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Basics of Lighting ISC Learning Centre

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1 Basics of Lighting ISC Learning Centre
Hello and welcome to this training module. July 2009

2 Basics of lighting - Contents
Introduction Selection parameters Overview of building lighting Overview of home lighting Overview of other types of lighting Introduction to lighting bus In this module, you'll discover the different types of lights found on the market and their main characteristics.

3 > Introduction Why this module? With the world focusing on how to reduce the energy bill With professionals wanting more efficiency and safety at work With consumers seeking to improve comfort and security The types of lighting have become more and more varied The choice of lighting is becoming more and more important The objective of this module is to give you basic information on the different lights found on the market and help you understand their connection with our lighting control offer. The module is an introduction to the different types of control provided by Schneider Electric. This module is the first of a set of basic modules on Lighting Control (see list at the end of the module)

4 Lighting & energy consumption
> Introduction Lighting & energy consumption Lighting alone is responsible for 19% of the world's electricity demand Lighting accounts for 10 to 33% (USA) of each country's electricity consumption A huge concern especially for public lighting (30% more than 20 years old) Since the Kyoto protocol, all nations have become more aware of energy savings. Lighting, which accounts, on average, for 19% of the world's electricity demand, is therefore receiving more and more attention. Light manufacturers are offering more and more choices to reduce electricity consumption. And lights can now be chosen according to their use. City lighting, park, car park, road lighting, stations, game fields, docks, etc.

5 Offices, hotels, shops & supermarkets
> Lighting & Energy Consumption Buildings Lighting = 25 to 50% (average 40%) of electricity bill Offices, hotels, shops & supermarkets In professional buildings, the lights may stay on 24 hours a day. This makes lighting a big item in building electricity consumption. And it means that it can quickly pay off to carefully examine lighting needs, the type of lights to be used and the way to control them. Schools, gymnasiums, medical care

6 Apartment buildings, homes
> Lighting & Energy Consumption Industry & Housing Lighting = 10 to 15% of the electricity bill Power plant, heavy industry, laboratory, warehouse, factories, workshop… In industry, savings can be made as well by carefully examining lighting, case by case, according to the type of building (storage, manufacturing plant, continuous process, and so on). And in the residential sector, lighting is considered to account for about 10% of the electricity bill. Apartment buildings, homes

7 On the market today … Two main technologies
> Overview of lights on the market On the market today Two main technologies Incandescent lamps Gas discharge lamps Several types of applications  different needs  several types of lights Professional use Private use Types of control Conventional (wiring) Field-bus Central systems There are currently two main families of lights on the market: incandescent lights and gas discharge lights. Incandescent lights are used more in houses and flats while gas discharge lights are used for buildings, industry and infrastructure. Both can be controlled by conventional push-button or switch installations. And they can also be connected to Building Management Systems.

8 Technologies on the market
> Overview of lights on the market Technologies on the market Incandescent bulbs "GLS"*: Most common bulbs LV & ELV* halogen Gas discharge lamps: Fluorescent lights: Low pressure mercury fluorescent tubes Compact Fluorescent Lamps "CFL" High Intensity Discharge lights "HID" High Pressure Mercury "MBF" Low Pressure Sodium "LPS, SLP, SOX" High Pressure Sodium "HPS, SHP, SON" Metal Halide "MH, HQI, MIB" Others: Light Emitting Diodes "LED", induction The incandescent light family includes bulbs and 230 V AC or low voltage 12 V DC halogen lights. Gas discharge lamps include fluorescent tubes, high intensity discharge lights, low and high pressure sodium lights and metal halide lights. We'll see in the next few slides how they are used and their characteristics. And now, there's also LED technology, used today for decoration and signs, and under development for lighting solutions. *GLS= Global Light Source *ELV: Extra Low Voltage (12Vdc)

9 Applications / Lights:
> Overview of lights on the market Applications / Lights: Buildings Fluorescent tubes Metal halide "MH, HQI, MIB" Lights for homes, small shops & offices, hotels Incandescent bulbs + LV & ELV halogen Fluorescent tubes + Compact Fluorescent Lamps "CFL" Others: Light Emitting Diodes "LED", induction Others (such as public lighting, outdoor lighting) High Intensity Discharge lights "HID" High Pressure Mercury "MBF" Low Pressure Sodium "LPS, SLP, SOX" High Pressure Sodium "HPS, SHP, SON" Metal Halide "MH, HQI, MIB" When lighting is classified by groups of applications, it appears that buildings use essentially fluorescent tubes and some factories use metal halide lights. Homes, small shops and hotels are more into basic and traditional or design type lighting. So they tend to use incandescent, halogen or CFL lamps. The rest of the technologies are used more for public lighting and infrastructure, such as streets, roads, train stations, airports, docks and so on.

10 Lighting - Selection parameters
> Overview of lights on the market Lighting - Selection parameters Lighting needs in relation to end-use Required brightness (lighting power level) Environment (temperature, humidity, etc.) Aesthetics Colour rendering (capacity of lighting to render the colours of the illuminated object) Lifetime (with respect to daily and yearly operating time) Frequency of switching (daily on / off operations) Lamp starting and warm-up times (how long it takes to reach the full light output) Dimming capability (some types of lights are not dimmable) Size for compatibility with existing light fixtures Diffused or spot lighting, mounting height (low bay / high bay) Safety, extra low voltage, CFL not too close to people's heads Easy maintenance Overall cost (investment cost + operating cost) Now let's look at the parameters used to choose lighting: First of all, the required level of lighting, freely chosen in homes but sometimes imposed in professional buildings (500 Lux in offices, for example) Then, the environment or place of use: indoors or outdoors, ambient temperature, humidity, in a factory or simply in a bathroom. Aesthetics in homes, fashion boutiques, hotels, etc. Colour rendering, for a proper view of objects Lifetime and frequency of use Does the light take time to warm up? Will it be used with a dimmer? For renovation, can it be mounted in an existing light fixture? In professional buildings, the cost of lamps plus installation and maintenance costs are considered as well.

11 Fluorescent tubes The most frequently used!
> Overview of building lighting Fluorescent tubes T12 (40-65lm/W) T8 (80-95 lm/W) T5 ( lm/W) 38mm 26mm 16mm The most frequently used! Accept frequent On/Off switching Lamp power: 4 to 140 W, light output up to Lumens Lifetime of fluorescent tubes depends on daily On / Off frequency and type of ballast Several types of fixtures according to use: 3m to 12m height (high efficiency), hanging, surface or flush mounted, single, twin or multiple tube fixture, IP 65 version... As seen previously, for professional type buildings, fluorescent tubes are the most frequently used. They can accept frequent switching on and off and are compatible with dimming. Manufacturers offer a wide variety of sizes and designs. Lighting/consumption:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Frequent Control: Ballast Dimmable: Yes

12 > Overview of building lighting
Control circuits for fluorescent tubes & high intensity discharge lamps Magnetic ballast Electronic ballast or Fluorescent tube lighting includes a ballast, a starter and a tube. The ballast may be magnetic or electronic. Dimmable Please note: Most Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) have an electronic ballast built into the base

13 Fluorescent tubes - Wiring diagrams
> Overview of building lighting Fluorescent tubes - Wiring diagrams Single tube, magnetic ballast with no compensation (inductive load)  p.f. < 0.5, flicker, noise, low lifetime 8000h, inrush current 13 In / 5-10ms  simple, cheap Single tube, magnetic ballast with parallel compensation  flicker, noise, very high inrush current In / 1ms  p.f. > 0.85, improved lifetime Single tube, magnetic ballast with serial compensation (cap. load)  flicker, noise, high inrush current 13 In / 5-10ms Twin compensated tubes with magnetic ballast  High inrush current 20 In / 1ms  Limited flicker, low noise, p.f. > 0.85, improved lifetime One or more tubes with electronic ballast  Very high inrush current In / 0.5ms, HF earth leakage detected by RCD  No flicker, silent, high efficiency (+25%), longer lifetime (+ 50%), p.f. > 0.9 Just for information, this slide gives you a summary of the different types of wiring found on the market. The system with no compensation is the least expensive, but does not offer good electrical efficiency and may generate noise while operating. The magnetic ballast systems with compensation or twin compensated tubes were created to improve efficiency. They are still widely used. The electronic ballast system offers the best performance factors AND can be dimmed. This technology is being used more and more. Control circuit

14 Fluorescent tubes - Lifetime
> Overview of building lighting Fluorescent tubes - Lifetime Fluorescent tubes lifetime Daily On / Off frequency + type of ballast Lifetime (x 1000 h) Here's a diagram explaining the lifetime of fluorescent tubes. The lifetime is linked directly to the frequency of tube on/off switching and the type of ballast. Here again, the electronic ballast rates higher than magnetic ballasts. Daily On / Off switching frequency (h) Type of control ballast: electronic with progressive warm-up process compensated magnetic non compensated magnetic 1 2 3

15 Conventional ON/OFF 10 A or 16 A switch
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Conventional ON/OFF 10 A or 16 A switch L N Here is the complete diagram for ON/OFF control. All the types of ballasts are suitable for this type of installation. The amperage accepted by the switch or impulse relay limits the number of tubes that can be connected. And there's no dimming possible. Can be connected to Single tube, magnetic ballast with no compensation Single tube, magnetic ballast with parallel compensation Single tube, magnetic ballast with serial compensation Twin compensated tubes with magnetic ballast Limited to large installations

16 Conventional Dimming Stand-Alone Electronic Potentiometer
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Conventional Dimming Stand-Alone Electronic Potentiometer 10% 100% Electronic Potentiometer Ballast 1 Output + Tube L N 1-10Vdc Ballast 2 For more advanced applications with dimming or building bus type control, electronic ballasts must be used. Electronic ballasts have a 1 to 10 Volt DC input that can be connected to a potentiometer. Variable voltage from 1 to 10 V DC corresponds to the proportion of lighting required by the user. The potentiometer can be a stand-alone wall-mounted product, a panel-mounted product or a component integrated with a DALI, KNX or LON type bus. Can be connected to electronic ballast Mature technology Limited to large installations More info? - See Basics of Dimming

17 Direct Control by Bus Management System (BMS):
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Direct Control by Bus Management System (BMS): Power line Push-Buttons ON/OFF by switch actuator Dimming with Control Unit 0-10Vdc + Bus Tube + Ballast + Starter Tube Here the tubes are controlled directly by building control buses or "BMS". For ON/OFF control, a switch actuator sends the order to the lighting circuit, which may have a magnetic ballast. For dimming, a potentiometer module sends a 1 to 10 V DC signal to the electronic ballast. These modules receive push-button control orders via the building bus. Can be connected to all type of tubes Can be connected to electronic ballast More info? - See our KNX and LON courses

18 Control by lighting bus:
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Control by lighting bus: DALI Bus – What is it? DALI stands for: Digital Addressable Lighting Interface An open protocol set out in the technical standard EN/IEC 60929 Developed by all leading ballast manufacturers, for building installations. Growing technology in buildings Schneider has to manage it S-E offers gateways: KNX/Dali, LON/DALI Electronic ballast for fluorescent tubes, HID, LED, and transformers for LV halogen. protective earth DALI z.B. NYM 5x... neutral wire phase Now, fluorescent tube control by a lighting bus. It's important not to confuse lighting buses with building control buses which also manage HVAC (or heating- ventilation-air conditioning) DALI is a lighting bus developed by light fixture manufacturers. It's a standard, and therefore has an open protocol. It is being used more and more in buildings. More info on DALI? - See

19 > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods
DALI system structure DALI Master DALI Power supply Power 3 DALI 2 max. 300m Here are the basic system guidelines for DALI Functional compatibility The compatibility of ballasts is guaranteed by the standard. System size The maximum number of individual addresses available in the DALI standard is 64. The maximum DALI supply current is given as 250 mA. So up to 64 individual ballasts can be connected to a DALI line without exceeding the system node or power supply current limits. Routing The maximum voltage drop on the DALI line may not exceed 2 Volts, resulting in a maximum line length of 300 m, between the furthest DALI components. Schneider Electric offers gateways to connect DALI to our KNX or LON systems. DALI Slaves max. 64 EVGs

20 > Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods
Synergy with our offer: Connection to our DALI / KNX gateway via 2 binary inputs Gateway for fluorescent tubes on DALI bus and conventional push-buttons. DALI bus Dimmable Fluorescent tubes L N External power supply AC 9-24V or DC 9-36V Dali Gateway Push-Buttons Let's look at how DALI is connected to our gateway. Schneider Electric's KNX/DALI gateway can be used with a KNX connection and also to convert orders received from conventional push-buttons. It allows dimming.

21 Connection to our KNX System through our DALI gateway
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Connection to our KNX System through our DALI gateway L N DALI bus Dimmable fluorescent tubes Push-Buttons As seen previously in the conventional solutions, the DALI gateway can convert KNX control orders for lighting connected to the DALI bus. For example, the pressing of a push-button connected to the KNX bus is converted by the gateway to generate an encoded order that is understood by the lights connected to the DALI bus. KNX Bus More info on buses or DALI gateway? - See our KNX and LON courses

22 Connection to our LON DALI gateway
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Connection to our LON DALI gateway DALI Gateway DALI Power Supply DALI Controller DALI LON LON Other Option DALI Power 3 DALI 2 max. 300m DALI Slaves max. 64 EVG´s Here is the LON solution, quite similar to the KNX solution. For more details, we recommend you take some training on LON. More info on LON? Contact ISC training team More info on how to choose between LON and KNX? - Discover New Way course

23 Benefits compared to 1-10V control systems
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Benefits compared to 1-10V control systems Individual control of fixtures Multi-channelling by only one pair of control cables No mains switching needed Back channelling Simple DALI wiring: simple two-wire cable Easy system re-configuration Easy to add new components What are the advantages pushed by lighting manufacturers to convince customers to use DALI in their installations? 1- Individual control of fixtures: each unit in the DALI network has its own individual address, making it possible to communicate directly to the fixture components 2- Multi-channelling: using only one pair of control cables, DALI can control several different groups of fixtures 3- No mains switching needed: the lights can be switched off by commands sent directly from the DALI control system, making the mains switch unnecessary 4- Back channelling: with the DALI system, information flows both ways. Instead of just sending the fixture commands about the light level, the DALI system enables information feedback on the condition of the fixtures. Fixtures can transmit information on: whether the light is switched on or off, the preset light level and the condition of the ballast 5- Simple DALI wiring: the cabling consists of a simple two-wire cable, regardless of the building topology between the units in the system 6- Easy system re-configuration: once the system is installed and configured, it's very easy to change the system operation. Changing scenes and lighting functions is simply a matter of programming and requires no hardware changes. 7- Easy to add new components: when the lighting system needs to be extended, new components can be added anywhere in the DALI system. There are no wiring configuration rules on the DALI line.

24 Differences between DALI and BA buses (KNX, LON)
> Building lighting - Fluorescent tubes - Control methods Differences between DALI and BA buses (KNX, LON) + Complementarity DALI has a limited system size (64 addresses) and a maximum cable length of 300 meters. DALI is intended only for communication in lighting systems, whereas BMS includes other functional features as well (such as HVAC and alarm systems). A BMS system commonly has unlimited expansion possibilities, which DALI does not. DALI is not competing with BMS systems: it simply complements them via an interface. 64 addresses Lighting Control - Large number of components - Control of lighting, HVAC, alarm systems, etc.

25 DSI for Digital Serial Protocol
> Other lighting systems on the market: DSI DSI for Digital Serial Protocol 1991 Proprietary system from Tridonic-Atco (Zumtobel) An "intelligent" central unit + All fixtures connected to it  Many wires Another system found on the market is DSI (Digital Serial Protocol). DSI was created in 1991, by the manufacturer Tridonic. It's based on a central unit to which all the light fixtures in the installation are connected. This means a lot of wires, which is why this technology is being replaced more and more by DALI technology. More info on DSI? - See

26 Introduction to home lighting
> Overview of home & small office lighting Introduction to home lighting Energy efficient lighting in homes Lighting may account for up to a fifth of a household's electricity consumption. Upgrading the lamps can reduce a household's total electricity consumption by up to 10-15% The Ecodesign Directive provides a framework: EU energy label on household lamps Most energy efficient bulbs are compact fluorescent lamps: A -class Worst: incandescent bulbs: G to E-class (Directive 1998/11/EC). Now, let’s move on to home lighting. Here again, the energy savings are increasing. The Eco design directive classifies lights from A to G, A for the most efficient lights and G for the worst ones.

27 Incandescent lamp (GLS) (E-class)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Incandescent lamp (GLS) (E-class) 1879 (Thomas Edison) Lamp power: 15 to 1000 W Light Output: up to 15,000 lumens Class G to E: Europe has decided to remove these lights from the EU market before 2012 E27 (ES) B22 (BC) E14(SES) S15 S19 S14 Advantages Disadvantages First, incandescent light. Light is produced by a threadlike conductor surrounded by inert gas or vacuum and heated to incandescence by the electric current passing through it. For years it has been the type of lights used in all homes in the world. Now, with the new directives on energy savings, this type of light will progressively be removed from the market. Some countries have already started the process. Bright point light source (if transparent glass) Energy-guzzler – very low efficiency (E, F or G-class) Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output (lm):  Colour:   On/off : Frequent Control: Direct Full compatibility with existing luminaries Risks due to high operating temperature Full dimmable on any dimmer Short lifetime (1000 hours) Good quality and performance Efficiency= Lighting/consumption

28 Conventional halogen lamps (D or E-class)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Conventional halogen lamps (D or E-class) 230Vac 12Vdc 1980s 230Vac lamps or 12Vdc lamps (+ transformer) Improved incandescent lamp technology Much smaller lamp size Equal or slightly higher efficiency than incandescent lights 230Vac lamp power: 25 to 2000 W, Light Output: up to 40,000 lumens GU6.35 E27 R7S E14 G4 G9 GU/GZ10 GU5.3 Advantages Disadvantages Halogen lights. This type of lamp came onto the market and widely spread in the 80s. They are still used today in many light fixtures because of their small size. Extra low voltage 12 V DC halogen lights can provide about 15% savings compared to incandescent lights. Bright point light source Low efficiency, no or at best 15% energy Savings at mains voltage compared to incandescent lamps (D,E or F class, low voltage: C class, 25% savings) Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:   Colour:   On/off : Daily Control: Direct Full compatibility with existing luminaries Risks due to high operating temperature Full dimmable on any dimmer Relatively short lifetime (1000 – 3000 hours) Efficiency= Lighting/consumption Good quality and performance

29 Conventional halogen lamps
> Overview of home & small office lighting Conventional halogen lamps 12Vdc 12Vdc lamps (+ transformer) Lamp power: 5 to 500 W, Light Output: up to 12,000 lumens 12Vdc lamps  safety in humid rooms Magnetic transformer (LV / ELV) = Inductive load Electronic converter ("ballast") = Capacitive load GU6.35 G4 GU5.3 Lighting Efficiency:  Lifetime:   Output:   Colour:    On/off Frequent Control: Ballast For lighting control, it's important to note that 12 V DC halogen lamps can be powered by either magnetic or electronic transformers. The transformers are either inductive or capacitive. This is very important for choosing a dimmer. The dimmer must be suited to the type of load connected to it. Otherwise, it is liable not to work or be damaged. For dimming, very important to know the type of load (see Basics of Dimming)

30 Halogen lamps with xenon gas filling (C-class)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Halogen lamps with xenon gas filling (C-class) Recent technology With xenon gas filling, about 25% less energy / same incandescent lights Come in two versions Only the filling gas is replaced, the socket and the dimensions of the lamp are the same as for conventional halogen lights. The improved halogen capsule is placed in glass bulbs shaped like incandescent lamps (sold as retrofit "energy saver lamps”). Halogen lamps with xenon are one of the most recent technologies. They are an alternative to incandescent lamps. They consume 25% less energy and have roughly the same characteristics in terms of both loads and size. We should be finding more and more of them on the market. They come in two versions. In the first version, only the filling gas is replaced. The socket and dimensions of the lamp are the same as for the conventional halogens seen previously and therefore can only be used in fixtures with special halogen sockets. In the second version, the improved halogen capsule is placed in glass bulbs the same shape as incandescent lamps with a traditional socket, making them compatible with all light fixtures that use incandescent lamps. They are sold as retrofit "energy saver lamps”. Advantages Bright point light source Disadvantages 25% energy savings (C class) compared to the best incandescent lamps Full compatibility with existing luminaries Risks due to high operating temperature Full dimmable on any dimmer Good quality and performance Relatively short lifetime (2000 – 3000 hours)

31 Halogen lamps with infrared coating (B-class)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Halogen lamps with infrared coating (B-class) Recent technology Infrared coating added to the wall of halogen lamp capsules  about 45% less energy/ Same incandescent lights. But only possible with low voltage lamps, So a transformer is needed (separate unit or integrated into the fixture or lamp for incandescent retrofit solution) Both special socket capsules and incandescent retrofit lamps are available in B-class Lamp with integrated transformer limited to 60W (too much heat) Advantages Bright point light source 45% energy savings (B class) compared to the best incandescent lamps Good quality and performance Risks due to high operating temperature Full dimmable on any dimmer Relatively short lifetime (3000 hours) Disadvantages Too large for some luminaries No equivalent yet to GLS > 60W Only one producer currently for GLS retrofit Halogen lamps with infrared coating are also a new arrival. They can provide energy savings of 45% but only operate with low voltage, which means a transformer is required.

32 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) (A-class)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) (A-class) Fluorescent lamp tubes, with integrated ballast, becoming a stand-alone retrofit solution to replace incandescent lamps. 1980s. Long lifetime and high efficiency, between 65% and 80% less energy / same incandescent lights. Sometimes with an external envelope that hides the tubes and makes them even more similar to light bulbs (although decreasing efficiency). The envelope also shields off any unwanted ultraviolet radiation and risks connected to incorrect disposal. Power: 5-55 W, Light < 5000 Lumens Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:   On/off: Daily Advantages Up to 80% energy saving (A class or upper end of B class) compared to incandescent lamps Disadvantages No bright point lighting Money-saver Often not dimmable Environmentally-friendly Suboptimal colour rendering Long lifetime (6 times longer compared to incandescent lamps) Relatively low starting and warm up time Available with warm or cool light Safety issues (can be avoided with proper coating Too large for some luminaries Being A-class, Compact Fluorescent Lamps are being pushed more and more by light manufacturers as the true alternative to incandescent lights. Nevertheless, there are some restrictions. First of all, CFLs are not dimmable, so they can't be used in existing installations with dimmers. Also, CFLs contain small amounts of mercury and emit ultraviolet light which can, under some circumstances, have a negative impact on people suffering from diseases accompanied by light sensitivity. However an in-depth analysis by the Commission has demonstrated that these two factors do not present a hazard to the general public. According to the Commission, (quote) "the decrease in mercury emissions resulting from energy savings outweighs the need for mercury in the lamps. It remains that CFL lamps should be disposed of properly. The impact of both elements can be further reduced by using CFLs with an outer non-breakable lamp envelope." (unquote) Therefore CFLs mustn’t be used near our heads, such as for lights over the oven in the kitchen, bed lights or in children's rooms. We recommend the use of CFLs in corridors, offices and plants.

33 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
> Overview of home & small office lighting Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) E27 E14 G10 G5.3 Very long lifetime Quickly emerging technology with recent progress in efficiency For room lighting, only in the first phases of commercialisation and rarely meets all consumer expectations in terms of light output and other functions. Likely to become true alternative to CFLs very rapidly. Electric power: W (1 LED) to several Watts (LED array), Light Output: a few Lumens (1 LED) to thousands lm (LED array) Main use: Traffic lights, signalling / display boards, decoration spotlights, portable or isolated ELV DC lighting (battery, photovoltaic), etc. For the time being, this technology is used for signalling and it is not powerful enough yet to become an alternative for home lighting. However, with the technical strong points of LED technology, there's a lot of development work going on that could make LEDs more useful in the near future! Light. Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Daily Control:

34 > Summary of home lighting classification
Efficiency of lamp technologies compared with incandescent lamps (E-class) Lamp technology Energy savings Energy class I. Incandescent lamps - E, F, G II.1 Conventional halogens (mains voltage 220 V) 0 – 15 % D, E, F II.1 Conventional halogens (low voltage 12 V) 25 % C II.2 Halogens with xenon gas filling (mains voltage 220 V) 25 % C Here is a summary of the classification of lights according to the ECO directive. II.3 Halogens with infrared coating 45 % B (lower end) III. CFLs with bulb-shaped cover and low light output 65 % B (higher end) III. CFLs with bare tubes or high light output 80 % A

35 Schneider products to control this type of lighting
Wiring Devices for essential lighting applications Control for advanced lighting applications Anya, Sedna, Unica, System M, Aztec, Alvais, Altira, Cedar+, Mureva, Aquadesign, Anti-vandal … Indoor Outdoor Din Rail Stand alone electronics KNX, IHC Timers, dimmers, twilight switches, time switches… Wall-mounted Stand-alone electronics Wireless Solutions To end off, here is an overview of the Schneider Electric Wiring Devices offers used for the lighting functions we have just seen. The range names are given for information purposes. Please note that these are particular segments not described here. And the products are not necessarily sold in all the countries in which we are present. Timers, dimmers, presence & movement detectors ,…

36 High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID)
> Overview of other types of lighting High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) Produce light by means of an electric arc. Several types: Mercury vapour lamps Metal halide (MH) lamps Ceramic MH lamps Sodium vapour lamps Xenon short-arc lamps Ultra-High Performance (UHP) Higher lighting efficiency than incandescent lamps or fluorescent tubes Now let’s have an overview of other types of lighting, starting with High Intensity Discharge lights. With HID lamps, the lamp produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. The tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas facilitates the arc's initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming a plasma, which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption. As you can see in the slide, there are several HID sub-families: mercury vapour lamps, and so on. These lamps have the highest lighting efficiency, which is why they are used outdoors and in buildings with high ceilings (not in office buildings).

37 High Pressure Mercury vapour lamps (MBF)
> Overview of other types of lighting High Pressure Mercury vapour lamps (MBF) Main use: Public lighting, industry, shelters, docks, with high bay fixtures Technical characteristics: The oldest HID gas discharge lamp A declining trend: replaced by HP Sodium or Metal Halide lamps Except for ballast-free version (can directly replace standard incandescent bulbs), most mercury lamps need a ballast to work. Lamp power: 48 to 1000 W. Light Output: up to Lumens Light. Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Daily Control: ballast Now, high pressure mercury vapour lamps. So far, they are mainly used outdoors and offer good lighting efficiency. The outer bulb may be clear or have a phosphorous coating. In both cases, the outer bulb provides thermal insulation, protection from ultraviolet radiation, and convenient mounting for the fused quartz arc tube. or

38 Low Pressure Sodium vapour lamps (LPS or SOX)
> Overview of other types of lighting Low Pressure Sodium vapour lamps (LPS or SOX) Main use: Outdoors only, road & security lighting, with high bay fixtures Technical characteristics: Most efficient, long life gas discharge lamp Trend toward replacement by High Pressure Sodium lamps. A ballast is required. Several minutes starting time. Lamp power: 18 to 185 W. Light output: up to 35,000 Lumens Light. Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Daily Control: ballast Low pressure lamps. These lamps produce virtually monochrome light, so the colours of illuminated objects are not easily distinguished. But LPS lamps are the most efficient electrically-powered light source As a result, they are widely used for outdoor lighting such as street lights and security lighting where true colour rendering is considered unimportant. Another unique property of LPS lamps is that, unlike other types, their lumen output doesn't decline with age.

39 High Pressure vapour sodium (SON)
> Overview of other types of lighting High Pressure vapour sodium (SON) Main use: Streets, monuments, tunnels, airports, docks, car parks, parks, shopping malls, warehouses, halls, etc. with high bay fixtures or projectors Technical characteristics: Long life, powerful, quite efficient HID lamp Trend toward replacement of Metal Halide for better colour rendering Ballast required. Several minutes to start. Work below -25°C Lamp power: 35 to 1000 W. Light output: up to 140,000 Lumens Light Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Daily Control: ballast High pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are smaller. They provide good colour rendering, so they are used in areas where colour rendering is important. And due to good lighting efficiency and an average lamp life of more than 20,000 hours, they tend to be used in large infrastructures. or

40 Metal Halide lamps (MBI)
> Overview of other types of lighting Metal Halide lamps (MBI) R7S E27 Main use: streets, car parks, shopping malls, shops, halls, gymnasiums, factories, workshops, warehouses, garden lights, etc. with high or low bay fixtures Technical characteristics: powerful & efficient with good rendering Trend toward replacement of High Pressure Sodium lamps Ballast required. Several minutes to start. Work below -25°C Lamp power: 30 to 2000 W. Light output: up to 180,000 Lumens Light Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Daily Control: Ballast The metal halide lamp is a relatively new source of light. The ceramic tube is filled with mercury, argon and metal halide salts. The metallic atoms are the main source of light in these lamps, creating a bluish light that is similar to daylight. The trend is toward this technology replacing High pressure vapour sodium lamps. Applications for these lamps include television- and film making as well as shop lighting, digital photography, street- and architectural lighting.

41 > Overview of other types of lighting
Induction lamps Main use: areas with difficult access or requiring high service continuity: High ceilings, tunnels, airports, uninterruptable processes, freezers, etc. Technical characteristics: very long life, medium power light source. Except for compact bulb version, this electrode-less HF fluorescent lamp needs an electronic ballast. Instantaneous start. Work down to -40°C. Lamp power: 55 to 165 W. Light output: up to 12,000 Lumens Light Efficiency:  Lifetime:  Output:  Colour:  On/off: Frequent Control: In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrode-less lamps, the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro) magnetic fields. There are two advantages of eliminating electrodes. The first is extended bulb life, since electrodes are usually the limiting factor in bulb life. The second benefit is the ability to use light-generating substances that would react with metal electrodes in normal lamps. These lamps are used in cold places and uninterruptable processes such as tunnels.

42 Schneider products to control this type of lighting
> Overview of other types of lighting Schneider products to control this type of lighting Time switches IH, IHP Twilight switches IC 2000, IC 2000P+, IC Astro Combined with power contactors Movement & Presence detectors L N i.e IHP Just to give you an idea, these types of lights can be managed by #IC2000, IC 2000P+ or #IC Astro if needed, combined with power contactors. But for only applications that don't require dimming. Public lighting for streets, roads and so on is not within Schneider Electric's scope today.

43 In the same set of basics
> Intranet Centre In the same set of basics Module 1: Basics of Lighting Module 2: Basic of Lighting Control Applications Module 3: Basics of Dimming Module 4: Basics of Movement Detectors And also available Module 5: Basics of Shutters For more information, you can consult the basics listed in this slide. The ISC Training team hopes to meet you again in our training modules.

44 ISC Learning Centre > Intranet Centre From Swebi
And a few more words to invite you to visit our ISC Learning Centre Intranet site. To get to it from Swebi, select "Operating Divisions", then "Europe", and then "Installation Systems & Control". There you'll find all the information on the training we can offer you. You'll also find the names of the contact people in charge of organisation. From Swebi - Select "Operating division” - Select "Europe” - Select "Installation Systems & Control” 44

45 ISC Learning Centre > Intranet Centre
To be more precise, on the Intranet site, you'll find: - the Training catalogue, with the courses ISC can offer you - the dates for IN class seminars with the locations - Web seminars and dates And a discovery of the TSG-Training Solution Guide which is our ISC e-learning platform. Then choose what you need in the menu 45

46 Where to get more info? > Intranet Centre
And just a few last words to inform you that product presentations are available in / Product Offer/ Products by Organization/ Select your product line and you will get to the picture you see in this slide. The presentations are available in the "Training" and "Communication tools" sections. On the left, you have several choices: Communication tools Catalogue Training 46

47 Lighting circuit connection diagrams: 3 basic configurations
> Technical Appendix Lighting circuit connection diagrams: 3 basic configurations Symbols: Lighting load including ballast when applicable MCB (or fuse) + optional RCD Switch, or power contact of contactor / impulse relay Single (L-N) or double phase (L-L) ( V or V) 3 phase (L- L: V) , delta connection (no neutral) 3 phase (L- L: V), star connection (with or without neutral) L L1 or N L2 Central point may be connected to optional neutral optional neutral

48 Level of light: typical data and end-use requirements
> Technical Appendix Level of light: typical data and end-use requirements Full moon: 0.5 Summer shade Cloudy 25000 Sunny Natural light Lux Office Workshop Warehouse Studio 2000 Shop Flat 200 Street 20-70 20 lux 2000 lux Artificial light

49 ELV incandesce,t halogen
> Technical Appendix Max. light output capability of a single lamp in relation to technology Lighting features 15 000 Std incand. In comparison with LV incandescent halogen, High Intensity Discharge Lamps clearly provide more powerful illumination with higher efficiency Low power Light Emitting Diodes are assembled in one unit (LED array) to produce significant light output (hundreds to thousands of lumens) 40 000 LV Incandescent halogen 12 000 ELV incandesce,t halogen 5 000 Compact fluorescent 14 000 Fluorescent tubes HP Mercury 65 000 LP sodium 35 000 HP sodium Metal Halide 12 000 Induction dozens / thousands LED (single /array) 50 000 Max. light output (lumens) Low Medium High Very High Extremely High

50 Thanks! Make the most of your energy ISC Learning Centre
This is the end. We hope you've enjoyed this presentation and we look forward to meeting you again at our training seminars. Make the most of your energy 50


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