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1 Name of Trainer Company Name Date of Presentation
Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial & Industrial Lighting Name of Trainer Company Name Date of Presentation

2 Course Objectives Provide information about energy efficient lighting technologies and how BPA promotes them Program information that encourages customers to install these technologies Technical information about lighting and control technology eligible for incentives

3 Benefits of Energy Efficient Lighting Improvements
For the Customer: Lower energy bills Reduced cooling requirements Less frequent bulb replacements (resulting in O&M cost savings) Improved work environment (leading to increased employee productivity and morale) Positive reactions from those visiting facilities where technologies are installed For the Utility: Reduced energy use and related energy supply needs Reduced environmental impact due to energy use

4 Course Overview Lighting technologies discussion Program information
Incentives available Requirements Customer eligibility Equipment eligibility Funding availability Steps customers take to participate

5 Lighting Technologies Discussion

6 Lighting Technology Categories
Incandescent – burns a thin tungsten filament Fluorescent – mercury ions excite phosphors T12, T8, T5, CFLs, (1/8th inch) High intensity discharge – arc welding Mercury Vapor – old HID technology High Pressure Sodium – poor HID technology Metal Halide – best HID product Light emitting diode (LED) – silicon chip Induction lamp – radio frequency (RF)

7 Some Basic Lighting Terminology

8 Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
Measures the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light source’s appearance in degrees Kelvin (K) against reference light sources Incandescent color temperatures are about 2,700o K Daylight lamp color temperatures are 5,000o K + Indirectly relates to energy savings Higher color temperature lamps appear brighter A subjective index depending on personal preference

9 Color Rendering Index (CRI)
A measure of a light source's ability to render the color of objects "correctly," as compared to a reference light source of comparable color temperature The scale is between 0 and 100 Generally, the higher the number, the better Color swatches used to determine CRI are red, green, and blue A subjective index: depends on personal preference CRI is compared to a reference light source of comparable color temperature. Therefore, a CRI of 100 in an incandescent is not necessarily better light than a CRI of 86 in fluorescent. It’s somewhat of a bogus measurement.

10 Other Important Lighting Definitions
Lamp – generic term for a light source Ballast – electronic device that drives the lamp(s) Lumen – total amount of light produced Foot-candle – one lumen/square foot Light Level – synonymous with foot-candle Efficacy (lighting efficiency) - lumens/watt HO – high output fluorescent lamp VHO – very high output fluorescent lamp HP – High Performance T8 lighting system

11 Color Rendering of Various Lighting Technologies

12 Human Perception Higher CRI lamps improve visual perception
For instance, 50 foot-candles of fluorescent light (CRI 86) will seem much brighter and better than 50 foot-candles of an HPS source (CRI 21) Using this theory, it is possible to lower ambient light levels and save energy Higher CCT lamps appear brighter Higher CCT lamps improve reading

13 What is Meant by the “Visible Spectrum?”
The title gives this away The visible spectrum of light includes all of the wavelengths of light that our eyes are capable of seeing The human eye can see light only between about 380 and 780 nanometers wavelength Infrared goggles allow our eyes to see into the infrared region of light (above 780 nanometers)

14 The Primary Colors of Light
Covers the spectrum well. Can be mixed to create almost any other color. These are the colors humans see the best. Same colors used in TV screens (CRT). A combination of all three primary colors of light (red, green and blue) appears white. Combinations of two primaries produce the “secondary” colors – magenta, cyan and yellow. The three primary colors can be mixed to create almost any other color light. Source: Osram Sylvania

15 Source: Osram Sylvania

16 As you can tell, incandescent is not an ideal light source
As you can tell, incandescent is not an ideal light source. Even though everybody uses incandescent as a standard. Source: Osram Sylvania

17 Spikes are due to mercury ions getting extra excited.
Source: Osram Sylvania

18 Source: Osram Sylvania

19 Cool White equivalent Source: Osram Sylvania

20 Warm White equivalent. As you can tell, this is not a great light source. A lot of dead space between spikes. Source: Osram Sylvania

21 As you can tell this light source over accentuates yellows and greens.
Source: Osram Sylvania

22 Source: Osram Sylvania

23 Information on Energy Efficient Lighting/Control Technologies

24 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)

25 Retrofit Incandescent Lamps with ENERGY STAR-rated CFLs
Benefits: Lasts up to 10 times longer than incandescents reducing maintenance costs Up to 75 percent energy savings Less heat means reduced air conditioning load

26 Types of CFLs Spiral or Twist Capsule – A-lamp, bullet, globe, torpedo
Bi-ax – twin-tube, tri-tube, U-tube Reflector – not ready for prime time yet

27 Linear Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts - T8s and T5HOs

28 Types of Fluorescent Lamps
Normal light Output (NLO) High light output (HO) Very high light output (VHO): An inefficient lamp targeted by Energy Efficiency for change-outs! Energy saver – reduced light output Source: Philips

29 Fluorescent Lamp Nomenclature
F32T8 / ADV841 / ALTO F stands for fluorescent 32 indicates a nominal 32-watt tube T indicates a tube shaped lamp 8 indicates a lamp 8/8th inch diameter ADV indicates High Performance lamp 8 indicates CRI 41 indicates a CCT of 4,100 Kelvin ALTO is Philips’ designation for low mercury

30 Retrofit Older T12 Ceiling Lights with T8 Fluorescent Lamps
Benefits: Lighting efficiency can range up to 80 lumens per watt (T12s range only to 56 lumens) Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using less energy Provides better color rendering Standard for new construction

31 Even Better, Retrofit Older T12 Lights With High Performance T8 Lamps
Benefits: Lighting efficiency can range up to 100 lumens per watt (T12s range to 56 lumens) Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using less energy Provides better color rendering Latest generation Higher light level from a 32-watt Average life is 20 percent or more longer than standard T8

32 Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Lamps
Philips Advantage Lamp Series F32T8/ADV841/ALTO GE High Lumen Starcoat Lamp Series F32T8/XL/SPX41/HLEC Sylvania Extreme Lamp Series FO32/841XPS/ECO

33 Replace Hi-Bay HID Fixtures with T5 High Output Fluorescent Fixtures
Benefits: Up to 35 percent energy savings Holds 95 percent of their light level, compared to 65 percent for metal halides Instant on Offers reduced glare No color shifting On-off controls such as occupancy sensors or manual switching

34 T5HO Specifications Ordering Code Initial Lumens Mean Lumens Life @
3 hrs./start CRI F54T5/830/HO 5,000 4,740 20,000 85 F54T5/835/HO F54T5/841/HO F54T5/850/HO F stands for fluorescent, 54 is the nominal wattage of the tube, T is for tube, 5 is for 5/8” diameter, 8 stands for a CRI above 80, 35 corresponds to 3500Kelvin color temperature, HO stands for High Output. POINT OUT THE HIGHER LUMENS PER WATT, HIGHER INTENSITY.

35 T5 & T8 Lamps – Considerations
T5s are designed for an enclosed fixture where temperature can be consistent. They are optimal at 95o F temperature. T8s may become too hot when enclosed and lose some lumens. They are best at 75o F. Some installers have said this curve is not true.

36 Retrofit Magnetic Ballast with Electronic Ballast
Benefits: Quiet Cooler, reducing air conditioning load No lamp flicker

37 Types of Fluorescent Ballasts
Instant-start ballasts provide full voltage across the electrodes at start-up. Rapid-start ballasts have a separate heater circuit that heats up the electrode during start-up and stays on during operation to keep electrodes warm. Program-start ballasts directly heat up the electrodes before applying full voltage. Thus, they dramatically increase lamp life for frequently switched operation (occupancy sensors).

38 Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Ballasts
Advance Optanium Series IOP-2P32-LW-SC GE Ultramax Series GE-232-Ultramax-L Universal Ultim8 Series Ultim8 B232I120EL Sylvania Quicktronic High Efficiency QHE/UNV ISL-SC

39 Technologies Suitable for Hi-Bay Applications (Fixture more than 15’ from surface)

40 Fluorescent Hi-Bay (T5s)
Reference for hi-bay definition: fs_P3highbay.pdf Source: Philips

41 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp Types
Metal halide High pressure sodium Mercury vapor Low pressure sodium Probe-start (no incentive) vs. pulse-start method (eligible for incentive) Glass arc-tube (no incentive) vs. ceramic arc-tube (eligible for incentive) Increasing trend of installing T5s in Hi-Bay applications instead of metal halide

42 Examples of HID Ballasts
Constant wattage autotransformer – standard ballast used on most HID Linear reactor – energy saving, 277-line voltage circuits only, low voltage swing tolerance Regulated lag ballast – very tough ballast, handles voltage swings well Electronic – relatively new product, first generation had problems with premature failures which have since been corrected

43 Other Choices - Induction
Up Side Lots of wattage choices (55 to 165 watts) Withstands temperature extremes Vibration resistant Long life (100,000 hr.) with low maintenance Electrical wire connections not necessary for individual fixtures Street and area lighting where expensive to change out bulbs. Down Side High initial cost Lower lumen output Often require more fixtures than metal halide or fluorescents Source: Philips

44 Additional Elements of a Lighting System

45 To Reflectorize or Not …
Specular reflectors add very little value and can increase glare problems White reflectors are the best choice Polished (specular) reflectors are relatively useless in industrial applications due to dust, blackening, and the likelihood of incorrect cleaning using abrasives Even in enclosed fixtures, the reflector needs to be cleaned every months with non-abrasive solutions

46 Lenses Come in Various Types . . .
Acrylic – typical “plastic” lens with little bumps on the exterior to diffuse the light Prismatic – an acrylic lens with prisms or honeycombs that attempt to polarize Louvered – small and large cell parabolic Polarized – small cell parabolic design Indirect/direct – pushes light up to the ceiling with some downward light

47 Fixtures are also Mounted in Different Ways . . .
Recessed – troffers, cans Surface – boxes, ceiling, sconces Pendant – hanging from ceiling Chain/cable/cord – great flexibility, plug cord into ceiling outlet, a flexible cord can be used to reduce vibration Hook & cord – Hi-Bay HID

48 Treat Lighting as a System with Specific Parts: Lamp, Reflector, Ballast, Housing

49 Fixture Efficiency A measure of the percentage of total light exiting the fixture For bare lamp applications, fixture efficiency is 100% Rarely are lumens reflected out of a fixture: typical efficiencies are in the 60-80% range Efficiency increases with a point or thin linear light source

50 Common Lighting Opportunities
Replacing… with… in… can reduce wattage by… Incandescent or mercury vapor lamp High output T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp Hi-Bay lighting 50-75% T12 fluorescent lamp T8 fluorescent lamp offices, retail space, schools 50% Incandescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) recessed lighting or table lamps 75%

51 Common Lighting Opportunities (cont’d)
Replacing… with… in… can reduce wattage by… Outdoor incandescent lamp Hard-wired fluorescent lamp perimeter outdoor applications 30-75% High pressure sodium lamp T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp indoor applications 50%

52 Lighting Controls Save additional energy and money

53 Infrared – Occupancy/Motion
Passive infrared sensors detect changes in infrared patterns across segmented detection regions, tuned to the region of human body temperature Source: Leviton

54 Passive Infrared Coverage
Source: wattstopper

55 Outdoor Sensor Example
Designed to work outdoors – in bad weather or temperature extremes Source: Leviton

56 Dual Technology: Motion/Occupancy
Emits ultrasonic waves that reflect back to the sensor. Same system a bat uses to navigate its way, only less complex. When a person moves in the room the frequency of the waves reflected off the person changes. The sensor detects these changes and fixtures are turned on/off. Useful in conference rooms where people might sit and talk.

57 Dual Technology Coverage
Source: wattstopper

58 Dual Technology Sensor Example
Wall or ceiling mount Useful in large conference rooms, classrooms and restrooms Source: Leviton

59 Daylight Harvesting Sensor Example
Consider during design of building Use with dimmable ballasts and lamps Not recommended for retrofits

60 Case Studies of Some Recent Lighting Projects

61 Uses half the wattage and provides twice as much light!
Cal Air Metal and Pipe Fabrication Facility 400 Metal Halide – (451 watts) 6-lamp T8 fixtures (228 watts) Before Lighting Retrofit After Lighting Retrofit A project of Cal-Airs. Half the connected load and twice the light. ADD SOME MORE – SEA TAC AIRPORT & 1-2 NEW ONES 23 foot-candles 50 foot-candles Uses half the wattage and provides twice as much light! Source: Philips

62 Seattle University Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit After Lighting Retrofit New T5s and T8s replaced Metal Halides and T12s, reduced energy usage by 46% Increased safety at the pool because reduced glare allows lifeguards to see under the surface of the water Reduced maintenance costs because the pool no longer needs to be drained to service lights above the pool Source: Northwest Edison

63 Everett Naval Base Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit After Lighting Retrofit New T8s replaced metal halides, reduced energy usage by 60% Improved visibility, especially of banners and logos on or near walls Crisper, cleaner atmosphere Reduced “hot spots” of concentrated light in favor of more uniform light distribution Source: Northwest Edison

64 Gunderson Inc. Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit After Lighting Retrofit New T8s and reflectors replaced T12 VHO to reduce energy usage by 76% Light levels increased by 40% Saved close to $30,000 in annual electricity costs Paid for itself in 5 months after incentives and tax credits Source: Christenson Electric

65 How to Decide?

66 Decision Process: Key Questions
Economics Are incentives available? What is the simple payback period? Lighting Levels Are the current light levels adequate? Is there an opportunity to lower ambient light levels and use task lighting? Color Rendering Is color rendering important? Recommended Technologies What does the lighting audit or software analysis recommend? Which technologies and products apply? Other Opportunities Do occupancy levels provide opportunities for occupancy sensors? Is there an opportunity for harvesting daylight?

67 Important Note There are many products on the market that meet the requirements of the utility’s program Some products are superior to others For their protection, participating customers should research the products for quality, price, and conformity with the utility’s requirements before making their decision to buy

68 Information about Commercial & Industrial Lighting Program

69 Commercial and Industrial Lighting Program
Has incentives to reduce up-front cost of efficiency improvements Easy program administration Lighting audits required Promotes: The best light sources for the application The highest quality light sources Increased energy efficiency for participating businesses

70 Incentives Available through the Program
Existing Equipment Measure Description $/unit High Performance T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballast T12 Fluorescent, T8 De-Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 1 lamp and electronic ballast (15 to 44 input watts) $15.00 2 to 4 lamps and electronic ballast (45 to 114 input watts) $30.00 T8 or T5 Fluorescent Lamps and Standard Electronic Ballast $8.00 Hardwired Compact Fluorescent (Hardwired ballast and replaceable lamp) Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 7 to 49 watts (nominal lamp watts) 50 to 99 watts $50.00

71 Incentives Available (cont’d)
Existing Equipment Measure Description $/unit Ceramic Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 20 to 100 watts $50.00 101 to 250 watts $80.00 Screw-in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (Lamp Only) 3 to 24 watts $3.00 25 to 45 watts $6.00 Over 45 watts $12.00 LED or Cold Cathode Signs Retrofit kit or Replace existing incandescent sign $30.00 Induction Lamp Luminaire 100 watts or less (nominal lamp watts) $60.00 Over 100 watts $120.00

72 Incentives Available (cont’d)
Existing Equipment Measure Description $/unit High Output Fluorescent Luminaire (New Fixture) HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 85 to 129 watts (ballast input watts) $80.00 130 to 189 watts $100.00 190 to 249 watts $120.00 250 to 600 watts $140.00 Pulse Start Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) HV/HO T12, or MV/HPS, or 300 to 399 watts (nominal lamp watts) 400 to 750 watts $150.00

73 Incentives Available (cont’d)
Existing Equipment Measure Description $/unit Occupancy Sensors and/or Timers Manual Control 100 to 200 watts controlled $35.00 Over 200 watts controlled $45.00 Retrofit High Output Fixtures with T8 Lamps & Ballasts 8’ T12 HO/VHO, or 4’ HO De-Lamp 1 T8 8' lamp and standard electronic high output ballast $20.00 (2 to 6) 4' T8 lamps and standard electronic high output ballast $40.00 Retrofit Very High Output Fixtures with T5 Lamps & Ballasts 8’ T12 VHO 2 T5 lamps and high output ballast $25.00 3-4 T5 lamps and high output ballast $50.00

74 Eligibility Requirements
Customer requirements Must be a commercial or industrial customer of a participating BPA utility Must first have a lighting audit performed Must sign an agreement with their utility prior to purchasing and installing equipment Project requirements All equipment to be installed must meet specifications and requirements ( _TechnicalSpecs.doc) For retrofit projects, the affected lighting load must be reduced by at least 30 percent

75 Eligibility Requirements (cont’d)
Incentive Constraints Funds are offered on “first-come, first-served” basis The amount of the incentive cannot exceed 70 percent of the total project cost (including labor) Minimum recommended project size is $500 Disposal Requirements All materials, including PCB ballasts, must be disposed of or recycled in accordance with current environmental laws

76 Steps for Participation
Customer completes sign-up form: Name of business/building and address Owner’s and lessee’s names and telephone numbers Building size, number of floors and use (retail, office, etc.) Type of heating system Additional information as needed

77 Steps for Participation (cont’d)
Utility explains requirements and assesses eligibility Utility schedules a lighting audit Audit findings are reported to the customer If customer wishes to proceed with the project, they sign an agreement with utility

78 Steps for Participation (cont’d)
When project is completed, customer notifies utility and submits invoices and supporting information After utility inspects project and provides final approval, customer incentive is paid

79 Questions? Contact us: ___________ Utility
Energy Conservation Department P.O. Box 1234 Anytown, WA

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