Presentation on theme: "What types of Appliances and Lighting are being used in California Residences? Eric Swan RLW Analytics Results of the 2005 California Lighting and Appliance."— Presentation transcript:
What types of Appliances and Lighting are being used in California Residences? Eric Swan RLW Analytics Results of the 2005 California Lighting and Appliance Efficiency Saturation Study (CLASS)
2005 CLASS Study Objectives 1 - Complete 850 onsite surveys of residences in the service territories of the four California IOUs 2 - Develop a database of residential building characteristics, lighting and appliance saturations and efficiencies 3 - Develop a web-based tool for data access –www.calresest.com 4 - Conduct trend and comparison analyses of saturations and efficiencies –2000 California Statewide Lighting and Appliance Saturation and Efficiency Study
Data Collected Appliance data –Refrigerator-freezers, self-standing freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, water heaters, heating equipment, cooling equipment, and spa/pool equipment –Age, type, fuel, manufacturer, model number, size Lighting –Lamp, fixture, wattage, and control type for each lighting fixture within the home, as well as the front porch fixture Envelope –Attic, floor and wall insulation R-values, wall construction, and window type Demographic questions –Size, year built, number of residents, annual household income, etc.
Methodology Representative sample of California residential accounts Introductory letter and phone recruitment $25 incentive offered IPAQ hand held personal digital assistants with custom application for data collection Data uploaded remotely to RLWs server ~1.5 hour onsite survey
Sample Location of sampled California residences
Demographics Over 45% are single family, unattached, 1-story dwellings; single family, unattached, 2 story housing, total 19.7% of the sample The average number of people per home is 2.8 people. English was the primary language spoken at over 83% of the homes; Spanish was the second most common at over 10% of homes The largest percentage of surveyed residents has an annual income between $25,000 and $50,000, totaling 21.5% of the sample. Almost one-third of the homes surveyed were between 1,000 to 1,599 SQFT.
Representative Sample? Comparison with 2000 Census Data 21% Not Reported Bias?
Lighting Homes now have an average of 23 fixtures and 41 lamps, up from 20 fixtures and 34 lamps in 2000 Compact Fluorescent Lamps: There has been a tremendous growth in the saturation of compact fluorescent lighting –11% of all fixtures have at least one CFL (in 2000, 1%) –9% of all lamps are CFLs (in 2000, 1%) –57% of all homes have one or more CFLs installed (in 2000, 12%) –Floor and table lamps are most likely to contain a CFL –The most common room types to have a CFL are living rooms and bedrooms –Dining rooms are least likely to contain a CFL
Lighting Average Lamp Wattage: –Incandescent A-type lamps = 64 watts –Spring type CFL = 18 watts Circline CFL = 25 watts Average Fixture Wattage
Efficiency Data Model numbers were matched to databases of appliance efficiencies –CEC, ARI, AHAM, etc. –Once matched, the corresponding efficiency was assigned to the matched appliance Matching rates varied greatly by appliance type and age.
Primary Cooling Systems Saturation: Over half (53%) of all homes have some type of cooling system System Type: Increase in the saturation of central systems, and a decrease in room/space conditioning systems from 2000 Size: The most common central air-conditioner size is the 4-ton category (23%), and the next most common size is the 3 ton category (22%). Over 80% are between 3 and 5 tons Efficiency: Of the 257 central systems surveyed, 164 units were matched to an efficiency database for determining the SEER. The results suggest that central air-conditioner efficiency has only slightly increased in the last five years.
Primary Heating Systems Saturation: The study results show that 84% of homes have one heating system, 13% have two systems, and 3% have 3 systems or more System Type: The most common heating system type are central system forced air furnaces (63%), followed by wall unit systems (13%) Efficiency: The average Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) for gas central heating systems is 80.6, compared to 72.2 for space systems Fuel: Single family detached homes are much more likely to be heated using natural gas, while apartments are more likely to be heated by electric systems
HVAC Average Age Comparison of HVAC system age between 2000 and 2005 Across the board reduction in the average age of HVAC systems
HVAC Efficiency Trends Comparison of SEER Rated Central Cooling Equipment Comparison of AFUE Rated Heating Equipment Across the board improvement in the efficiency of HVAC systems
Primary Refrigerator/Freezers Saturation: 19% of homes have a 2 nd refrigerator Type: Standard type units have lost market share, while side-by-side units have gained market share Size (Cubic Ft): Age:
Refrigerator/Freezer Efficiency Unit Energy Consumption (UEC): An 21% average energy usage reduction was observed from 2000 to 2005 for primary refrigerators. –These encouraging results are likely due to new federal energy standards and utility rebate and recycling programs. ENERGY STAR : –7% of all primary refrigerators qualify with the 2004 ENERGY STAR standards –23% of all refrigerators meet or exceed the 2001 ENERGY STAR standards (1% in 2000)
Self Standing Freezers Saturation: Nearly 19% of homes have a self-standing freezer for food storage. Type: Age: The overall average age of freezers has decreased from 14 years to 12 years from 2000 to 2005 Consumption: 16% of freezers use less energy than the 2001 federal freezer standards, compared to 2000 when 9% of freezers consumed less energy than the 1993 federal standards. Size:
Clothes Washers Saturation: 82% of all homes have a clothes washer. Washers are least common in apartment buildings, where about 35% of individual dwelling units have a washing machine. Clothes Washer Type: Age: The average washing machine age is 6.7 years old, compared to 2000 when the average age was 7.4 years. Energy Factor:
Clothes Dryers Saturation: 80% of homes have a clothes dryer, closely matching the saturation of washing machines Age: Average age is 7.6 years, compared to 2000 when the average age was 8.4 years. Fuel type:
Water Heaters System Type: The most common system types are gas storage Efficiency: Standard: National Appliance Energy Conservation Act Standards (NAECA), implemented in Fuel Type: Age: The average age of water heaters has dropped, from 9 years old in 2000 to 7 years old currently
Dishwashers Saturation: Just less than 70% of homes have a dishwasher Age: the average age of dishwashers is now estimated to be 7 years old, down from 9 years in 2000 Efficiency: The average EF for is greater than the current federal energy standard, but less than the minimum ENERGY STAR qualification
Appliance and Equipment Age Trends A notable trend is occurring in the average age and efficiency of appliances and equipment Example findings reveal that in 2005 secondary refrigerators are nearly the same age as primary refrigerators were in 2000
Appliance Energy Factor Efficiency Trends Across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy factor rated appliances
Window Construction Frame Saturation: The saturation of metal frame windows has decreased significantly since 2000, down from 79% to 63%. Frame and Pane Saturation: Apartment buildings have the highest potential for having single pane aluminum glazing and single family two and three story homes are most likely to have double pane vinyl/wood glazing products. 10% of window area is thought to have low-e coating –Homes built between 1951 and 1955 have the highest saturation (19%), followed closely by homes built between (17%) –Likely due to renovation activity in older homes that includes window upgrades
Online Databases on Queriable databases for 2000 and 2005 CLASS California Residential Efficiency Saturation Tool
Observations The average age of appliances and equipment has decreased since 2000 A steady, across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy factor rated appliances and other equipment was observed There has been a tremendous growth in the saturation of compact fluorescent lighting since 2000 Possible contributors to the change –During 2000 and 2001, California experienced rolling blackouts which created an energy efficiency resurgence, prompting new programs designed to change behavior and purchasing habits –The Public Purpose funds that were invested in energy conservation programs that served customers of the four California investor owned utilities appear to have affected change –Increasing contribution of new construction - large numbers of new homes are being constructed each year (200,000 in 2004) –During the period of , interest rates reached an all time low, coupled with a spike in property values, resulting in refinancing and many home remodels A periodic lighting and appliance saturation study is a good way to gauge progress of energy efficiency standards and programs