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Energy Efficient Lighting Systems B. V. RAGHAVAIAH A. K

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1 Energy Efficient Lighting Systems B. V. RAGHAVAIAH A. K
Energy Efficient Lighting Systems B.V.RAGHAVAIAH A.K.KHANRA Additional Director Engineering Officer RAJENDRA SINGH Engineering Officer CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

2 Introduction India is facing significant growth in electricity demand and could benefit greatly by using energy efficient lighting systems. The need of the hour for the country is secured, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy to meet the ambitious National Programme of “Power to all by 2012”. Lighting is the most visible form of electricity consumption and lighting load in our country is very high about 17-18% of total load. By increasing the efficiency of lighting system, there can be significant energy saving and reduction in peak load. There is a scope for reducing about 30 to 35 % of the morning and evening peak demand. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

3 Scheme for Promoting Energy Efficiency in India : Bachat Lamp Yojana
The 'Bachat Lamp Yojana' aims at the large scale replacement of incandescent bulbs in households by CFLs. It seeks to provide CFLs to households at the price similar to that of incandescent bulbs and plans to utilize the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol to recover the cost differential between the market price of the CFLs and the price at which they are sold to households. The Bachat Lamp Yojana is designed as a public-private partnership between the Government of India, private sector CFL suppliers and State level Electricity Distribution Companies (DISCOMs). The CFL suppliers would sell high quality CFLs to households at a price of Rs. 15 per CFL within a designated project area in a DISCOM region of operation. The CFL supplier will be chosen by the DISCOM through a due diligence process from a list of CFL suppliers empanelled by BEE. Under the scheme, 40 watt, 60 Watt and 100 Watt incandescent lamps will be replaced with 9-11 Watt, Watt and Watt CFLs respectively. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

4 Best Practices in Lighting Systems
Installation of energy efficient fluorescent lamps (T-5) in place of conventional fluorescent lamps(T-12). Installation of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) in place of incandescent lamps. Installation of LED panel indicator lamps in place of filament lamps. Installation of high frequency (HF) electronic ballasts in place of conventional magnetic ballasts. Use of high efficacy light sources for reducing the energy consumption for lighting . Solar Lighting Systems are providing to be a viable option in rural India because it involves no moving parts, low maintenance, and are simple to operate. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

5 Merits of LED lamps & demerits of filament lamps
Demerits of Conventionally filament lamps are as follows: High energy consumption (15 watt/lamp). Failure of lamps is high (operating life less than 1,000 hours). Very sensitive to the voltage fluctuations. Merits of the LED lamps over Conventionally filament lamps are as follows: Lesser power consumption ( watt/lamp). Longer operating life (more than 1,00,000 hours). Withstand high voltage fluctuation in the power supply. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

6 Merits of high frequency electronic ballasts over conventional magnetic ballasts
Energy savings about 30 to 50 %. Lights instantly. Improved power factor (more than 0.90 power factor). Less heat dissipation, which reduces the air conditioning load. No audible humming sound. No stroboscopic effect. Operates in low voltage. Less in weight. Increases the life of lamp. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

7 Characteristics of light source
Efficacy Color rendering Color temperature Size Life Cost CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

8 Factors affecting the lighting system design
Use of high efficacy light source Use of more efficient luminaries Selective switching Utilization of daylight Luminaries of higher space to height ratio Higher reflectance surfaces of the room Visual task analysis Task oriented lighting. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

9 Solar Lighting Systems
The Solar Lighting Systems are available in the basic categories which are as follows: (A) Solar lanterns (B) Solar street lighting systems (C) Solar home lighting systems The solar lanterns are portable units which can be easily moved to any place where lighting is necessary. The lanterns are available with a 10 or 12 Wp photovoltaic module and a 7 W CFL. It can be used for 3 to 4 hours per day after charging it for a day under normal insolation of 2-3 kWh/day. The solar street lighting systems are available with a 70 Ah Battery. It has an automatic dusk to dawn Controller, with at least 3 days of back up power in case of low insolation regime. The solar home lighting systems are available with basic configuration of either 2 × 9 W CFLs or 2 × 11 W CFLs, with a 40 Ah Battery capable of operating for three to four hours per day. A small DC Fan of 20 W capacity can also be opted for. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

10 Energy Conservation Measures in Lighting Systems
Use of LED lamps for indicating lamps will reduce the energy consumption. Use of compact fluorescent lamps in place of incandescent lamps, reduce the lighting energy by 70%. Use of mirror optic fluorescent lamps increases the lighting level considerably. Use of HPSV lamps in place of MPSV lamps reduce the energy consumption by 60% As the lighting level is inversely proportional to square of the distance, optimizing the height of lamp will aid in reduction of lighting energy. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

11 Energy Conservation Measures in Lighting Systems Contd…
Use of electronic ballasts for discharge lamps, reduce energy consumption by 20% Installation of intelligent lighting controller will help in controlling the lighting energy. Use of photo sensor switch for street light controlling helps in conserving the lighting energy. Installation of auto cut-off switch to put off lights during lunch hours at the office buildings will reduce the lighting energy. At street lights, in many places, the reflectors inside the HPSV fitting are damaged, it is suggested to replace the fittings with anodised aluminium reflectors. This will improve the lighting level by 20-25%. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

12 Why should people use CFLs?
Switching from traditional light bulbs (called incandescent ) to CFLs will help to use less electricity at home and prevent greenhouse gas emissions that lead to global climate change. Lighting accounts for close to 20 % of the average home’s electric bill. CFLs, last upto 10 times longer, cost little up front Provide a quick return on investment. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

13 Do CFLs contain mercury?
CFLs contain a very small amount of mercury sealed within the glass tubing - an average of 4 milligrams .By comparison the older thermometers contain about 500 milligram of mercury – an amount equal to mercury in 125 CFLs . Mercury is an essential part of CFLs; it allows the bulb to be essential part of light source. No mercury is released when bulbs are intact or in use .Most makers of light bulb have reduced mercury in their fluorescent lighting products. Thanks to technology advances the average mercury content in CFLs has dropped at least 20 % in the past year. Some manufacturers have even made further reductions, dropping mercury content to milligrams per light bulb. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

14 What precaution should take when using CFLs in home?
CFLs are made of glass and can break if dropped or roughly handled. Be careful when removing the bulb from packaging, installing it, or replacing it. Always screw or unscrew the light bulb by its base (not the glass ), and never forcefully twist the CFL into light socket .If a CFL breaks in your home follow the clean up recommendations given by Bureau of Energy Efficiency. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

15 Key Product Features of CFLs
Low electrical consumption as compared to conventional lighting products About 80% energy saving over incandescent bulbs. Long life up to 10,000 hours. It can operate within V range. Low cost of maintenance. High luminous efficiency. Available in different colors to create desired ambience. Lamps designed for power factor higher than 0.85. Mercury content within the CFLs (Maximum Limit being less than 5mg). CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

16 What is LED? LED is a light emitting semiconductor diode that emits light in forward direction or in the direction it is pointed towards. LEDs are most often used in the form of an indicator light in electronic devices, traffic signal lights, musical instruments and dashboards in cars and in houses, etc. The color of the light produced by LED depends on the composition of the semiconductor material used out of which producing a blue color light is the most difficult process. The nature of the light emitted can be visible, infrared or ultraviolet. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

17 Lifespan of a LED light bulb
Most modern LEDs are undergo superior design and manufacturing process that gives them a lifespan of up-to 1,00,000 hours, compared with 10,000 for a compact fluorescent and 1,000 for an incandescent bulb. Lifespan of a LED bulb could come down due to the amount of heat a LED produces. This directly depends on die temperature and ambient temperature of the LED. Some LED light bulbs show sign of age after a couple of years of use and may produce only 50% of the light output when compared to what it used to produce when it was new. However new technologies are in process to enhance its performance over its life span. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

18 Power consumption of LED light bulbs
Most modern LED operate in a range of 2 to 4 volts and consume anywhere between 350mA and 1500mA. The power consumption varies from manufacturer to manufacturer and also because of the purpose for which the LED was designed. Another factor that affects power consumption of LEDs is for the fact that LEDs can not be dimmed. Now a days using latest of the LED manufacturing technology, manufacturers are able to produce LEDs that are not only super bright but also consume less power while producing light of higher intensity. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

19 Benefits of using LED light bulbs over standard light bulbs
Power consumption of LED light bulb is only 10% of the standard light bulb. LED light bulbs withstand great amount of vibration, shock and temperature variations. LED light bulbs are times more energy efficient than incandescent light bulbs. Incandescent light bulbs produce light that flickers whereas LED light bulbs produce flicker free light. LED bulbs can produce many rich and vibrant colors when compared to incandescent light bulbs. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

20 Key Product Features of LED light bulbs
Low electrical consumption as compared to conventional lighting products. Pollution free due to non-emission of infra red or ultraviolet rays, mercury gases or other harmful rays. Do not have ballasts thus, no interference. Existing fixtures used since long are used making installation of our lights easy. Operates on universal input range. Due to long shelf life, no maintenance is required. Lasts 5 to 10 times longer than other conventional lighting products virtually eliminating the need for frequent replacement. Reduces Carbon Footprints at large scale making it viable to earn carbon credits. Suitable for all types of applications. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

21 Energy Snippets In Energy Snippets, the various upcoming Projects of Solar Power Plants in West Bengal Raj Bhawan, Solar Hub in Andhra Pradesh, replacement of incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps by the Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam (DHBVN), Haryana and also implemented scheme in Indian Railways under Energy Conservation and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) through Renewable Energy Resources have been highlighted . A. CFLs on the bright track in Indian Railways :It plans to replace the incandescent bulbs with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) in all its residential quarters, production units and workshop across the country and It will be registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). B. Mandatory for Haryana Industries :The Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam (DHBVN) has made it mandatory for all the industrial units (both high tension and low tension) and their residential colonies, hospitals, street lighting, to replace the conventional bulbs with the energy efficient CFLs and T-5 tube lights or induction bulbs. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

22 Energy Snippets Contd…
C. Andhra Pradesh ‘Blazes’ ahead on Solar Plans: The Andhra Pradesh plans to develop the state into a major solar hub in the country at a fast pace , with the government announcing the setting up of a Cluster of solar farms at Kadiri in Anantapur district, 5000 acres land have been enmarked in Kadiri which would now be referred to as the ‘Solar city’. Four companies, namely Hyderabad- based Lanco Solar and Titan Energy, and US- based Sun borne and AES Solar, have together pledged investments to the tune of Rs crore to set up 2000 MW of solar- based power generation facilities in the solar city. D. Solar Powered LED Lights in West Bengal Raj Bhawan: In West Bengal Raj Bhawan has planned to illuminate with 12 Solar Powered LED Lights. The Rs.1.0 crore project envisages building a 50kW grid interactive Solar Photovoltaic Power Station in Raj Bhawan along with a installing a 2000 lt. solar heating system and switching over to energy efficient LEDs. The Project is funded by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. if India, New Delhi and is expected to be completed by March, [Source: Green Energy, WISE, Nov.-Dec.2009] CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL

23 Changing Scenario of Lamps

24 Conclusions Use of energy efficient lamps like CFL, LED, T-5 fluorescent lamp, etc lead to enormous amount of energy savings which is estimated as 50 to 80%. Electronic gears of conservation of energy like electronic ballast saves energy within the range of 10 to 20%. Solar lighting systems such as Lanterns, Street Lights, Home Lights, etc. can be effectively used, especially in areas of where lighting is required for shorter duration. This will not only lead to energy conservation but also encourage use of non-conventional and environmental friendly energy system. CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, BHOPAL


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