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Presentation on theme: "1 THE GOOD THE BAD AND THE UGLY STAN WALERCYK, CLEP, LC LIGHTING WIZARDS 8/25/10 version STAN WALERCYK, CLEP, LC LIGHTING WIZARDS 8/25/10 version."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 STAN WALERCZYKS BIO 21 years experience –Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher Often in unique position dealing with lighting designers and retrofitters 500+ projects 30+ published articles 600+ seminars, including (and none considered me just a retrofitter) –3 Lightfairs –3 IESNA Annual Conferences –Several IESNA Sections IESNA Member 1995 - 2008 –Served on several committees –Currently on Visual Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution Committee Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE –CLEP Review Board member Lighting Certified by NCQLP Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee member

3 3 LOTS OF SLIDES WITH LIMITED TIME So please hold questions till the end If you want an electronic version of this ppt, email me –Contact info is on last slide

4 4 BEFORE WE REALLY GET GOING This presentation is based on my perspective and mainly retrofit experience –Glad that most clients really liked what I did –But there are several projects I consider mistakes and wish I would have specified them much differently You may have quite different perspectives and experience and have found what works for you and your clients But we can all learn from each other –Including different Perspectives Successes & failures

5 5 BEFORE WE REALLY GET GOING Retrofit –There are many good retrofit projects –But there also way too many that just focused on energy savings and paybacks, but the lighting quality and/or flexibility was really bad Wish I never delamped the 2x4 18 cell parabolics with repositioned lamp holders, reflector and keeping the louvers in the one Kaiser office many years ago In general, if retrofitters had to do their normal work in the spaces that they specify the retrofits for, the design would often be much different –Over the years several end-customers hired me to design re-retrofits, not to save more energy, but to improve lighting quality and/or flexibility –Too much lamp for lamp with reduced wattage T8s and low BF ballast, which Does not really improve light quality Makes customer have to buy and recycle extra lamps down the road

6 6 BEFORE WE REALLY GET GOING New construction and gut rehab –There are many very good projects –But there are too many projects that have Way too many and often expensive lamp types –Selecting a fixture for the looks, even though the lamp is not specified in any other fixture in the project Dimming ballasts, when really not necessary Not the most efficacious lamps, ballasts and fixtures Hard to access fixtures (to and into) Complex control systems Too high power density and electric bills –Title 24 can be used as a back stop and every watt in a space is used »And Title 24 is worst allowable –Check out following letter to the editor

7 7 BEFORE WE REALLY GET GOING LD+A published my letter to the editor in the December 2005 edition –Reading October's Over & Out in LD+A, confirmed my experience that very few lighting designers check with maintenance and facility people two to four years after their buildings have been built. If more lighting designers asked maintenance and facility people what they think of the number of lamp types, lamp life, lamp costs, accessibility inside fixtures, and ease of maintaining lighting control systems, I think that many lighting designers would change how they do design. A good chunk of my retrofit business is from end users in buildings that have good quality and energy efficient lighting, but the maintenance costs are very high. I appreciate the business, but would prefer if more lighting designers would walk a mile in the shoes of maintenance and facility people in the first place.

8 8 BEFORE WE REALLY GET GOING Based on facility managers requests over the years, retrofitters have gotten very good at the following, especially over the last few years, when facility and maintenance staffs have downsized so much and 1 person now does what 2 or 3 people did in the past –Minimizing lamp types and eliminating expensive and single source lamps An example is going with 2 F17T8s or overlapping 4 F32T8s to get rid of 3 F25T8s –Specifying long life lamps often with program start ballasts


10 10 KELVIN

11 11 KELVIN For offices, schools, etc. –It seems like lighting designers and architects prefer 3000 or 3500K Because warm color tone and/or because think neutral Because of some of the lighting designers that were here in the 80s and 90s, higher percentage of 3000K here than almost anyplace else –While most energy efficient consultants and retrofitters prefer 4100 or 5000K And love to see buildings with 3000 or 3500K, because know can save extra wattage with using high Kelvin spectrally enhanced lighting End customers pick 5000K in about 80% of my projects

12 12 3500K AINT NEUTRAL It is my experience, that many lighting designers and architects consider 3500K neutral, because in between old WW (3000K) and CW (4100K) –And they would usually confirm that idea when they gave their clients a choice of 3000, 3500 and 4100 Kelvin lamps with the same CRI But as I and other lighting professionals have learned, is that when you give people a choice of three Kelvins, they typically pick the one in the middle, so if you give them… –3500, 4100 and 5000 Kelvin, they typically pick 4100K –4100, 5000 and 6500 Kelvin, they typically pick 5000K In both phases 1 and 2 in the DOE research, there was no statistical preference of lower Kelvin compared to 5000K after 2 - 3 weeks, so who cares about initial preference

13 13 PICK KELVIN FIRST With 5000K, or other high Kelvin lamps –Pick the Kelvin first and then look at paint, flooring, furniture colors under that light before they are selected –It does not have to look sterile For example pick white paints with some warm color tones

14 14 EVEN THE BEST CHANGE… Even the best change can be considered bad, because some people have to adjust So –Inform –Allow 2 – 3 weeks


16 16 6500K

17 17 NOTES ON 8000K In the one 2x4 ceiling fixture in my office, I went from 4 F32T8 741s to 2 F32T8 850s to 1 F32T8 880 From Rod Heller, LC, Energy Performance Specialists, Wisconsin (July 29, 2009) –American Family Insurance We are in the process of testing 8000K lamps for a major installation at American Family and my contact at the company went to a meeting in a conference room and forgot his glasses. He could not read the documents in front of him at the meeting, but sat through it until lunch. Over lunch, he had maintenance change the lights from 735 lamps to the 8000K lamps. When he got back to meeting he was amazed that he could read without his glasses. It was not as easy as having his glasses, but he could read the documents. –Goodyear I did a trial installation of the 8000K lamps in this facility. I took them 1 case of lamps and they were installed in a couple of offices. By the time they got to the end of the box, people were fighting over who got the last lamps. We then re-lamped all the offices. The one comment I heard back was from the head of human resources. She stated this is the first time since she had Lasik surgery that she has come to work and her eyes did not water. I have no idea why, but it does warrant further investigation.

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19 19 17,000K One major manufacturer has a new line of lamps, available with 17,000K At this time more common in Europe 17,000K makes 5000K look warm white

20 20 WHAT ABOUT THE KRUITHOF EFFECT? IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th Edition, 3-40&41 –Experiments examining the psychological effects of varying CCT and illuminance have suggested that using lamps with high CCT values at low illuminances will make a space appear cold and dim. Conversely, using lamps with low CCT values at high illuminances will make the space appear artificial and overly colorful. Figure 3-53 illustrates this so-called Kruithof effect. Although these findings have been broadly replicated, other investigators have failed to find a similar tradeoff of CCT and illuminance. Rather they found that when people spent sufficient time in the room for color adaptation to occur, the perceptions of rooms lighted with lamps of different color temperature was dominated by illuminance. This implies that where color adaptation occurs with no opportunity to compare lamps with different CCTs the CCT of the light source is relatively unimportant to perception. Where comparisons can be made or color adaptation does not occur, CCT is more likely to be important. At the very least this confusion means that the widespread belief about the tradeoff of CCT and illuminance should be treated with some skepticism.

21 21 WHAT ABOUT THE IES AND SPECTRALLY ENHANCED LIGHTING? IES Visual Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution Committee –Chair Brian Liebel, who recently move from California to Florida –Secretary Tom Tolen, who is in the San Francisco Bay Area –Other local members include Dr. Sam Berman, people from the major lamp manufacturers, others and me –Our TM-24 should be ready soon Before the IES accepts spectrally enhanced lighting –I go below IES photopic footcandles if customer will sign off on it Except for critical areas like stairwells, carpenter shops, etc. –I go for bottom of IES photopic footcandle range if customer will not sign off on going below IES Board of Directors recently unanimously approved to revise PS-02-09 Side note –PG&Es and some other utilities tool lending libraries have photopic - scotopic light meters, which can be borrowed for free

22 22 T8s vs. T5s & T5HOs

23 23 T8s vs. T5s & T5HOs Yes, T5s & T5HOs are newer and smaller than T8s, but are they really better than T8s? Check out the following table, which is based on optimal temperatures of 77F for T8s and 95F for T5s & T5HOs

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25 25 T8s vs. T5s & T5HOs High performance T8 and T5 systems have about the same efficacy –But not that many people seem to be using the high performance T5 systems High performance T8 systems are more efficacious than T5HOs –At optimal temperatures for each 22% than full wattage T5HOs 9% than reduced wattage T5HOs –Special note for suspended indirect/direct fixtures with lamps exposed in typical 70 - 75F ambient temperature 33% than full wattage T5HOs 14% than reduced wattage T5HOs

26 26 T8s vs. T5s & T5HOs Some fixture manufactures and others compare T5s and T5HOs to basic grade T8s, generic electronic ballasts and fixtures with reflectors and optics really designed for 5/8 diameter lamps –Which makes T5s and T5HOs look artificially better I have heard that some fixture manufacturers, rep agents and distributors push T5 and T5HO fixtures, because better profit margins than T8 fixtures –Since T8 fixtures have been around longer, pricing tends to go down over time There are a lot more BFs for T8s –Which helps fine tune light levels and wattage Mercury levels in T8s can be quite close to T5s & T5HOs –Some T5s and T5HOs have more mercury than some T8s Since T5s and T5HOs are smaller, more can fit in a container, so most of them are made overseas and shipped here –Most T8s are made in America, which helps keeps jobs here

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28 28 T5s & T5HOs Please do not spec the same length T5s and T5HOs on a project –Because down the road maintenance people will probably put the wrong lamps in the fixtures

29 29 U-BEND T8s Most end customers want to get rid of U- bend T8s, because they are –Expensive –Bulky to carry around –Extra recycling costs –Wattage can be significantly reduced with F17T8s But numerous 2x2 fixtures are not long enough for F17T8s, so new fixtures are required


31 31 PARABOLIC TROFFERS Hopefully nobody here still specifies parabolics, except maybe for niche applications But several manufacturers have designed very good upscale kits from several manufacturers that –Allow delamping down to 2 or 1 lamps –Save substantial wattage –Eliminates the dreaded cave effect –Improves lighting quality I recently wrote a white paper that lists several manufacturers –You can request it by email

32 32 PARABOLIC TROFFERS Photo of a 1-lamp kit


34 34 BASKET TROFFERS These fixtures are often called indirect or indirect/direct troffers, ceiling still dark Many architects and lighting designers have been specifying these fixtures over the last few years, often because of low glare, but –Usually very low fixture efficiency Sometimes below 60% –Often very difficult to get to the ballast –These may be the parabolics of this century so far Although sometimes easy to delamp –Sometimes can be difficult to retrofit, especially if biax or T5s and too short for T8s Most end customers that I have dealt with HATE biax because expensive, short life and not that good lumens per watt

35 35 BASKET TROFFERS This is what I recently did at San Jose State Universitys Martin Luther King Library Original –2x2 perf metal basket troffer with 2 40W 3000K biax lamps and thin white lens on top of metal basket –72W Retrofit –Although sides were shorter than 2, there were round holes, so F17T8s could be used –2 high performance F17T8s, high performance1.17 BF parallel wired program start ballast, custom socket kit on outside of fixture & custom high transmission white basket kit –38W –Increased light levels, even just photopic –$160 approximate cost


37 37 TASK - LOW AMBIENT Can easily get.4 -.6 watts per square foot in offices including ambient and task lights Ambient examples –High performance suspended indirect/direct fixtures with one T8 per cross section –High performance 2x4 kit or troffer with 1 T8 –High performance 2x4 kit or troffer with 2 T8s &.71 or.77 BF Task examples –LED undercabinet and/or desk mount fixtures Optional occupancy sensor If you havent seen it already, check out the PG&E Emerging Technologies Studies – results_m126/criteria:1/query:any/jr_endyear:2009/jr_organization:Pacific+Gas+and+El ectric+%28PG%26E%29/order:alpha/page:2/limit:10/ –Would have even been lower power density with high performance fixed BF ballasts and/or higher Kelvin lamps


39 39 FLUORESCENT vs. LED TROFFERS Based on DOE CALiPER testing there are some LED troffers than compare quite well to high performance T8 troffers with regard to wattage, lumens and distribution But the LED troffers cost about $300 - $350, while high performance T8 troffers cost about $100 - $150 Also be aware –When each LED troffer reaches 50,000 hours or maybe slightly longer, it may cost over $200 to retrofit or replace it –While T8 troffers can just get inexpensive lamps and ballasts decade after decade Plus with present design, LED troffers will either provide excessive light to begin with or underlighting at end of rated life when LEDs lose 70% of initial lumens


41 41 INDUCTION Although one major manufacturer introduced induction in 1991 and another major manufacturer introduced their version in 1997 –Induction has become quite popular over the last few years, mainly from fixture manufacturers using lower priced Chinese and Korean induction lamps and generators Real useable life for induction is really more like 60,000 - 70,000 hours than 100,000 hours Bare lamp system lumens per watt is usually –<80 initially –<55 at 100,000 hours –And since a mature technology, probably will not improve much if at all With such large coated lamps –Very little optical control

42 42 LED LED fixtures have really improved, especially since last fall –Efficacy There are some LED fixtures that provide over 100 lumens per watt out of the fixture –Price reduction Some LED recessed can kits now only cost $65 from distribution LED cobraheads, which can replace 100 - 150W HPS, can cost $300 when quantity is at least 1000 Although some exterior fixture manufacturers are stating over 150,000 hours for certain applications –50,000+ is more realistic Manufacturers are working on improved lumens for lower Kelvin chips

43 43 LED vs. INDUCTION I recently wrote a white paper on LED vs. Induction focusing on streetlights –It is on my website with my other white papers When I visited a large LED manufacturer in North Carolina back east earlier this summer –Told that they will have 150 - 160 lumen per watt chips by 1Q11, which will be able to provide 120 - 130 lumens per watt out of fixtures at steady state temperature With LEDs continuing improvements and price reductions, I think that –Induction will be an afterthought in as little as 1 year –And some end customers will have a hard time getting warranty support and replacement parts, especially from Chinese and Korean manufacturers


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50 50 LIGHTING BLOOPERS One arm of a local government said –Were going to do some new streetlighting –These cast poles will look super in our town Another government office said –This is a historic building –The storefronts and the awnings need to stay where they are

51 51 IF YOU ARE NOT ALREADY AWARE There is a big push to try to mandate controllable dimming or multi-stage ballasts in all new non- residential construction in the 2011 cycle of Title 24 –Doug Avery at Southern California Edison Jim Benya is lead investigator Francis Rubinstein and Michael Neils are also in core group If this is mandated, it would take choices away from you and your clients But may bring pricing down on these ballasts and controllers

52 52 IF YOU ARE NOT ALREADY AWARE Since I consider this very ugly, I spent a lot of time, focusing on the California Energy Commission, to stop this mandate, because often about the same or more wattage and KWH can be saved other ways for much less initial and long term costs and are more sustainable Since this is so important, you and your counterparts across the State could provide your input for or against

53 53 SEMINARS, WHICH UTILITIES, ASSOCIATION OF ENERGY ENGINEERS, ETC. HAVE ME PRESENT INTERIORS - LEDs vs. Incumbents with a big dose of task ambient lighting EXTERIOR LIGHTING LED, Induction, HPS, MH, LEP, Fluorescent FREE FOR ALL IN THE HIBAY ARENA Fluorescent, Induction, LED & MH HOW LOW CAN YOU GO –Which is 1/2 of Advanced Lighting Retrofit Options DIMMING vs. NON-DIMMING 10 Rounds in the Daylight Harvesting and Peak Load Reduction Arena LIGHTING 101 LIGHTING CONTROLS –2011 Also custom ones for specific purposes

54 54 WRAP UP Questions Comments Applications

55 55 THATS ALL FOLKS Contact information for Stan Walerczyk –925-944-9481 – – Thanks for coming


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