Standards 3 Energy-efficiency standards are procedures and regulations that prescribe the energy performance of manufactured products, sometimes prohibiting the sale of products that are less efficient than a minimum level. Two possible meanings: 1) well-defined protocols (or laboratory test procedures) by which to obtain a sufficiently accurate estimate of the energy performance of a product in the way it is typically used, or at least a relative ranking of its energy performance compared to that of other models; and 2) target limits on energy performance (usually maximum use or minimum efficiency) based on a specified test protocol
Standards 4 Three types of energy-efficiency standards: prescriptive standards minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) class-average standards Prescriptive standards require that a particular feature or device be installed in all new products. Performance standards prescribe minimum efficiencies (or maximum energy consumption) that manufacturers must achieve in each and every product, specifying the energy performance but not the technology or design details of the product. Class-average standards specify the average efficiency of a manufactured product, allowing each manufacturer to select the level of efficiency for each model so that the overall average is achieved.
7 Lamps (Product ) Performance Criterion Establishing performance standards or defining what products are acceptable to a scheme or market and which will be discouraged through mandatory or voluntary measures, is essential for almost all phase-out schemes. The most important factors to bear in mind when specifying the parameters to be included in a performance standard are: Specify only the parameters which are important, adopting existing international performance standards, where available. This will increase the likelihood of receiving compliant products at reasonable prices from suppliers, and make managing the scheme administration easier. Ensure that test standards exist to accurately, reliably and consistently verify the product performance. If a product is in compliance with international safety standards, the product shall be considered safe. Health and safety issues which relate to potentially hazardous situations and or materials used in the product may be covered by additional requirements.
Product Coverage Criterion decision on product coverage will be largely dependent on the mix of lamps in the market and the objectives of the phaseout scheme include consideration of what loopholes might be possible and how to avoid or mitigate them. (Eg. Base type, geometry etc.) exemptions or less stringent requirements are only applied to products that can be truly warranted: i.e. special purpose lamps that have very unique performance needs ( eg. Marine lights, traffic signals, navigation lights, incest lights etc)
Mitigation Options Set a wattage limitation for niche or special purpose products to minimise their sales growth into other areas Allow an initial exemption or modification of the requirements but to set maximum market penetration level. Develop a specific category for special purpose lamps which are required to clearly and prominently state their intended purpose on product packaging and all forms of product information, along with a statement that they are not suitable for general lighting purposes. Set a schedule for phasingout exemptions over time
10 Generic product performance requirements (example) Essential product performance criterionMeasurement Units Luminous efficiencyLumen/Watt Product life timeHours Lumen maintenancePercentage @ hours Mercury contentMilligrams Operating voltageVolts to Volts Switching withstandNumber of switches over life Colour rendering IndexValue Optional product performance requirement Measurement Units Start up timeSeconds Run up timeSeconds Note : International, regional and national requirements exist on specific product information to be shown on the product (packaging) or in leaflets or websites.
11 Other product performance requirements (example) Product performance criterionMeasurement Units Equivalent (Incandescent) lamp powerWatt Power factorvalue Colour temperatureKelvin Colour rendering Indexvalue Product lifeHours
12 Energy performance of lamps There are four main options for specifying energy performance: Single wattage limitation Single minimum efficacy level Lumen output groups Performance curves
13 Comparison of options for specifying energy performance OptionDescriptionAdvantageDisadvantage Single wattage limitation This option involves setting a simple wattage limit to cover all lamps. For example, no lamp over 70W can be sold after a certain date. This approach is simple to write and communicate and could be effective if the goal is to move all lamps to CFL or better performance levels The approach restricts the level of savings that can be achieved. Single minimum efficacy level involves setting a minimum efficacy level (in lumens per watt) for all lamps. Simple to write and communicate With all available lamp technologies today, the lamp efficacy increases with light output, therefore if the level set is too high/stringent, it may be difficult for low lumen lamps to comply. Alternatively, if it is set too low, the potential incremental savings from brighter bulbs may be lost.
14 Lumen output groups Setting a lumen output equivalency group for the light output of todays standard incandescent lamps, combined with a maximum permissible wattage, or minimum efficiency (lumen per watt), for each equivalency group ( i.e. the maximum energy consumption or minimum efficacy of the replacement lamps) relatively easy to communicate and the wattages or efficacy of the replacement lamps in each lumen category can be tailored to ensure maximum savings at the various levels. Care must be taken when assigning the lumen equivalency groups. They must not be so wide that they encourage manufacturers to produce lamps that deliver less lumen in order to comply. This could result in the consumer switching to lamps from a higher lumen level in order to obtain the amount of light they have been accustomed to, which would have an adverse affect on the anticipated energy savings. OptionDescriptionAdvantageDisadvantage
15 Performance curves Based on establishing a curve that sets minimum efficacy levels (in lumens per watt as a function of light output). The curve is created by plotting the lumen out- put of todays lamps against their efficacy in lumens per watt. The data follows a natural curve with efficacy increasing as a function of light output. Would yield maximum efficiency benefits as it forces all lamps to be more efficient Lacks the simplicity of some of the above approaches and requires the use of formulas and/or detailed tables. OptionDescriptionAdvantageDisadvantage
En.lighten :PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS Product requirements for Energy Efficient Halogen Essential product performance requirements Luminous efficiencySee red curve in graph Product Lifetime (hrs) 1000 hrs Lumen at 75% lifetime 85 % Mercury content N.A. Switching withstand Number of switches 4 x rated life (1min on / 3min off) Colour Rendering IndexN.A. Optional product performance requirements Start – up time N.A. Run up to 60% light N.A.
En.lighten :PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS Product requirements for CFL-i Essential product performance requirements Luminous efficiencySee Yellow curve in graph Product Lifetime (hrs) 6000 Lumen at 2000 hrs 80% Mercury content 2.5 < mg Hg < 5.0 Switching withstandNumber of switches 3000 (1min on / 3min off) Colour Rendering Index80 Optional product performance requirements Start – up time 2 sec Run up to 60% light 120 sec
En.lighten :PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS Product requirements for LED lamps Essential product performance requirements Luminous efficiencySee requirements as for CFLi Product Lifetime (hrs) L70, F50 10000 hrs Lumen at 2000 hrs L70 Mercury content N.A. Switching withstandNumber of switches 5000 (1min on / 3mins off ) Colour Rendering Index< 4500K CRI 80 and 4500K CRI 70 Optional product performance requirements Start – up time 2 sec Run up to 95% light NA (for LED no run-up time is needed)
En.lighten : Phase Out Option 1 Countries develop phase out policies/plans in such a manner that the minimum luminous efficacy of all the lighting products follow the curve in red colour however the other parameters with regards to the product quality would be as in tables (shown in previous slides). A review three years after the implementation of the phase-out, monitoring the trends of the halogen market and analyzing the development of LED alternatives Omnidirectional Lamp Efficiency Ф / (0.836Φ+0.04655Φ ) (lm/W)
En.lighten : Phase Out Option - 2 Countries develop phase out policies/plans in such a manner that the minimum luminous efficacy of all lighting products follow curve in See curve yellow, however the other parameters with regards to product quality would be as in tables The target date for complete phase out of ILs would be 31 December 2015 Depending on the growth of EE lighting products, a further revision of the luminous efficacy values as under curve in yellow colour would be scheduled for revision by 2020 Omnidirectional Lamp Efficiency Ф / (0.2112 x Ф + 0.01176 xФ)) (lm/W)
Note: All requirements to be tested at a batch of 10 product samples. The batch of products shall be considered to comply with the requirements set out in this document if the average results of the batch do not (adversely) vary from the limit, threshold or declared values by more than 10 %)