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Radiometric Calibration Stuart F. Biggar, U of AZ Kurtis J. Thome, U of AZ Simon J. Hook, JPL.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiometric Calibration Stuart F. Biggar, U of AZ Kurtis J. Thome, U of AZ Simon J. Hook, JPL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiometric Calibration Stuart F. Biggar, U of AZ Kurtis J. Thome, U of AZ Simon J. Hook, JPL

2 Outline Preflight – Biggar –Characterization –Calibration –On-board calibration systems –Sensor artifacts In-flight VNIR and SWIR – Thome In-flight TIR - Hook

3 Calibration (absolute) Why do we calibrate? –Understand sensor performance –L1 data in physical units (at sensor) Radiance in Watts/m 2 -sr-micrometer (or similar) Determine sensor linearity Derived units –Reflectance –Geophysical units (temperature, etc) –Comparison to other sensors –Atmospheric correction –Reasonable looking imagery

4 Calibration (2) What do we need to be able to calibrate? –Stable instrument Over time With changing environment –Characterized instrument Spectral response Spatial response Noise Systematic errors –Image artifacts –Stray light –Stable calibration source

5 Characterization Piece part measurements –Filter transmittance –Lens and/or mirror transmittance and reflectance –Mirror reflectance and scatter (BRDF) –Lamp output, stability, longevity –Detector Quantum efficiency, spectral response, noise, temperature dependence

6 Filter spectral characteristics

7 Normalized Response

8 Characterization (2) Assembly level –Alignment –Relative spectral response (of telescope) –Noise – amplifier assembly for example –Field-of-view –Stray light

9 Characterization (3) Sensor level –Relative spectral response –Field-of-view –Modulation transfer function –Noise Random Coherent –Stray light

10 ASTER design features (1) Long linear array detectors with long strip filters in VNIR and SWIR – pushbroom –Good SNR due to longer integration time –Detector and filter uniformity issues –Many detectors (5000 in VNIR for example) Gain Offset Spectral response Large focal plane –Post detector electronic chains (amps, A/D, etc) –Stripes in images even of constant radiance scenes

11 ASTER L1A, bands 1and 13

12 ASTER design features (2) Short linear arrays (10 elements) with a scan mirror in the TIR sensor – whiskbroom –Shorter integration time –Larger pixels to improve the SNR –Limited number of detectors –Individual amplifiers –Stripes in images but repeated along track

13 ASTER design features (3) Three separate sensors –3 telescopes Individually pointed Alignment Rotation of images Focal plane distortions –3 manufacturers Different design practices Different measurement practices Different calibration methodologies and equipment




17 Radiometric calibration Preflight in the laboratory –Well characterized and controlled source –Reasonable but not normal environment –May (or may not) approximate normal imaging operation mode Scan mirror may not be operating Source is usually smaller angular extent than the earth –Uniform source is not a normal image

18 On-board calibrators VNIR –Lamp based source with monitors SWIR –Lamp based source with monitors TIR –Blackbody that can be heated

19 Philosophy Careful preflight calibration –Determine absolute response so we can convert from DN to radiance –At the same time, run the on-board systems to transfer a radiance value to them using the sensor (ASTER) –Determine noise (random and coherent) –Look for image artifacts –Use preflight values after launch Update after launch as sensors usually change –On-board –Vicarious (ground reference and moon)

20 Preflight source for VNIR/SWIR Large aperture integrating sphere –1 meter diameter sphere –Round output port –Multiple lamps Internal surrounding the port External through small ports –High reflectance coating on the sphere wall Barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) Spectralon (sintered PTFE) Gold sandpaper (rough, diffuse surface)

21 40 BaSO 4 integrating sphere

22 Integrating sphere Advantages –Uniform radiance across port (one % or so) –Lambertian (radiance independent of direction) –Multiple output levels Change number of lamps (MELCO) Change voltage/current of all lamps (voltage for NEC sphere) Change aperture size between external lamp and sphere –Reasonably stable with good control of lamp (V or I) –Repeatable if temperature is controlled Disadvantages –Low output in blue relative to NIR and SWIR

23 TIR preflight cal source Large area blackbody –Measure the temperature precisely and accurately –Measure (or compute) emissivity –Compute radiance output Operated in a vacuum chamber with the sensor Vary temperature of source to get multiple radiance values –Absolute calibration –Linearity correction (output usually fit to something other than a gain and offset – quadratic is common)

24 Calibration chain NRLM (Japanese equivalent of NIST) calibrated a set of fixed point blackbody simulators Calibration transferred to portable, variable temperature blackbody simulators Calibration transferred to the ASTER calibration sources (Spheres and TIR calibration blackbody) VNIR and SWIR spheres were measured at NEC and MELCO with a set of transfer radiometers from NIST, NRLM, GSFC, and University of Arizona NRLM (now AIST) and NIST collaborate to ensure that their scales are consistent

25 Are preflight values usable? Sometimes … Launch may cause a shift in a sensor performance –Operating temperatures may be different –Something may have moved On-board lamps may change output –Convection inside the lamp may be different –Aging of the lamp Emissivity of the on-board blackbody may change Mirror reflectance may change Filters/detectors/amplifiers may change There may have been unexpected features

26 Unexpected features VNIR –On-board calibrator monitor is off-scale –Change in output is more than expected so dynamic range of A/D is too small SWIR –Unexpected stray light causes crosstalk –Present during preflight calibration and in all in-flight data

27 VNIR OBC VNIR OBC has two monitors for each of two redundant calibrators –One monitor diode at lamp –One monitor diode at output They track but at different rates We really want the output monitor to determine how well the on-board calibrator is working but we have only the lamp monitor on-scale

28 VNIR OBC output monitor NEC selected an expected output range based on preflight measurements, OPS experience with a similar calibrator, and desire to maximize resolution Output has fallen to below the lowest expected monitor output Telemetry value for monitor is now a flat line (signal – offset < zero)

29 SWIR crosstalk SWIR has multiple spectral bands –6 linear PtSi detector arrays –Spectral selection filters over the arrays –Not all light hitting the detector is absorbed –Light hitting between the detectors is reflected –Some reflected light is reflected back down by the filters Optical crosstalk



32 Stretched RGB of a Japanese Island, SWIR bands 4,5, & 9, 400x400 pixels

33 SWIR Crosstalk Present in all images –Preflight calibration –In-flight calibration –normal images Visible in images with strong contrast Not visible but present in others Currently NOT corrected for in normal processing of L1 data

34 Crosstalk correction If we know the amount of light leaking from one pixel to each other pixel in all the SWIR bands, we can correct for it Preflight data for MTF determination would probably contain much of the needed information but it was recorded only for the band under test –Scan a line source across the array in both directions –Scan a point (pixel size or less) in both directions It is possible to infer the correction from images with strong contrast (coast lines, islands, moon, and similar), however it is difficult and incomplete

35 SWIR correction Japanese team has developed a beta level, Windows (Win32) based, correction program. It does one scene at a time operating on a L1B HDF input file and writing a corrected L1B HDF file. US team is developing a program that is run as part of L2 processing. It starts with L1A data. For example, you will be able to order atmospherically-corrected, crosstalk-corrected surface reflectance at L2.

36 Corrected image, SWIR RGB with 4,5, & 9

37 SWIR Crosstalk Correction Qualitatively improves image Largest effect is band 4 into 5 and 9 However, any band should leak into all others (including itself) with the strongest effect on adjacent bands on the focal plane –Band 4 has higher typical radiance than the others –Japan correction has only band 4 into others There is interplay between crosstalk and water vapor absorption, especially in band 9

38 Conclusions (preflight) ASTER was calibrated preflight –VNIR accuracy was probably within spec –SWIR accuracy is poorer due to crosstalk –TIR was probably within spec Preflight calibration is probably not appropriate at this point –Change in sensor (VNIR and some TIR bands) –Crosstalk in SWIR Calibration is being updated

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