 delivered lumens, 47 lumens per watt. Light behind the pole for over Grid 25 MH LED vs Induction
Why field rotatable optics on a roadway fixture? 25 Single 2 square LED with one optical square rotated 90 Illuminate the intersection and roadway with a single luminaire. 30 Mounting Height
LED post top comparison to 100 watt HPS and 175 watt MV Grid, 15 Mounting Height 51 watts UTR 100 watt HPS (125 watts ) UTR 175 watt MV (205 watts)~50,000 hrs ~12,000 hrs
Post Top LED comparison Grid, 15 Mounting Height 51 watts (86 watts) 4,350 lumens 3,880 lumens With 10% less lumens the luminaire on the left is outperforming the competitors product The optic on the left provides even illumination along the sidewalk and roadway. This competitor provides only 2 optical distributions. The UTLD is available with 10 optical distributions to meet all your lighting requirements. Street side House side
IES LM Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources –Approved method for measuring lumen depreciation of solid-state (LED) light sources, arrays and modules –Does not cover measurement of luminaires –Does not define or provide methods for estimation of life. 55C, 85C and 3rd LED mfg selected temperature 6000 hours min testing period. 10K preferred. Minimum at least every 1000 hours –Separate estimation method (TM-21) 28 Consistent way to measure life-time
LM LM LED test standard to define Lumen Maint. Life: –L 90 (hours): 90% lumen maintenance –L 70 (hours): 70% lumen maintenance Does not consider catastrophic failures. Does not cover predictive estimations or extrapolation. Test Method: Min. of 20 samples Testing (aging) at the LED case temperatures 55°C, 85°C, and a 3rd temp. selected by mfr., for 0 to 6000 h or longer, at every 1000 h. Ambient temperature within - 5°C from the case temperature. Measured color and any failures shall also be reported. The ambient temperature during lumen and chromaticity measurements shall be 25°C ± 1°C.
Rebel LED Flux Output at after 10,000 hours 30 Note 85°C case temperature lumen depreciation.
Delta UV at.0004 after 10,000 hours 31 Minimal kelvin temperature shift means white light over the life of the LED
32 This LED is showing 4.6 % depreciation after 6,000 hours at the 700mA drive current at a case temperature of 85°C
33 This LED is showing a depreciation of 4% at 10,000 hours with a chromaticity shift of.0034 at the 85°C case temperature at 460mA.
TM LM only an LED testing standard IES TM mathematical framework for LM-80 data and making useful LED lifetime projections Key points of TM-21: Developed by major LED suppliers with support of NIST, PNNL Projection limited to 6x the available LM-80 data set Projection algorithm: least squares fit to the data set L 70, L 80, L 90, L xx projections easily possible Nomenclature: L p (Yk)where p is Lumen Maintenance percentage and Y is length of LM-80 data set in thousands of hours ie: L 85 (10k)
TM-21 – Use the latest data Initial data variability (i.e. hump) is difficult for models to evaluate ( hr) Later data exhibits more characteristic decay curve of interest Non-chip decay (encapsulant, etc.) occurs early and with varying effects on decay curve Later decay is chip-driven and relatively consistent with exponential curve Verification with long duration data sets (>10,000 hr) shows better model to reality fit with last 5,000 hours of 10,000 hour data For 6,000 hours of data (LM-80 minimum) and up to 10,000 hours: Use last 5,000 hours For > 10,000 hours: Use the last ½ of the collected data
TM-21, L70, L80, L90 36 Description of LED light source tested (Manufacturer, model, catalog number)LumiLeds Rebel ES Sample Size25 Number of Failures0 LED Drive Current Used in Test (mA)1000 Test Duration (Hours)10,000 Test Duration Used For Projection (Hours)10,000 Projected Case Temperature ( C) E-06 B Calculated L 70 (Hours)301,194 Reported L 70 (Hours) TM-21 limits reported L70 hours to 6 times the LED test data and combines the Luminaire thermal report information with the LED manufactures LM-80 data to provide accurate prediction of lumen maintenance. L70 = 70% of initial light output. L80 = 80% of the initial light output. L90 = 90% of the initial light output.
Zonal distribution of the fixture are broken up into 10 distinct sections. Values are often in terms of a percentage of overall lamp lumens. UH UL FVH FH FM FL BH BVH BM BL 0° 30° 60° 80° 90° 180° 100° 30° 60° 80° 90° 100° Luminaire Classification System (B.U.G.) Any one rating is determined by the maximum rating obtained for that table. For example, if the BH zone is rated B1, the BM zone is rated B2, and the BL zone is rated B1, then the backlight rating for the luminaire is B2.
Ingress Protection (IP) Ratings 38
ANSI C136 Exterior Label C American National Standard for Roadway and Area Lighting Equipment – Luminaire Field Identification 39
Class 2 LED Driver 41 Class 2 drivers = low voltage to the LED
Class 1 LED Driver 42 Class 1 LED luminaires will require impact testing on the LED due to high voltage to the LED
Cool running drivers last longer. 43 Driver T case temperature will affect longevity.
45 Surge protection is also essential for driver life Magnetic ballast designs tend to meet 7 kV or 10kV BIL requirements –not uncommon to see 10kV to 15 kV or more capability –ANSI C82.6 Mandates 10kV for Roadway Application, 6kV for all other Outdoor Applications. Electronic Drivers tend to meet a 2-6kV BIL – fine for many applications – far more susceptible to lighting strike induced transients than magnetic.... Unless very specific provisions have been incorporated in their design
Make sure the SPD meets UL
Check the kA rating of the SPD 47
48 Insufficient protection will reduce fixture life. Does not display a UL or CSA marking; non-compliance with Article Does not describe short circuit current rating; non-compliance with Article Does not incorporate fusing such that SPD becomes disconnected after MOV failure; non-compliance with Article May not be 14AWG Wires; possible non-compliance with Article What to Look For on a Surge Protector
IES RP8 Table 49 Recommended minimum illuminance levels and maximum uniformity levels for roadways
50 The IES file will provide the most information on the luminaire. IES classification Total lumens Wattage
51 Street Side Lumens vs House Side Lumens and BUG Ratings
LED Control Options LED Luminaire integral motion sensor – bi-level dimming and continuous dimming. Luminaire mounted photo controls. Multiple circuits for bi-level dimming. Wireless monitoring and dimming. 52
Wireless remote monitoring and dimming 53
NEMA – Metal Halide Rulemaking Expect requirement for lower wattage Metal Halide to have requirements between 88 – 92%. This could push to electronics on most products less than 200 Watt. Requirement on the higher wattages could possibly be 92 – 94%. This will likely require a redesign of current HID Magnetic designs. It is possible that this will drive the price of Metal Halide up at a time when LED products are becoming more affordable. This action could expedite the acceptance of Solid State Lighting
HID Lamp Rulemaking Expect Final Rule to be set in 2013 Expect Effective date to be 2016 Focus will be on Probe Start Metal Halide Lamps - Likely in wattages from 150 – 500 W Will also include Mercury Lamp Phase out in the event Legislation does not pass 55
Improper installation leads to poor performance 56 How not to install the LED luminaire. Make sure the proper brackets are provided for proper luminaire orientation and installation.
PTC Parking Lot-HID 57 Before: HID Source Calculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min Parking Lot Illuminance FC W Metal Halide 452 Watts (4000K, 65 CRI)
PTC Parking Lot -LED After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverage Maximu m Minimu mAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum Ratio Parking LotIlluminanceFC After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC W LED (4000K, Nominal 70 CRI) 32% Energy Saving
PTC Parking Lot -LED After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverage Maximu m Minimu mAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum Ratio Parking LotIlluminanceFC After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min Ratio Parking Lot Illuminance FC W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI) 54% Energy Saving
PTC Parking Lot -LED After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAverage Maximu m Minimu mAverage/Minimum RatioMaximum/Minimum Ratio Parking LotIlluminanceFC After: LED SourceCalculation SummaryUnitAvgMaxMinAvg/Min RatioMax/Min Ratio Parking Lot IlluminanceFC W LED (4000K, nominal 70 CRI) 77% Energy Saving
Existing 400 (464 watt) HPS Luminaire 61 Existing HPS luminaires with 2100K, 22 CRI provide high footcandle levels, but poor visibility and poor color rendition.
260 watt LED luminaire 62 Retrofitting with the premium LED optical system with 4000K color temperature and nominal 70 CRI LEDs provides visual clarity and energy savings using existing pole positions and mounting heights. Even distribution of light is the key to great lighting.
watt Metal Halide Luminaire Media company Atlanta, Georgia Before 210W per fixture
64 LED Luminaire Media company Atlanta, Georgia After 53W per fixture
65 HPS to LED conversion on the New Jersey Turnpike
watt LED Luminaires on 40 poles New Jersey Turnpike