Presentation on theme: "Basics of Lighting ISC Learning Centre"— Presentation transcript:
1Basics of Lighting ISC Learning Centre Hello and welcome to this training module.July 2009
2Basics of lighting - Contents IntroductionSelection parametersOverview of building lightingOverview of home lightingOverview of other types of lightingIntroduction to lighting busIn this module, you'll discover the different types of lights found on the market and their main characteristics.
3> IntroductionWhy this module?With the world focusing on how to reduce the energy billWith professionals wanting more efficiency and safety at workWith consumers seeking to improve comfort and securityThe types of lighting have become more and more variedThe choice of lighting is becoming more and more importantThe objective of this module is to give you basic information on the different lights found on the market and help you understand their connection with our lighting control offer.The module is an introduction to the different types of control provided by Schneider Electric.This module is the first of a set of basic moduleson Lighting Control (see list at the end of the module)
4Lighting & energy consumption > IntroductionLighting & energy consumptionLighting alone is responsible for 19% of the world's electricity demandLighting accounts for 10 to 33% (USA) of each country's electricity consumptionA huge concern especially for public lighting (30% more than 20 years old)Since the Kyoto protocol, all nations have become more aware of energy savings.Lighting, which accounts, on average, for 19% of the world's electricity demand, is therefore receiving more and more attention.Light manufacturers are offering more and more choices to reduce electricity consumption.And lights can now be chosen according to their use.City lighting, park, car park, road lighting, stations, game fields, docks, etc.
5Offices, hotels, shops & supermarkets > Lighting & Energy ConsumptionBuildingsLighting = 25 to 50% (average 40%) of electricity billOffices, hotels, shops & supermarketsIn professional buildings, the lights may stay on 24 hours a day. This makes lighting a big item in building electricity consumption. And it means that it can quickly pay off to carefully examine lighting needs, the type of lights to be used and the way to control them.Schools, gymnasiums, medical care
6Apartment buildings, homes > Lighting & Energy ConsumptionIndustry & HousingLighting = 10 to 15% of the electricity billPower plant, heavy industry, laboratory, warehouse, factories, workshop…In industry, savings can be made as well by carefully examining lighting, case by case, according to the type of building (storage, manufacturing plant, continuous process, and so on).And in the residential sector, lighting is considered to account for about 10% of the electricity bill.Apartment buildings, homes
7On the market today … Two main technologies > Overview of lights on the marketOn the market todayTwo main technologiesIncandescent lampsGas discharge lampsSeveral types of applications different needs several types of lightsProfessional usePrivate useTypes of controlConventional (wiring)Field-busCentral systems…There are currently two main families of lights on the market:incandescent lights and gas discharge lights.Incandescent lights are used more in houses and flats while gas discharge lights are used for buildings, industry and infrastructure.Both can be controlled by conventional push-button or switch installations.And they can also be connected to Building Management Systems.
8Technologies on the market > Overview of lights on the marketTechnologies on the marketIncandescent bulbs "GLS"*:Most common bulbsLV & ELV* halogenGas discharge lamps:Fluorescent lights:Low pressure mercury fluorescent tubesCompact Fluorescent Lamps "CFL"High Intensity Discharge lights "HID"High Pressure Mercury "MBF"Low Pressure Sodium "LPS, SLP, SOX"High Pressure Sodium "HPS, SHP, SON"Metal Halide "MH, HQI, MIB"Others: Light Emitting Diodes "LED", inductionThe incandescent light family includes bulbs and 230 V AC or low voltage 12 V DC halogen lights.Gas discharge lamps include fluorescent tubes, high intensity discharge lights, low and high pressure sodium lights and metal halide lights. We'll see in the next few slides how they are used and their characteristics.And now, there's also LED technology, used today for decoration and signs, and under development for lighting solutions.*GLS= Global Light Source*ELV: Extra Low Voltage (12Vdc)
9Applications / Lights: > Overview of lights on the marketApplications / Lights:BuildingsFluorescent tubesMetal halide "MH, HQI, MIB"Lights for homes, small shops & offices, hotelsIncandescent bulbs + LV & ELV halogenFluorescent tubes + Compact Fluorescent Lamps "CFL"Others: Light Emitting Diodes "LED", inductionOthers (such as public lighting, outdoor lighting)High Intensity Discharge lights "HID"High Pressure Mercury "MBF"Low Pressure Sodium "LPS, SLP, SOX"High Pressure Sodium "HPS, SHP, SON"Metal Halide "MH, HQI, MIB"When lighting is classified by groups of applications, it appears that buildings use essentially fluorescent tubes and some factories use metal halide lights.Homes, small shops and hotels are more into basic and traditional or design type lighting.So they tend to use incandescent, halogen or CFL lamps.The rest of the technologies are used more for public lighting and infrastructure, such as streets, roads, train stations, airports, docks and so on.
10Lighting - Selection parameters > Overview of lights on the marketLighting - Selection parametersLighting needs in relation to end-useRequired brightness (lighting power level)Environment (temperature, humidity, etc.)AestheticsColour rendering (capacity of lighting to render the colours of the illuminated object)Lifetime (with respect to daily and yearly operating time)Frequency of switching (daily on / off operations)Lamp starting and warm-up times (how long it takes to reach the full light output)Dimming capability (some types of lights are not dimmable)Size for compatibility with existing light fixturesDiffused or spot lighting, mounting height (low bay / high bay)Safety, extra low voltage, CFL not too close to people's headsEasy maintenanceOverall cost (investment cost + operating cost)Now let's look at the parameters used to choose lighting:First of all, the required level of lighting, freely chosen in homes but sometimes imposed in professional buildings (500 Lux in offices, for example)Then, the environment or place of use: indoors or outdoors, ambient temperature, humidity, in a factory or simply in a bathroom.Aesthetics in homes, fashion boutiques, hotels, etc.Colour rendering, for a proper view of objectsLifetime and frequency of useDoes the light take time to warm up?Will it be used with a dimmer?For renovation, can it be mounted in an existing light fixture?In professional buildings, the cost of lamps plus installation and maintenance costs are considered as well.
11Fluorescent tubes The most frequently used! > Overview of building lightingFluorescent tubesT12(40-65lm/W)T8(80-95 lm/W)T5( lm/W)38mm26mm16mmThe most frequently used!Accept frequent On/Off switchingLamp power: 4 to 140 W, light output up to LumensLifetime of fluorescent tubes depends on daily On / Off frequency and type of ballastSeveral types of fixtures according to use: 3m to 12m height (high efficiency), hanging, surface or flush mounted, single, twin or multiple tube fixture, IP 65 version...As seen previously, for professional type buildings, fluorescent tubes are the most frequently used.They can accept frequent switching on and off and are compatible with dimming. Manufacturers offer a wide variety of sizes and designs.Lighting/consumption: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: FrequentControl: BallastDimmable: Yes
12> Overview of building lighting Control circuits for fluorescent tubes & high intensity discharge lampsMagnetic ballastElectronic ballastorFluorescent tube lighting includes a ballast, a starter and a tube.The ballast may be magnetic or electronic.DimmablePlease note: Most Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) have an electronic ballast built into the base
13Fluorescent tubes - Wiring diagrams > Overview of building lightingFluorescent tubes - Wiring diagramsSingle tube, magnetic ballast with no compensation (inductive load) p.f. < 0.5, flicker, noise, low lifetime 8000h, inrush current 13 In / 5-10ms simple, cheapSingle tube, magnetic ballast with parallel compensation flicker, noise, very high inrush current In / 1ms p.f. > 0.85, improved lifetimeSingle tube, magnetic ballast with serial compensation (cap. load) flicker, noise, high inrush current 13 In / 5-10msTwin compensated tubes with magnetic ballast High inrush current 20 In / 1ms Limited flicker, low noise, p.f. > 0.85, improved lifetimeOne or more tubes with electronic ballast Very high inrush current In / 0.5ms, HF earth leakage detected by RCD No flicker, silent, high efficiency (+25%), longer lifetime (+ 50%), p.f. > 0.9Just for information, this slide gives you a summary of the different types of wiring found on the market.The system with no compensation is the least expensive, but does not offer good electrical efficiency and may generate noise while operating.The magnetic ballast systems with compensation or twin compensated tubes were created to improve efficiency. They are still widely used.The electronic ballast system offers the best performance factors AND can be dimmed. This technology is being used more and more.Control circuit
14Fluorescent tubes - Lifetime > Overview of building lightingFluorescent tubes - LifetimeFluorescent tubes lifetimeDaily On / Off frequency + type of ballastLifetime(x 1000 h)Here's a diagram explaining the lifetime of fluorescent tubes.The lifetime is linked directly to the frequency of tube on/off switching and the type of ballast.Here again, the electronic ballast rates higher than magnetic ballasts.Daily On / Offswitchingfrequency (h)Type of control ballast:electronic with progressive warm-up processcompensated magneticnon compensated magnetic123
15Conventional ON/OFF 10 A or 16 A switch > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsConventional ON/OFF10 A or 16 A switchLNHere is the complete diagram for ON/OFF control.All the types of ballasts are suitable for this type of installation.The amperage accepted by the switch or impulse relay limits the number of tubes that can be connected.And there's no dimming possible.Can be connected toSingle tube, magnetic ballast with no compensationSingle tube, magnetic ballast with parallel compensationSingle tube, magnetic ballast with serial compensationTwin compensated tubes with magnetic ballastLimited to large installations
16Conventional Dimming Stand-Alone Electronic Potentiometer > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsConventional DimmingStand-Alone Electronic Potentiometer10%100%ElectronicPotentiometerBallast 1Output+TubeLN1-10VdcBallast 2For more advanced applications with dimming or building bus type control, electronic ballasts must be used.Electronic ballasts have a 1 to 10 Volt DC input that can be connected to a potentiometer. Variable voltage from 1 to 10 V DC corresponds to the proportion of lighting required by the user.The potentiometer can be a stand-alone wall-mounted product, a panel-mounted product or a component integrated with a DALI, KNX or LON type bus.Can be connected to electronic ballastMature technologyLimited to large installationsMore info?- See Basics of Dimming
17Direct Control by Bus Management System (BMS): > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsDirect Control by Bus Management System (BMS):Power linePush-ButtonsON/OFF by switch actuatorDimming withControl Unit 0-10Vdc+BusTube + Ballast + StarterTubeHere the tubes are controlled directly by building control buses or "BMS".For ON/OFF control, a switch actuator sends the order to the lighting circuit, which may have a magnetic ballast.For dimming, a potentiometer module sends a 1 to 10 V DC signal to the electronic ballast.These modules receive push-button control orders via the building bus.Can be connected to all type of tubesCan be connected to electronic ballastMore info?- See our KNX and LON courses
18Control by lighting bus: > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsControl by lighting bus:DALI Bus – What is it?DALI stands for: Digital Addressable Lighting InterfaceAn open protocol set out in the technical standard EN/IEC 60929Developed by all leading ballast manufacturers, for building installations.Growing technology in buildings Schneider has to manage itS-E offers gateways: KNX/Dali, LON/DALIElectronic ballast for fluorescent tubes, HID, LED, and transformers for LV halogen.protective earthDALIz.B. NYM 5x...neutral wirephaseNow, fluorescent tube control by a lighting bus.It's important not to confuse lighting buses with building control buses which also manage HVAC (or heating- ventilation-air conditioning)DALI is a lighting bus developed by light fixture manufacturers. It's a standard, and therefore has an open protocol.It is being used more and more in buildings.More info on DALI?- See
19> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods DALI system structureDALI MasterDALI Power supplyPower3DALI2max. 300mHere are the basic system guidelines for DALIFunctional compatibilityThe compatibility of ballasts is guaranteed by the standard.System sizeThe maximum number of individual addresses available in the DALI standard is 64.The maximum DALI supply current is given as 250 mA.So up to 64 individual ballasts can be connected to a DALI line without exceeding the system node or power supply current limits.RoutingThe maximum voltage drop on the DALI line may not exceed 2 Volts, resulting in a maximum line length of 300 m, between the furthest DALI components. Schneider Electric offers gateways to connect DALI to our KNX or LON systems.DALI Slavesmax.64 EVGs
20> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Synergy with our offer: Connection to our DALI / KNX gateway via 2 binary inputsGateway for fluorescent tubes on DALI bus and conventional push-buttons.DALI busDimmable Fluorescent tubesLNExternal power supplyAC 9-24V or DC 9-36VDali GatewayPush-ButtonsLet's look at how DALI is connected to our gateway.Schneider Electric's KNX/DALI gateway can be used with a KNX connection and also to convert orders received from conventional push-buttons.It allows dimming.
21Connection to our KNX System through our DALI gateway > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsConnection to our KNX System through our DALI gatewayLNDALI busDimmable fluorescent tubesPush-ButtonsAs seen previously in the conventional solutions, the DALI gateway can convert KNX control orders for lighting connected to the DALI bus.For example, the pressing of a push-button connected to the KNX bus is converted by the gateway to generate an encoded order that is understood by the lights connected to the DALI bus.KNX BusMore info on buses or DALI gateway?- See our KNX and LON courses
22Connection to our LON DALI gateway > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsConnection to our LON DALI gatewayDALI GatewayDALIPower SupplyDALI ControllerDALILONLONOther OptionDALIPower3DALI2max. 300mDALI Slavesmax.64 EVG´sHere is the LON solution, quite similar to the KNX solution.For more details, we recommend you take some training on LON.More info on LON?Contact ISC training teamMore info on how to choose between LON and KNX?- Discover New Way course
23Benefits compared to 1-10V control systems > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsBenefits compared to 1-10V control systemsIndividual control of fixturesMulti-channelling by only one pair of control cablesNo mains switching neededBack channellingSimple DALI wiring: simple two-wire cableEasy system re-configurationEasy to add new componentsWhat are the advantages pushed by lighting manufacturers to convince customers to use DALI in their installations?1- Individual control of fixtures: each unit in the DALI network has its own individual address, making it possible to communicate directly to the fixture components2- Multi-channelling: using only one pair of control cables, DALI can control several different groups of fixtures3- No mains switching needed: the lights can be switched off by commands sent directly from the DALI control system, making the mains switch unnecessary4- Back channelling: with the DALI system, information flows both ways. Instead of just sending the fixture commands about the light level, the DALI system enables information feedback on the condition of the fixtures. Fixtures can transmit information on: whether the light is switched on or off, the preset light level and the condition of the ballast5- Simple DALI wiring: the cabling consists of a simple two-wire cable, regardless of the building topology between the units in the system6- Easy system re-configuration: once the system is installed and configured, it's very easy to change the system operation. Changing scenes and lighting functions is simply a matter of programming and requires no hardware changes.7- Easy to add new components: when the lighting system needs to be extended, new components can be added anywhere in the DALI system. There are no wiring configuration rules on the DALI line.
24Differences between DALI and BA buses (KNX, LON) > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methodsDifferences between DALI and BA buses (KNX, LON)+ComplementarityDALI has a limited system size (64 addresses) and a maximum cable length of 300 meters.DALI is intended only for communication in lighting systems, whereas BMS includes other functional features as well (such as HVAC and alarm systems).A BMS system commonly has unlimited expansion possibilities, which DALI does not.DALI is not competing with BMS systems: it simply complements them via an interface.64 addressesLighting Control- Large number of components- Control of lighting, HVAC, alarm systems, etc.
25DSI for Digital Serial Protocol > Other lighting systems on the market: DSIDSI for Digital Serial Protocol1991Proprietary system from Tridonic-Atco (Zumtobel)An "intelligent" central unit + All fixtures connected to it Many wiresAnother system found on the market is DSI (Digital Serial Protocol).DSI was created in 1991, by the manufacturer Tridonic.It's based on a central unit to which all the light fixtures in the installation are connected.This means a lot of wires, which is why this technology is being replaced more and more by DALI technology.More info on DSI?- See
26Introduction to home lighting > Overview of home & small office lightingIntroduction to home lightingEnergy efficient lighting in homesLighting may account for up to a fifth of a household's electricity consumption.Upgrading the lamps can reduce a household's total electricity consumption by up to 10-15%The Ecodesign Directive provides a framework:EU energy label on household lampsMost energy efficient bulbs are compact fluorescent lamps: A -classWorst: incandescent bulbs: G to E-class (Directive 1998/11/EC).Now, let’s move on to home lighting.Here again, the energy savings are increasing.The Eco design directive classifies lights from A to G, A for the most efficient lights and G for the worst ones.
27Incandescent lamp (GLS) (E-class) > Overview of home & small office lightingIncandescent lamp (GLS) (E-class)1879 (Thomas Edison)Lamp power: 15 to 1000 WLight Output: up to 15,000 lumensClass G to E: Europe has decided to remove these lights from the EU market before 2012E27 (ES)B22 (BC)E14(SES)S15S19S14AdvantagesDisadvantagesFirst, incandescent light.Light is produced by a threadlike conductor surrounded by inert gas or vacuum and heated to incandescence by the electric current passing through it.For years it has been the type of lights used in all homes in the world.Now, with the new directives on energy savings, this type of light will progressively be removed from the market.Some countries have already started the process.Bright point light source (if transparent glass)Energy-guzzler – very low efficiency (E, F or G-class)Efficiency: Lifetime: Output (lm): Colour: On/off : FrequentControl: DirectFull compatibility with existing luminariesRisks due to high operating temperatureFull dimmable on any dimmerShort lifetime (1000 hours)Good quality and performanceEfficiency= Lighting/consumption
28Conventional halogen lamps (D or E-class) > Overview of home & small office lightingConventional halogen lamps (D or E-class)230Vac12Vdc1980s230Vac lamps or 12Vdc lamps (+ transformer)Improved incandescent lamp technologyMuch smaller lamp sizeEqual or slightly higher efficiency than incandescent lights230Vac lamp power:25 to 2000 W, Light Output: up to 40,000 lumensGU6.35E27R7SE14G4G9GU/GZ10GU5.3AdvantagesDisadvantagesHalogen lights.This type of lamp came onto the market and widely spread in the 80s.They are still used today in many light fixtures because of their small size.Extra low voltage 12 V DC halogen lights can provide about 15% savings compared to incandescent lights.Bright point light sourceLow efficiency, no or at best 15% energySavings at mains voltage compared to incandescent lamps (D,E or F class, low voltage: C class, 25% savings)Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off : DailyControl: DirectFull compatibility with existing luminariesRisks due to high operating temperatureFull dimmable on any dimmerRelatively short lifetime (1000 – 3000 hours)Efficiency= Lighting/consumptionGood quality and performance
29Conventional halogen lamps > Overview of home & small office lightingConventional halogen lamps12Vdc12Vdc lamps (+ transformer)Lamp power: 5 to 500 W, Light Output: up to 12,000 lumens12Vdc lamps safety in humid roomsMagnetic transformer (LV / ELV)= Inductive loadElectronic converter ("ballast")= Capacitive loadGU6.35G4GU5.3Lighting Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off FrequentControl: BallastFor lighting control, it's important to note that 12 V DC halogen lamps can be powered by either magnetic or electronic transformers.The transformers are either inductive or capacitive.This is very important for choosing a dimmer. The dimmer must be suited to the type of load connected to it. Otherwise, it is liable not to work or be damaged.For dimming, very important to know the type of load (see Basics of Dimming)
30Halogen lamps with xenon gas filling (C-class) > Overview of home & small office lightingHalogen lamps with xenon gas filling (C-class)Recent technologyWith xenon gas filling, about 25% less energy / same incandescent lightsCome in two versionsOnly the filling gas is replaced, the socket and the dimensions of the lamp are the same as for conventional halogen lights.The improved halogen capsule is placed in glass bulbs shaped like incandescent lamps (sold as retrofit "energy saver lamps”).Halogen lamps with xenon are one of the most recent technologies.They are an alternative to incandescent lamps. They consume 25% less energy and have roughly the same characteristics in terms of both loads and size.We should be finding more and more of them on the market.They come in two versions.In the first version, only the filling gas is replaced. The socket and dimensions of the lamp are the same as for the conventional halogens seen previously and therefore can only be used in fixtures with special halogen sockets.In the second version, the improved halogen capsule is placed in glass bulbs the same shape as incandescent lamps with a traditional socket, making them compatible with all light fixtures that use incandescent lamps. They are sold as retrofit "energy saver lamps”.AdvantagesBright point light sourceDisadvantages25% energy savings (C class) compared to the best incandescent lampsFull compatibility with existing luminariesRisks due to high operating temperatureFull dimmable on any dimmerGood quality and performanceRelatively short lifetime (2000 – 3000 hours)
31Halogen lamps with infrared coating (B-class) > Overview of home & small office lightingHalogen lamps with infrared coating (B-class)Recent technologyInfrared coating added to the wall of halogen lamp capsules about 45% less energy/ Same incandescent lights.But only possible with low voltage lamps,So a transformer is needed (separate unit or integrated into the fixture or lamp for incandescent retrofit solution)Both special socket capsules and incandescent retrofit lamps are available in B-classLamp with integrated transformer limited to 60W (too much heat)AdvantagesBright point light source45% energy savings (B class) compared to the best incandescent lampsGood quality and performanceRisks due to high operating temperatureFull dimmable on any dimmerRelatively short lifetime (3000 hours)DisadvantagesToo large for some luminariesNo equivalent yet to GLS > 60WOnly one producer currently for GLS retrofitHalogen lamps with infrared coating are also a new arrival.They can provide energy savings of 45% but only operate with low voltage, which means a transformer is required.
32Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) (A-class) > Overview of home & small office lightingCompact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) (A-class)Fluorescent lamp tubes, with integrated ballast, becoming a stand-alone retrofit solution to replace incandescent lamps.1980s.Long lifetime and high efficiency, between 65% and 80% less energy / same incandescent lights.Sometimes with an external envelope that hides the tubes and makes them even more similar to light bulbs (although decreasing efficiency). The envelope also shields off any unwanted ultraviolet radiation and risks connected to incorrect disposal.Power: 5-55 W, Light < 5000 LumensEfficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyAdvantagesUp to 80% energy saving (A class or upper end of B class) compared to incandescent lampsDisadvantagesNo bright point lightingMoney-saverOften not dimmableEnvironmentally-friendlySuboptimal colour renderingLong lifetime (6 times longer compared to incandescent lamps)Relatively low starting and warm up timeAvailable with warm or cool lightSafety issues (can be avoided with proper coatingToo large for some luminariesBeing A-class, Compact Fluorescent Lamps are being pushed more and more by light manufacturers as the true alternative to incandescent lights.Nevertheless, there are some restrictions.First of all, CFLs are not dimmable, so they can't be used in existing installations with dimmers.Also, CFLs contain small amounts of mercury and emit ultraviolet light which can, under some circumstances, have a negative impact on people suffering from diseases accompanied by light sensitivity.However an in-depth analysis by the Commission has demonstrated that these two factors do not present a hazard to the general public. According to the Commission, (quote) "the decrease in mercury emissions resulting from energy savings outweighs the need for mercury in the lamps. It remains that CFL lamps should be disposed of properly. The impact of both elements can be further reduced by using CFLs with an outer non-breakable lamp envelope." (unquote)Therefore CFLs mustn’t be used near our heads, such as for lights over the oven in the kitchen, bed lights or in children's rooms.We recommend the use of CFLs in corridors, offices and plants.
33Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) > Overview of home & small office lightingLight-emitting diodes (LEDs)E27E14G10G5.3Very long lifetimeQuickly emerging technology with recent progress in efficiencyFor room lighting, only in the first phases of commercialisation and rarely meets all consumer expectations in terms of light output and other functions.Likely to become true alternative to CFLs very rapidly.Electric power: W (1 LED) to several Watts (LED array), Light Output: a few Lumens (1 LED) to thousands lm (LED array)Main use: Traffic lights, signalling / display boards, decoration spotlights, portable or isolated ELV DC lighting (battery, photovoltaic), etc.For the time being, this technology is used for signalling and it is not powerful enough yet to become an alternative for home lighting.However, with the technical strong points of LED technology, there's a lot of development work going on that could make LEDs more useful in the near future!Light. Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyControl:
34> Summary of home lighting classification Efficiency of lamp technologies compared with incandescent lamps (E-class)Lamp technologyEnergysavingsEnergy classI. Incandescent lamps-E, F, GII.1 Conventional halogens (mains voltage 220 V)0 – 15 %D, E, FII.1 Conventional halogens (low voltage 12 V)25 %CII.2 Halogens with xenon gas filling (mains voltage 220 V)25 %CHere is a summary of the classification of lights according to the ECO directive.II.3 Halogens with infrared coating45 %B (lower end)III. CFLs with bulb-shaped cover and low light output65 %B (higher end)III. CFLs with bare tubes or high light output80 %A
35Schneider products to control this type of lighting Wiring Devices for essential lighting applicationsControl for advanced lighting applicationsAnya, Sedna, Unica, System M, Aztec, Alvais, Altira, Cedar+, Mureva, Aquadesign, Anti-vandal …IndoorOutdoorDin Rail Stand alone electronicsKNX, IHCTimers, dimmers, twilight switches, time switches…Wall-mountedStand-alone electronicsWireless SolutionsTo end off, here is an overview of the Schneider Electric Wiring Devices offers used for the lighting functions we have just seen.The range names are given for information purposes.Please note that these are particular segments not described here.And the products are not necessarily sold in all the countries in which we are present.Timers, dimmers, presence & movement detectors ,…
36High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) > Overview of other types of lightingHigh Intensity Discharge lamps (HID)Produce light by means of an electric arc.Several types:Mercury vapour lampsMetal halide (MH) lampsCeramic MH lampsSodium vapour lampsXenon short-arc lampsUltra-High Performance (UHP)Higher lighting efficiency than incandescent lamps or fluorescent tubesNow let’s have an overview of other types of lighting, starting with High Intensity Discharge lights.With HID lamps, the lamp produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. The tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas facilitates the arc's initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming a plasma, which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption.As you can see in the slide, there are several HID sub-families: mercury vapour lamps, and so on.These lamps have the highest lighting efficiency, which is why they are used outdoors and in buildings with high ceilings (not in office buildings).
37High Pressure Mercury vapour lamps (MBF) > Overview of other types of lightingHigh Pressure Mercury vapour lamps (MBF)Main use: Public lighting, industry, shelters, docks, with high bay fixturesTechnical characteristics: The oldest HID gas discharge lampA declining trend: replaced by HP Sodium or Metal Halide lampsExcept for ballast-free version (can directly replace standard incandescent bulbs), most mercury lamps need a ballast to work.Lamp power: 48 to 1000 W. Light Output: up to LumensLight. Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyControl: ballastNow, high pressure mercury vapour lamps.So far, they are mainly used outdoors and offer good lighting efficiency.The outer bulb may be clear or have a phosphorous coating. In both cases, the outer bulb provides thermal insulation, protection from ultraviolet radiation, and convenient mounting for the fused quartz arc tube.or
38Low Pressure Sodium vapour lamps (LPS or SOX) > Overview of other types of lightingLow Pressure Sodium vapour lamps (LPS or SOX)Main use: Outdoors only, road & security lighting, with high bay fixturesTechnical characteristics: Most efficient, long life gas discharge lampTrend toward replacement by High Pressure Sodium lamps.A ballast is required. Several minutes starting time.Lamp power: 18 to 185 W. Light output: up to 35,000 LumensLight. Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyControl: ballastLow pressure lamps.These lamps produce virtually monochrome light, so the colours of illuminated objects are not easily distinguished.But LPS lamps are the most efficient electrically-powered light sourceAs a result, they are widely used for outdoor lighting such as street lights and security lighting where true colour rendering is considered unimportant.Another unique property of LPS lamps is that, unlike other types, their lumen output doesn't decline with age.
39High Pressure vapour sodium (SON) > Overview of other types of lightingHigh Pressure vapour sodium (SON)Main use: Streets, monuments, tunnels, airports, docks, car parks, parks, shopping malls, warehouses, halls, etc. with high bay fixtures or projectorsTechnical characteristics: Long life, powerful, quite efficient HID lampTrend toward replacement of Metal Halide for better colour renderingBallast required. Several minutes to start. Work below -25°CLamp power: 35 to 1000 W. Light output: up to 140,000 LumensLight Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyControl: ballastHigh pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are smaller.They provide good colour rendering, so they are used in areas where colour rendering is important.And due to good lighting efficiency and an average lamp life of more than 20,000 hours, they tend to be used in large infrastructures.or
40Metal Halide lamps (MBI) > Overview of other types of lightingMetal Halide lamps (MBI)R7SE27Main use: streets, car parks, shopping malls, shops, halls, gymnasiums, factories, workshops, warehouses, garden lights, etc. with high or low bay fixturesTechnical characteristics: powerful & efficient with good renderingTrend toward replacement of High Pressure Sodium lampsBallast required. Several minutes to start. Work below -25°CLamp power: 30 to 2000 W. Light output: up to 180,000 LumensLight Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: DailyControl: BallastThe metal halide lamp is a relatively new source of light.The ceramic tube is filled with mercury, argon and metal halide salts.The metallic atoms are the main source of light in these lamps, creating a bluish light that is similar to daylight.The trend is toward this technology replacing High pressure vapour sodium lamps.Applications for these lamps include television- and film making as well as shop lighting, digital photography, street- and architectural lighting.
41> Overview of other types of lighting Induction lampsMain use: areas with difficult access or requiring high service continuity: High ceilings, tunnels, airports, uninterruptable processes, freezers, etc.Technical characteristics: very long life, medium power light source.Except for compact bulb version, this electrode-less HF fluorescent lamp needs an electronic ballast.Instantaneous start. Work down to -40°C.Lamp power: 55 to 165 W. Light output: up to 12,000 LumensLight Efficiency: Lifetime: Output: Colour: On/off: FrequentControl:In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrode-less lamps, the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro) magnetic fields.There are two advantages of eliminating electrodes. The first is extended bulb life, since electrodes are usually the limiting factor in bulb life.The second benefit is the ability to use light-generating substances that would react with metal electrodes in normal lamps.These lamps are used in cold places and uninterruptable processes such as tunnels.
42Schneider products to control this type of lighting > Overview of other types of lightingSchneider products to control this type of lightingTime switches IH, IHPTwilight switches IC 2000, IC 2000P+, IC AstroCombined with power contactorsMovement &Presence detectorsLNi.e IHPJust to give you an idea, these types of lights can be managed by #IC2000, IC 2000P+ or #IC Astro if needed, combined with power contactors.But for only applications that don't require dimming.Public lighting for streets, roads and so on is not within Schneider Electric's scope today.
43In the same set of basics > Intranet CentreIn the same set of basicsModule 1: Basics of LightingModule 2: Basic of Lighting Control ApplicationsModule 3: Basics of DimmingModule 4: Basics of Movement DetectorsAnd also availableModule 5: Basics of ShuttersFor more information, you can consult the basics listed in this slide.The ISC Training team hopes to meet you again in our training modules.
44ISC Learning Centre > Intranet Centre From Swebi And a few more words to invite you to visit our ISC Learning Centre Intranet site.To get to it from Swebi, select "Operating Divisions", then "Europe", and then "Installation Systems & Control".There you'll find all the information on the training we can offer you.You'll also find the names of the contact people in charge of organisation.From Swebi- Select "Operating division”- Select "Europe”- Select "Installation Systems & Control”44
45ISC Learning Centre > Intranet Centre To be more precise, on the Intranet site, you'll find:- the Training catalogue, with the courses ISC can offer you- the dates forIN class seminars with the locations- Web seminars and datesAnd a discovery of the TSG-Training Solution Guide which is our ISC e-learning platform.Then choose what you need in the menu45
46Where to get more info? > Intranet Centre And just a few last words to inform you that product presentations are available in / Product Offer/ Products by Organization/Select your product line and you will get to the picture you see in this slide.The presentations are available in the "Training" and "Communication tools" sections.On the left, you have several choices:Communication toolsCatalogueTraining46
47Lighting circuit connection diagrams: 3 basic configurations > Technical AppendixLighting circuit connection diagrams: 3 basic configurationsSymbols:Lighting loadincludingballast when applicableMCB (or fuse)+ optional RCDSwitch, orpower contactof contactor /impulse relaySingle (L-N) or double phase (L-L) ( V or V)3 phase (L- L: V) , delta connection (no neutral)3 phase (L- L: V), star connection (with or without neutral)L L1orN L2Central point may be connected to optional neutraloptional neutral
48Level of light: typical data and end-use requirements > Technical AppendixLevel of light: typical data and end-use requirementsFull moon:0.5Summer shadeCloudy25000SunnyNatural lightLuxOfficeWorkshopWarehouseStudio2000ShopFlat200Street20-7020 lux2000 luxArtificial light
49ELV incandesce,t halogen > Technical AppendixMax. light output capability of a single lamp in relation to technologyLightingfeatures15 000Std incand.In comparison with LV incandescent halogen, High Intensity Discharge Lamps clearly provide more powerful illumination with higher efficiencyLow power Light Emitting Diodes are assembled in one unit (LED array) to produce significant light output (hundreds to thousands of lumens)40 000LV Incandescenthalogen12 000ELV incandesce,t halogen5 000Compact fluorescent14 000Fluorescent tubesHP Mercury65 000LP sodium35 000HP sodiumMetal Halide12 000Inductiondozens / thousandsLED (single /array)50 000Max. light output(lumens)LowMediumHighVery HighExtremely High
50Thanks! Make the most of your energy ISC Learning Centre This is the end. We hope you've enjoyed this presentation and we look forward to meeting you again at our training seminars.Make the most of your energy50