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1 Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial & Industrial Lighting Name of Trainer Company Name Date of Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial & Industrial Lighting Name of Trainer Company Name Date of Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial & Industrial Lighting Name of Trainer Company Name Date of Presentation

2 2 Course Objectives Provide information about energy efficient lighting technologies and how BPA promotes them Program information that encourages customers to install these technologies Technical information about lighting and control technology eligible for incentives

3 3 Benefits of Energy Efficient Lighting Improvements For the Customer: Lower energy bills Reduced cooling requirements Less frequent bulb replacements (resulting in O&M cost savings) Improved work environment (leading to increased employee productivity and morale) Positive reactions from those visiting facilities where technologies are installed For the Utility: Reduced energy use and related energy supply needs Reduced environmental impact due to energy use

4 4 Course Overview Lighting technologies discussion Program information Incentives available Requirements Customer eligibility Equipment eligibility Funding availability Steps customers take to participate

5 5 Lighting Technologies Discussion

6 6 Lighting Technology Categories Incandescent – burns a thin tungsten filament Fluorescent – mercury ions excite phosphors T12, T8, T5, CFLs, (1/8 th inch) High intensity discharge – arc welding Mercury Vapor – old HID technology High Pressure Sodium – poor HID technology Metal Halide – best HID product Light emitting diode (LED) – silicon chip Induction lamp – radio frequency (RF)

7 7 Some Basic Lighting Terminology

8 8 Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) Measures the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light sources appearance in degrees Kelvin (K) against reference light sources Incandescent color temperatures are about 2,700 o K Daylight lamp color temperatures are 5,000 o K + Indirectly relates to energy savings Higher color temperature lamps appear brighter A subjective index depending on personal preference

9 9 Color Rendering Index (CRI) A measure of a light source's ability to render the color of objects "correctly," as compared to a reference light source of comparable color temperature The scale is between 0 and 100 Generally, the higher the number, the better Color swatches used to determine CRI are red, green, and blue A subjective index: depends on personal preference

10 10 Other Important Lighting Definitions Lamp – generic term for a light source Ballast – electronic device that drives the lamp(s) Lumen – total amount of light produced Foot-candle – one lumen/square foot Light Level – synonymous with foot-candle Efficacy (lighting efficiency) - lumens/watt HO – high output fluorescent lamp VHO – very high output fluorescent lamp HP – High Performance T8 lighting system

11 11 Color Rendering of Various Lighting Technologies

12 12 Human Perception Higher CRI lamps improve visual perception For instance, 50 foot-candles of fluorescent light (CRI 86) will seem much brighter and better than 50 foot-candles of an HPS source (CRI 21) Using this theory, it is possible to lower ambient light levels and save energy Higher CCT lamps appear brighter Higher CCT lamps improve reading

13 13 What is Meant by the Visible Spectrum? The title gives this away The visible spectrum of light includes all of the wavelengths of light that our eyes are capable of seeing The human eye can see light only between about 380 and 780 nanometers wavelength Infrared goggles allow our eyes to see into the infrared region of light (above 780 nanometers)

14 14 The Primary Colors of Light A combination of all three primary colors of light (red, green and blue) appears white. Combinations of two primaries produce the secondary colors – magenta, cyan and yellow. The three primary colors can be mixed to create almost any other color light. Source: Osram Sylvania

15 15 Source: Osram Sylvania

16 16 Source: Osram Sylvania

17 17 Source: Osram Sylvania

18 18 Source: Osram Sylvania

19 19 Source: Osram Sylvania

20 20 Source: Osram Sylvania

21 21 Source: Osram Sylvania

22 22 Source: Osram Sylvania

23 23 Information on Energy Efficient Lighting/Control Technologies

24 24 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) Source:

25 25 Retrofit Incandescent Lamps with ENERGY STAR-rated CFLs Benefits: Lasts up to 10 times longer than incandescents reducing maintenance costs Up to 75 percent energy savings Less heat means reduced air conditioning load

26 26 Types of CFLs Spiral or Twist Capsule – A-lamp, bullet, globe, torpedo Bi-ax – twin-tube, tri-tube, U-tube Reflector – not ready for prime time yet

27 27 Linear Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts - T8s and T5HOs

28 28 Types of Fluorescent Lamps Normal light Output (NLO) High light output (HO) Very high light output (VHO): An inefficient lamp targeted by Energy Efficiency for change- outs! Energy saver – reduced light output Source: Philips

29 29 Fluorescent Lamp Nomenclature F32T8 / ADV841 / ALTO F stands for fluorescent 32 indicates a nominal 32-watt tube T indicates a tube shaped lamp 8 indicates a lamp 8/8th inch diameter ADV indicates High Performance lamp 8 indicates CRI 41 indicates a CCT of 4,100 Kelvin ALTO is Philips designation for low mercury

30 30 Retrofit Older T12 Ceiling Lights with T8 Fluorescent Lamps Benefits: Lighting efficiency can range up to 80 lumens per watt (T12s range only to 56 lumens) Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using less energy Provides better color rendering Standard for new construction

31 31 Even Better, Retrofit Older T12 Lights With High Performance T8 Lamps Benefits: Lighting efficiency can range up to 100 lumens per watt (T12s range to 56 lumens) Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using less energy Provides better color rendering Latest generation Higher light level from a 32-watt Average life is 20 percent or more longer than standard T8

32 32 Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Lamps Philips Advantage Lamp Series F32T8/ADV841/ALTO GE High Lumen Starcoat Lamp Series F32T8/XL/SPX41/HLEC Sylvania Extreme Lamp Series FO32/841XPS/ECO

33 33 Replace Hi-Bay HID Fixtures with T5 High Output Fluorescent Fixtures Benefits: Up to 35 percent energy savings Holds 95 percent of their light level, compared to 65 percent for metal halides Instant on Offers reduced glare No color shifting On-off controls such as occupancy sensors or manual switching

34 34 T5HO Specifications Ordering Code Initial Lumens Mean Lumens 3 hrs./start CRI F54T5/830/HO 5,0004,74020,00085 F54T5/835/HO F54T5/841/HO F54T5/850/HO

35 35 T5 & T8 Lamps – Considerations T5s are designed for an enclosed fixture where temperature can be consistent. They are optimal at 95 o F temperature. T8s may become too hot when enclosed and lose some lumens. They are best at 75 o F.

36 36 Retrofit Magnetic Ballast with Electronic Ballast Benefits: Quiet Cooler, reducing air conditioning load No lamp flicker

37 37 Types of Fluorescent Ballasts Instant-start ballasts provide full voltage across the electrodes at start-up. Rapid-start ballasts have a separate heater circuit that heats up the electrode during start- up and stays on during operation to keep electrodes warm. Program-start ballasts directly heat up the electrodes before applying full voltage. Thus, they dramatically increase lamp life for frequently switched operation (occupancy sensors).

38 38 Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Ballasts Advance Optanium Series IOP-2P32-LW-SC GE Ultramax Series GE-232-Ultramax-L Universal Ultim8 Series Ultim8 B232I120EL Sylvania Quicktronic High Efficiency QHE/UNV ISL-SC

39 39 Technologies Suitable for Hi-Bay Applications (Fixture more than 15 from surface)

40 40 Fluorescent Hi-Bay (T5s) Source: Philips

41 41 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp Types Metal halide High pressure sodium Mercury vapor Low pressure sodium Probe-start (no incentive) vs. pulse-start method (eligible for incentive) Glass arc-tube (no incentive) vs. ceramic arc-tube (eligible for incentive) Increasing trend of installing T5s in Hi-Bay applications instead of metal halide

42 42 Examples of HID Ballasts Constant wattage autotransformer – standard ballast used on most HID Linear reactor – energy saving, 277-line voltage circuits only, low voltage swing tolerance Regulated lag ballast – very tough ballast, handles voltage swings well Electronic – relatively new product, first generation had problems with premature failures which have since been corrected

43 43 Other Choices - Induction Lots of wattage choices (55 to 165 watts) Withstands temperature extremes Vibration resistant Long life (100,000 hr.) with low maintenance Electrical wire connections not necessary for individual fixtures Up Side Down Side Source: Philips High initial cost Lower lumen output Often require more fixtures than metal halide or fluorescents

44 44 Additional Elements of a Lighting System

45 45 To Reflectorize or Not … Specular reflectors add very little value and can increase glare problems White reflectors are the best choice Polished (specular) reflectors are relatively useless in industrial applications due to dust, blackening, and the likelihood of incorrect cleaning using abrasives Even in enclosed fixtures, the reflector needs to be cleaned every months with non-abrasive solutions

46 46 Lenses Come in Various Types... Acrylic – typical plastic lens with little bumps on the exterior to diffuse the light Prismatic – an acrylic lens with prisms or honeycombs that attempt to polarize Louvered – small and large cell parabolic Polarized – small cell parabolic design Indirect/direct – pushes light up to the ceiling with some downward light

47 47 Fixtures are also Mounted in Different Ways... Recessed – troffers, cans Surface – boxes, ceiling, sconces Pendant – hanging from ceiling Chain/cable/cord – great flexibility, plug cord into ceiling outlet, a flexible cord can be used to reduce vibration Hook & cord – Hi-Bay HID

48 48 Treat Lighting as a System with Specific Parts: Lamp, Reflector, Ballast, Housing

49 49 Fixture Efficiency A measure of the percentage of total light exiting the fixture For bare lamp applications, fixture efficiency is 100% Rarely are lumens reflected out of a fixture: typical efficiencies are in the 60-80% range Efficiency increases with a point or thin linear light source

50 50 Common Lighting Opportunities Replacing…with…in… can reduce wattage by… Incandescent or mercury vapor lamp High output T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp Hi-Bay lighting50-75% T12 fluorescent lamp T8 fluorescent lampoffices, retail space, schools 50% Incandescent lampCompact fluorescent lamp (CFL) recessed lighting or table lamps 75%

51 51 Common Lighting Opportunities (contd) Replacing…with…in… can reduce wattage by… Outdoor incandescent lamp Hard-wired fluorescent lamp perimeter outdoor applications 30-75% High pressure sodium lamp T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp indoor applications50%

52 52 Lighting Controls Save additional energy and money

53 53 Infrared – Occupancy/Motion Passive infrared sensors detect changes in infrared patterns across segmented detection regions, tuned to the region of human body temperature Source: Leviton

54 54 Passive Infrared Coverage Source: wattstopper

55 55 Outdoor Sensor Example Source: Leviton Designed to work outdoors – in bad weather or temperature extremes

56 56 Dual Technology: Motion/Occupancy Emits ultrasonic waves that reflect back to the sensor. Same system a bat uses to navigate its way, only less complex. When a person moves in the room the frequency of the waves reflected off the person changes. The sensor detects these changes and fixtures are turned on/off. Useful in conference rooms where people might sit and talk.

57 57 Dual Technology Coverage Source: wattstopper

58 58 Dual Technology Sensor Example Source: Leviton Wall or ceiling mount Useful in large conference rooms, classrooms and restrooms

59 59 Daylight Harvesting Sensor Example Consider during design of building Use with dimmable ballasts and lamps Not recommended for retrofits

60 60 Case Studies of Some Recent Lighting Projects

61 61 Cal Air Metal and Pipe Fabrication Facility After Lighting Retrofit 400 Metal Halide – (451 watts)6-lamp T8 fixtures (228 watts) Uses half the wattage and provides twice as much light! 50 foot-candles Before Lighting Retrofit Source: Philips 23 foot-candles

62 62 Seattle University Benefits from Lighting Retrofit New T5s and T8s replaced Metal Halides and T12s, reduced energy usage by 46% Increased safety at the pool because reduced glare allows lifeguards to see under the surface of the water Reduced maintenance costs because the pool no longer needs to be drained to service lights above the pool Before Lighting RetrofitAfter Lighting Retrofit Source: Northwest Edison

63 63 Everett Naval Base Benefits from Lighting Retrofit New T8s replaced metal halides, reduced energy usage by 60% Improved visibility, especially of banners and logos on or near walls Crisper, cleaner atmosphere Reduced hot spots of concentrated light in favor of more uniform light distribution Before Lighting RetrofitAfter Lighting Retrofit Source: Northwest Edison

64 64 Gunderson Inc. Benefits from Lighting Retrofit New T8s and reflectors replaced T12 VHO to reduce energy usage by 76% Light levels increased by 40% Saved close to $30,000 in annual electricity costs Paid for itself in 5 months after incentives and tax credits Before Lighting RetrofitAfter Lighting Retrofit Source: Christenson Electric

65 65 How to Decide?

66 66 Decision Process: Key Questions Economics Are incentives available?What is the simple payback period? Lighting Levels Are the current light levels adequate? Is there an opportunity to lower ambient light levels and use task lighting? Color Rendering Is color rendering important? Recommended Technologies What does the lighting audit or software analysis recommend? Which technologies and products apply? Other Opportunities Do occupancy levels provide opportunities for occupancy sensors? Is there an opportunity for harvesting daylight?

67 67 Important Note There are many products on the market that meet the requirements of the utilitys program Some products are superior to others For their protection, participating customers should research the products for quality, price, and conformity with the utilitys requirements before making their decision to buy

68 68 Information about Commercial & Industrial Lighting Program

69 69 Commercial and Industrial Lighting Program Has incentives to reduce up-front cost of efficiency improvements Easy program administration Lighting audits required Promotes: The best light sources for the application The highest quality light sources Increased energy efficiency for participating businesses

70 70 Incentives Available through the Program Existing EquipmentMeasure Description $/unit High Performance T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballast T12 Fluorescent, T8 De- Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 1 lamp and electronic ballast (15 to 44 input watts)$ to 4 lamps and electronic ballast (45 to 114 input watts) $30.00 T8 or T5 Fluorescent Lamps and Standard Electronic Ballast T12 Fluorescent, T8 De- Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 1 lamp and electronic ballast (15 to 44 input watts)$ to 4 lamps and electronic ballast (45 to 114 input watts) $15.00 Hardwired Compact Fluorescent ( Hardwired ballast and replaceable lamp) Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 7 to 49 watts (nominal lamp watts)$ to 99 watts$50.00

71 71 Incentives Available (contd) Existing EquipmentMeasure Description $/unit Ceramic Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Incandescent or Mercury Vapor20 to 100 watts$ to 250 watts$80.00 Screw-in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (Lamp Only) Incandescent or Mercury Vapor3 to 24 watts$ to 45 watts$6.00 Over 45 watts$12.00 LED or Cold Cathode Signs Incandescent or Mercury VaporRetrofit kit or Replace existing incandescent sign $30.00 Induction Lamp Luminaire Incandescent or Mercury Vapor100 watts or less (nominal lamp watts)$60.00 Over 100 watts$120.00

72 72 Incentives Available (contd) Existing EquipmentMeasure Description $/unit High Output Fluorescent Luminaire (New Fixture) HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 85 to 129 watts (ballast input watts)$ to 189 watts$ to 249 watts$ to 600 watts$ Pulse Start Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) HV/HO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 300 to 399 watts (nominal lamp watts)$ to 750 watts$150.00

73 73 Incentives Available (contd) Existing EquipmentMeasure Description $/unit Occupancy Sensors and/or Timers Manual Control100 to 200 watts controlled$35.00 Over 200 watts controlled$45.00 Retrofit High Output Fixtures with T8 Lamps & Ballasts 8 T12 HO/VHO, or 4 HO De- Lamp 1 T8 8' lamp and standard electronic high output ballast $20.00 (2 to 6) 4' T8 lamps and standard electronic high output ballast $40.00 Retrofit Very High Output Fixtures with T5 Lamps & Ballasts 8 T12 VHO2 T5 lamps and high output ballast$ T5 lamps and high output ballast$50.00

74 74 Eligibility Requirements Customer requirements Must be a commercial or industrial customer of a participating BPA utility Must first have a lighting audit performed Must sign an agreement with their utility prior to purchasing and installing equipment Project requirements All equipment to be installed must meet specifications and requirements (http://www.test.bpa.gov/Energy/N/projects/Lighting/doc/EEL _TechnicalSpecs.doc) For retrofit projects, the affected lighting load must be reduced by at least 30 percent

75 75 Eligibility Requirements (contd) Incentive Constraints Funds are offered on first-come, first-served basis The amount of the incentive cannot exceed 70 percent of the total project cost (including labor) Minimum recommended project size is $500 Disposal Requirements All materials, including PCB ballasts, must be disposed of or recycled in accordance with current environmental laws

76 76 Steps for Participation 1.Customer completes sign-up form: Name of business/building and address Owners and lessees names and telephone numbers Building size, number of floors and use (retail, office, etc.) Type of heating system Additional information as needed

77 77 Steps for Participation (contd) 2.Utility explains requirements and assesses eligibility 3.Utility schedules a lighting audit 4.Audit findings are reported to the customer 5.If customer wishes to proceed with the project, they sign an agreement with utility

78 78 Steps for Participation (contd) 6.When project is completed, customer notifies utility and submits invoices and supporting information 7.After utility inspects project and provides final approval, customer incentive is paid

79 79 Questions? Contact us: ___________ Utility Energy Conservation Department P.O. Box 1234 Anytown, WA


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