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Chap 9. Light and Lighting Solar Radiation Nature of Solar Radiation Light Quality, Intensity, and Duration Atmospheric Window Greenhouse Effect Light.

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Presentation on theme: "Chap 9. Light and Lighting Solar Radiation Nature of Solar Radiation Light Quality, Intensity, and Duration Atmospheric Window Greenhouse Effect Light."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chap 9. Light and Lighting Solar Radiation Nature of Solar Radiation Light Quality, Intensity, and Duration Atmospheric Window Greenhouse Effect Light Intensity Measurements Radiometric Method Photometric Method Lighting for Photosynthesis Purpose Light Sources Application Lighting for Photoperiod Control Purpose Light Sources Application

2 Concept of Light Radiation: A process of emitting energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles (photons). It ranges from cosmic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, UV lights, visible light, to infrared and radio waves. Light: That portion of radiation perceived or the light-restricted portion of spectrum Irradiation: A process by which a surface is illuminated or irradiated (i.e., irradiation of flower buds with x-ray to induce mutation).

3 Visible Light Spectrum The Solar Radiation

4 The Influence of Atmosphere Courtesy: NASA

5 Atmospheric Windows The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmosphere allows only light in certain waive length regions to penetrate the atmosphere well. These regions are called atmospheric windows. The filtration of radiation is largely due to CO 2, zone, water vapor in the atmosphere.

6 Composition of the Visible Light Source: NASA

7 Spectral Ranges of Visible Lights Violet µm Blue µm Green µm Yellow µm Orange µm Red µm Infrared µm

8 Light Quality 1.What does it mean? What spectrum of light does it involve? (Red, blue, green, orange, or infrared lights, etc.) 2.Measurements a. Wave lengths: distance from peak to peak or valley to valley in units of nm or µm µm = mm nm = mm Å = nm b. Wave number: number of waves per cm of light (number/cm) c. Frequency: number of cycles per second (cycles/sec, cps) Hertz (Hz) = 1 cycle/sec Mega Hz = 1 million Hz

9 Light Intensity 1. What does it mean? How much irradiated on the surface (Quantity) 2. Radiometric measurements a. Light intensity measured in terms of power of radiation on a unit surface area Power = energy/unit time Intensity = power/unit area, energy/unit area per unit time b. Measurement units: Joules cm -2 sec -1, watts cm -2,BTU ft -2 hr -1, kcal cm -2 hr -1 c. The shorter the wave length, the more the energy available. 3. Radiometric measurements a. Light intensity expressed in terms of illuminance or how bright the light is (visible radiation only) b. Measurement units: Foot candles, lumens, lux, µmol m -2 sec -1 c. Relationships: 1 lux = 1 lumen m -2 1 foot candle = lux 4. Factors affecting light intensity a. Moisture in the air No. of clear days in January: 70-80% in AZ, 30-40% in NY b. Topography c. Pollutants in the air (PAN, SO 2, NOx, etc.)

10 Duration of Light 1. What does it mean? How long the light was on 2. Factors that affect light duration a. Time of the year (seasonal variation) b. Latitudes (both northern an southern hemisphere) Fargo: 56.5 N 3. Photoperiod responses a. Long day plants (short night plants) Requires days longer than 16 hours to bloom Aster, petunia, potato b. Short day plants (long night plants) Requires days shorter than 13 hours to bloom Chrysanthemum, poinsettia, kalanchoe c. Mechanism of responses Phytochrome system P660 – red light absorbing form P730 – far-red light absorbing form

11 Influence of Photoperiod on Flowering

12 Spectral Distribution of Various Lamps Sunlight Incandescent lamp Fluorescent lamp PAR region Red-Infrared region 400 nm 700 nm Radiant Energy Spectral Distribution of Various Lamps

13 Spectral distribution of selected fluorescent lamps

14 High Light Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Mercury Lamps Mercury Vapor Lamp High Pressure Sodium Lamps Metal Halide Lamps

15 Lighting for Photosynthesis

16 Quebec, Canada

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19 Influence of Photoperiod on Poplar Tree Left - Short Day Grown Right - Long Day Grown

20 Black-Clothing to Shorten Day Length

21 Automation of Shading for Photoperiod Control Bergens Greenhouse, Detroit Lakes, MN

22 Cut Chrysanthemum Production Salinas, California

23 Day Length Control for Cut Chrysanthemum Production in Florida

24 Year Round Production of Potted Mums Palisade Greenhouse, Colorado

25 Black cloth canvas is used to cover plants during short-day treatment


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