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7 Artificial Lighting 人工照明

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1 7 Artificial Lighting 人工照明
The subject of this chapter is artificial lighting, and the following chapter deals with natural lighting. Although the principles of these two topics are treated separately it is important that they are considered together when designing a building.

2 The main functions of artificial lighting?
to provide enough light for people to carry out a particular activity

3 to provide enough light for people to move about with ease and safety

4 to display the features of the building in a manner suitable for its character and purpose

5 To achieve these aims it is necessary to consider the properties of lamps, of the lamp fittings 灯具and of the room surfaces that surround them.

6 7.1 Lamps 灯 What is The oldest source of artificial light ?
the flame from fires, from candles and from oil lamps Convert chemical combustion化学燃烧 to light energy

7 Modern sources of artificial light convert
electrical energy to light energy (1) Incandescent sources白炽灯 produce light by heating substances to a temperature at which they glow发热and are luminous. (2) gas discharge sources气体放电灯 produce light by passing an electric current through a gas or vapour that has become ionised电离and hence able to conduct electricity. At low pressure, a luminous arc or discharge is formed between the electrodes and useful quantities of light are given off

8 7.1.1 how to evaluate the Properties of lamps
1) Luminous efficacy 光效 which is given by the following formula. Unit: lumens /watt (lm/W)

9 2) Life 寿命 The luminous efficacy of a lamp decreases with time and for a discharge lamp it may fall by as much as 50% before the lamp fails. The nominal life of a lamp is usually determined by the manufacturer by considering the failure rate of a particular model of lamp combined with its fall in light output. In a large installation it is desirable that all the lamps are replaced at the same time on a specified maintenance schedule.

10 3) The correlated colour temperature (CCT) 相关色温
is the absolute temperature of a perfect radiator when the colour apperance of the radiator best matches that of the light source Unit : kelvin (K) 色温反映灯光本身的表观颜色 The CCT reflects the apparent color of light itself,

11 The lower values of colour temperature indicate light
with a higher red content.

12 Some examples of colour temperatures are given below
Clear sky 晴天 ,000-24,000K Overcast sky 全阴天 ,000-8,000K Tubular fluorescent lamps ,000-6,500K Tungsten filament lamps ,700-3,100K

13 Which one have the better color?
4)Colour rendering显色性is the ability of a light source to reveal the colour appearance of surfaces. This ability is measured by comparing the appearance of objects under the light source with their appearance under reference source such as daylight日光 One system specifies the colour rendering of lamps by a colour rendering index(Ra) which has a value of 100 for an ideal lamp. Practical sources of white light range in Ra value between 50and 90 显色性是指灯光对其照射的物体的影响作用。

14 The CIE colour rendering groups
To make a comparison of the colour rendering qualities of light sources easier, colour rendering groups have been defined: The CIE colour rendering groups Group Ra Importance Typical application 1A accurate colour matching Galleries画廊,美术馆, medical examinations, colour mixing 1B accurate colour judgement Home, hotels, offices, schools 2 moderate colour rendering Industry, offices, schools 3 accurate colour rendering is of little importance Industry, sports halls 4 accurate colour rendering is of no importance Traffic lighting

15 Some tasks such as colour matching in the printing industry have high demands in accurate colour rendering and require special attention from the lighting designer. For normal offices, however, the colour rendering group will be 1B or 2, which is easily achived with normal fluoresent lamps.

16 Colour rendering index for different light sources Light source
Colour rendering group Incandescent 1A Metal halide 1A ... 2 Fluorescent 1A ... 3 High pressure sodium 1B ... 4 Low pressure sodium 4

17 7.1.2 the fist type of artificial light Incandescent lamps 白炽灯
Electric incandescent lamps work by passing an electric current through a filament of metal and raising the temperature to white heat. When the metal is incandescent, at around 2800K , useful quantities of light are given off.

18 Most General Incandescent lamps is tungsten filament lamp.
GLS lamps, or common light bulb, has a coiled filament contained within a envelope of glass which may be clear or frosted透明的或磨砂的.

19 The cost of a tungsten filament lamp is low and its installation is simple ,
but the relatively short life of the lamp can cause the labour costs of replacement to be high. The low luminous efficacy of the lamp produces high electrical running costs. Only about 5% of the electrical energy is converted to visible light and most of the energy consumed is given off as heat, especially radiant heat.

20 2) The improved incandescent lamps: Reflecting lamps 反射灯
The relatively large size of the standard tungsten filament lamp makes it difficult to control the direction of the light. Spot lamps 聚光灯 are filament lamps with the glass bulb silvered inside and shaped to form a parabola 抛物线with the filament at the focus. This arrangement gives a directional beam of light which is available in different widths of beam.

21 Sealed beam lamps密封光束灯 use similar techniques

22 Crown-silvered lamps 银冠灯 are standard filament lamps where the glass bulb is silvered in front.
When this lamp is used with a special external reflector it also gives narrow beams of light

23 some other improved incandescent lamp 3) Tungsten-halogen lamps卤钨灯
Tungsten –halogen lamps have filaments which run at higher temperatures with the presence of a small quantity of a halogen gas, such as iodine 碘 or bromine溴.

24 4) Low-voltage system uses 12volt lamps fed from the mains by a transformer. low-voltage bulbs need a lower resistance ,so the filament can be shorter, thicker and stronger. The small size of these lamps give them good directional qualities which make them popular in shops for the display of goods. The relatively low heat output of low-voltage systems is also an important property in stores where high levels of illumination can cause overheating.

25 7.1.3 the second type of artificial light gas discharge sources
Most General gas discharge source is Tubular fluorescent lamps 荧光灯管

26 Figure 7.2 Tubular fluorescent lamp
氩或氪 McMullan

27 A improved form is Compact fluorescent lamps紧凑型荧光灯
Compact fluorescent lamps give a light quality suitable for domestic purpose and the use of such lamps are important technique for low-energy lighting in homes.

28 How is the coulur quality of gas discharge lamps?
Apart from the well-known tubular fluorescent lamp, gas discharge lamps usually have a poor colour rendering So they have in the past been restricted to outdoor lighting, such as for roadways, where their generally poor colour qualities have not been important.

29 Modern types of discharge lamp have a colour rendering that is good enough for large-scale lighting inside building such as factories and warehouses仓库. Continuing technical advances are producing more discharge lamps suitable for interior lighting high efficiency of such lamps can give significant savings in the energy use of buildings.

30 Mercury discharge lamps 汞放电灯
Some Modern types of discharge lamps Mercury discharge lamps 汞放电灯 An uncorrected mercury lamp emits sharp light at certain blue and green wavelengths.

31 In the mercury halide lamp卤汞灯, metallic halides are added to the basic gas discharge in order to produce better colour rendering and to raise the efficacy A metal halide gas discharge lighting system provides illumination for a college baseball game at Olsen Field in College Station, Texas. Note the various colors of the lights as they warm up

32 Example of a Metal Halide lighting pole, at a baseball field

33 Sodium discharge lamps钠放电灯
Low-pressure sodium lamps produce a distinctive 鲜明的yellow light that is virtually 实质上monochromatic and gives poor colour rendering . however the efficacy of the lamp is very high and they have been traditionally used for street lighting

34 A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power

35 Office building illuminated by high pressure sodium lamps.

36 High-pressure sodium lamps (SON) produce a continuous spectrum without much blue light but with a colour rendering that is more acceptable than the low-pressure sodium lamp. SON lamps are used in modern street lighting and for the economic lighting of large areas such as forecourts篮球场 and warehouses仓库.

37 7.1.5 Lamp and energy conservation
Lighting is an important area of energy conservation in buildings as new systems can be installed in existing buildings as well as in new buildings. The energy saved by a modernised lighting system usually pays for the cost of the installation within a few years, which is a shorter payback period than most methods of saving energy in buildings. The major lamp companies of the World are therefore developing new types of low-energy lamps including improvements to the compact fluorescent lamp and high pressure discharge lamps described above.

38 7.2 Luminaires 灯具

39 Let’s do some judgements
Direct 直接向下型

40 General diffusing 普通漫反射型
Semi-indirect 半间接型 40

41 7.3 how to do Lighting design 照明设计
First , find the standard service illuminance levels that are recommended for a variety of interiors and tasks given in Table P156 The aim of Lighting design is to reach the illuminance levels Then , use Lumen method 流明法 to calculate the number of lamps needed.

42 UF= utilisation factor 使用系数 is the ratio of the total flux reaching the working plane compared to the total flux output of the lamps table P158 DLOR 房间指数 Hm——mounted height of the luminaire above the working plane LLF=light loss factor 光损失系数is the ratio of the illuminance provided at some given time compared to the initial illuminance

43 At the end of design, we should place these lamps in a
regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. This maximum spacing depends on the type of luminaire and the height at which they set. Typical values are as follows For fluorescent tubes in diffusing luminiaires Smax=1.5XHm For filament lamps in direct luminaires Smax=1.0XHm Figure 7.6 spacing of luminaires P160

44 Worked example 7.1 A factory space measuring 40m by 12m by 4m in height requires a service illuminance of 500lux on the work benches which are set 1m above the floor. The 65W tubular fluorescent lamps chosen have a luminous efficacy of 80lm/W. they are to be mounted on the ceiling in luminaires which have a DLOR of 50%. The room reflectances are 0.5 for the ceiling and 0.3 for the wall; the initial light loss factor is 0.7 a) Use the lumen method of design to calculate the number of lamps required b) Suggest a suitable layout for the lamp fittings.

45 E=? A=? F=? UF=? LLF=? So number of lamps required=144 lamps
Suggested layout: 9 rows行of 16 luminaires Check spacing using Smax=1.5XHm =1.5X3=4.5m So the suggested layout is satisfactory provided that the distance between lamps is not greater than 4.5m

46 Light quantity should reach the illuminance levels
In a particular lighting system design ,the following factors need to be considered Light quantity should reach the illuminance levels

47 Natural light 自然光

48 Colour quality 光的颜色 48

49 Glare 眩光

50 Directional quality 方向性
Energy use 能耗 Costs 运行费 Physical properties 物理性能

51 That’s all for chapter 7, let’s do a summary together.
chapter 7 Artificial Lighting 7.1 Lamps 灯 how to evaluate the Properties of lamps Luminous efficacy 光效 Life 寿命 The correlated colour temperature (CCT) 相对色温 Colour rendering显色性

52 7.1.2 Incandescent lamps 白炽灯
GLS lamps, or common light bulb Reflecting lamps 反射灯 Tungsten-halogen lamps卤钨灯 low-voltage bulbs Spot lamps Sealed beam lamps Crown-silvered lamps

53 7.1.3 Discharge lamps放电灯 Fluorescent lamps 荧光灯
Compact fluorescent lamps紧凑型荧光灯 Mercury discharge lamps 汞放电灯 Sodium discharge lamps钠放电灯

54 7.2 Luminaires 灯具

55 7.3 how to do Lighting design 照明设计
First , find the standard service illuminance levels Then , use Lumen method 流明法 to calculate the number of lamps needed. At the end of design, we place these lamps in a regular grid pattern

56 Practices in class A chemical energy B electrical energy
1 Modern sources of artificial light convert ( ) to ( ) A chemical energy B electrical energy C light energy D heat energy

57 A chemical energy B electrical energy C light energy D heat energy
2 Oldest sources of artificial light convert ( ) to ( ) A chemical energy B electrical energy C light energy D heat energy

58 C mercury discharge lamps B tungsten filament lamps
3 Modern sources of artificial light are of two general types:( ) A incandescent lamps B discharge lamps C mercury discharge lamps B tungsten filament lamps

59 4 The following lamp is ( ) A common light bulb B spotlamp C crown-silvered lamp D tungsten-halogen lamp

60 5 The following lamp is ( ) A tubular fluorescent lamp B compact fluorescent lamp C mercury discharge lamp D sodium discharge lamp

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