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Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID lamps Yan Jiang Committee Members: Dr. Fred C. Lee (Chair) Dr. J. D. van Wyk.

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Presentation on theme: "Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID lamps Yan Jiang Committee Members: Dr. Fred C. Lee (Chair) Dr. J. D. van Wyk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID lamps Yan Jiang Committee Members: Dr. Fred C. Lee (Chair) Dr. J. D. van Wyk Dr. Dushan Boroyevich Dr. Shuo Wang Dr. William T. Baumann Dr. Carlos T. A. Suchicital January 27 th, 2009

2 2 Lighting 19% of global power consumption and 3% of global oil demand is attributable to lighting 19% of global power consumption and 3% of global oil demand is attributable to lighting Fluorescent (FL) CFL CCFL Low pressure sodium Metal halide (MH) Ceramic MH Mercury vapor High pressure sodium 60~200 lm/W 8k~18k hours 60~150 lm/W 8k~40k hours Incandescent Efficacy: 15~20 lm/W Life time: 1k~3k hours Standard Incand. halogen Gas discharge Solid State Low pressure discharge High (pressure) intensity discharge (HID) LED Organic LED 40~160 lm/W 50k~60k hours

3 3 HID Applications Track lighting for offices and retail environment (20W~39W) Automotive headlights (35W~70W) LCD projectors (100W~150W) Supermarket lighting (175W~400W) Stadium, parking area and roadway/tunnel lighting (400W~2000W)

4 4 Track Lighting Halogen HID Lower efficacy Shorter lamp life (4kHr) 70% of market share Lower cost, smaller size (Basically incandescent lamp, doesnt need ballast) Higher efficacy Longer lamp life ( up to 20kHr) <20% of market share Higher cost, larger size (Needs sophisticated ballast) 70W halogen20W HID HID lamp system has higher initial cost, but is more energy efficient in long run. Need around 4 yr to break even Compact size Low cost Market requirements for HID ballast:

5 5 Ballast for Gas Discharge Lamp Current (A) Voltage (V) V Lamp VRVR V AB Lamp R + V R - + V Lamp - + V AB - VSVS I SS Ignitor is needed to initiate the gas discharge Ballast is needed to stabilize the current for gas discharge lamps f s >20kHz L Lamp C High Q parallel-load series-resonant tank generate high voltage peak Transformer boost voltage pulse

6 6 From Magnetic to Electronic Ballast Lamp 110V/60Hz Magnetic Ballast L Ignitor f s >20kHz L HF Electronic Ballast Lamp Simple, low cost, high reliability large and heavy External ignitor Reignition causes line frequency flickering No lamp power regulation Higher cost Small and light Integrated ignitor No reignition, no flickering and audible noise With lamp power regulation (more intelligent) Improved lamp efficacy HF electronic ballast greatly reduce the size and weight of ballast, and greatly improve the lamp performance

7 7 Most Significant Lighting Advance: CFL Typical CFL ballast circuit: Self-oscillating HB series resonant circuit * from Delta CFL w/ built-in ballast FL with magnetic ballast Why this topology is not suitable for HID ballast?.. In CFL below 25 W, PFC and constant power control are not often used to achieve low cost

8 8 CFL v.s. HID HID lamp start-up profile CFL start up profile Requires lower ignition voltage: 400V~600V, Series resonant parallel loaded circuit is enough Requires much higher ignition voltage: 1kV~5kV (cold strike), ~20KV (hot strike), Voltage need to be further boosted by transformer or else No Acoustic Resonance, can use HF AC current driving LF SQ AC current driving is needed to avoid Acoustic Resonance, additional LF inverter is needed.

9 9 Acoustic Resonance Acoustic Resonance in HID lamps: standing pressure waves occur on the discharge tube at high frequency (f>4kHz) Normal arc Arc with AR V lamp (V) f s (kHz) Lamp voltage increase (due to AR) vs. freq. Detrimental effect of AR: Light lumens fluctuation Lamp color temperature variation Arc tube overheat Extinguish * E. Rasch, Osram, Lamp frequency is within AR frequency band 2.High frequency energy is larger than the AR threshold Acoustic Resonance is due to: 1. Operate in non-AR frequency 2. Reduce HF energy to below the threshold Methods (for Ballast) to eliminate AR:

10 10 3) Operates at frequency higher than 300kHz (*R. Redl, 1999) High EMI caused by high frequency lamp arc. Existing Methods to Eliminate AR_1 1. Operate in non-AR frequency Difficult to select these windows due to dependency on lamp geometry and physical characteristics. 1) DC-type ballast (*S. Wada, 1987) 2) Operate at AR-free Zone (*E. Rasch, 1988) Etching and asymmetrical eroding of electrodes due to cataphoretic effect 10kHz20kHz 200kHz 100kHz AR AR-free DC Ultra HF

11 11 1) Lamp Power spectrum spreading frequency modulation, phase-angle modulation… feedback modulation or random modulation Threshold varies due to lamp parameter inconsistency Possible to introduce AR on other frequency point * L. Laskai, 1998 Existing Methods to Eliminate AR_2 2. Reduce HF energy to below the threshold Original Lamp voltage: Modulated Lamp voltage: 40dBV 0dBV 20dBV 0dBV

12 12 1) Low Frequency Square Wave (LFSW) lamp current. (*Janos Melis, 1995) Existing Methods to Eliminate AR-3 Completely eliminate Acoustic Resonance, but has relatively complicated system structure. 2) High Frequency Square Wave (HFSW) lamp current. (*M. Ponce, APEC 2001) 3. Square-wave current driving The only one used in commercial product Flat instantaneous power ideally, due to parasitics, there is still HF energy provided to lamp v lamp i lamp x00Hz

13 13 Requirements for HID Ballast High power factor (PF>0.9) Small input current harmonics (IEC Class C and I THD <10% ) EMI standard (FCC 18) Functions: Stabilize lamp current Provide high voltage (several kV) pulse for initial starting Acoustic resonance free (LF SW AC current driving) Constant lamp power regulation (maximize lamp life time) Regulations:

14 14 Typical Electronic HID Ballast Achieve high PF, low I THD Provide constant lamp power regulation Provide high ignition voltage Avoid Acoustic resonance(10K~500kHz) LF DC/AC Inv & Ignitor Unregulated V in AC/DC PFC DC/DC Buck Regulated Compact size Low cost To compete with halogen and CFL in low wattage application, HID ballast need: Complicated circuit Low power density High cost High PF, low I THD Constant power Acoustic resonance free Low Crest Factor

15 15 Research Objective A high power density, high performance, low cost solution for HID lamp ballast HID ballast Built-in HID ballast Compact system architecture Novel circuit topology Novel integration technology 3D packaging scheme

16 16 Discrete ballast Benchmark Integrated ballast Output filter Integrated Ignitor Integrated EMI filter

17 17 Dissertation Outline Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: High Density HID Ballast Topology Study, Design and Implementation Chapter 3: High Density 3D Passive Integrated Ballast Chapter 4: Thermal Modeling, Management and Experimental Verification for Integrated Ballast Chapter 5: Conclusions and Future Work

18 18 Chapter 2: High Density HID Ballast Topology Study, Design and Implementation Design and Implementation Investigation on system architecture for CHID ballast SSPFC AC/DC frond-end design Experimental verification

19 19 AC/DC PFC Three-stage HID Ballast Structure Complicated circuit Low power density High cost High PF, low I THD Constant power Acoustic resonance free Low Crest Factor LF SW Inv. & Ignitor Unregulated V in DC/DC Buck Regulated S3S3 S4S4 S5S5 S6S6 Ignitor Lamp CoCo L2L2 S2S2 For soft-start S1S1 B1B1 L1L1 CbCb v in v lamp i lamp 400Hz *Janos Melis, 1995

20 20 DC/DC DC/AC Inv. & Ignitor Regulated Unregulated AC/DC PFC V in Full-bridge Buck Converter with ignitor S3S3 S4S4 S5S5 S6S6 Ignitor Lamp CoCo L2L2 S2S2 For soft-start S1S1 B1B1 L1L1 CbCb v in S2S2 S3S3 S4S4 S5S5 LoLo CoCo Lamp LrLr CrCr From Three-stage to Two-stage Structure BCM * U.S. patent 5,932,976, MEW 20W MH ballast (2.4W/in 3 ) Save 1 switch and controller BCM Boost-type PFC: unity PF, I THD <10%, High VB(>Vin,pk), need additional soft-start switch 3 HF switches Need complicated sensing circuit for constant power control

21 21 Two-stage HID Ballast_type A *M. Sen, et al, IEEE transaction on IA, 2003 Boost Save 1 switch and controller BCM Boost-type PFC: unity PF, low I THD, High bus voltage(>Vin,pk), need soft-start switch 3 HF switches Only constant current control is achieved (also need complicated sensing circuit for constant power control) *J. Zhao, et al, IAS 2003 BuckBoost Save 3 switches BCM Boost-type PFC: unity PF, low I THD High bus voltage(>Vin,pk), Need soft-start switch 3 HF switches Only constant current control is achieved Large Cs, Lamp voltage or duty cycle is limited by the Vdc and Vcs

22 22 Two-stage HID Ballast_Type B *Y. Jiang, IAS 2000 DC/DC DC/AC Inv. & Ignitor (Regulated) (Unregulated) AC/DC PFC V in DC/AC Inv. & Ignitor (Regulated) (Unregulated) Single Stage PFC AC/DC V in DCM Boost type PFC: I THD >10%, High bus voltage(>Vin,pk), need additional soft start switch only 1 HF switch, but with higher current stress SSPFC:DCM Boost + Flyback LF FB inv. *Y. Yang, APEC 2005 DCM Boost type PFC: I THD >10%, High bus voltage(>Vin,pk), need additional soft start switch, only 1 HF switch, but with higher current stress Save 2 LF switch, but adding passive component: one L winding, one C, and one diode.

23 23 Two-stage Structure Comparison DC/AC Inv & Ignitor regulated V in AC/DC PFC BCM Boost type PFC: unity PF, I THD <10%, High bus voltage(>Vin,pk), Need additional-soft start switch 3 High Freq. switches Complex sensing and control Specific requirements of SSPFC for Low-wattage HID Ballast: Stringent input current harmonic requirement (I THD <10%) Low bulk cap voltage under large load range (open-circuit to short-circuit) Load characteristic: constant power regulation, large output voltage range. No isolation requirement LF DC/AC Inv & Ignitor Unregulate d V in SSPFC AC/DC DCM Boost type SSPFC: I THD >10% High bus voltage(>Vin,pk) Need additional soft-start switch Only 1 High Freq. switch Simple control

24 24 DCM Single Stage Single Switch PFC * M. Madigan, etc, PESC92 Small current stress Higher efficiency High voltage stress at light load DC bus voltage is independent of load Higher current stress DCM PFC + DCM DC/DC: DCM PFC + CCM DC/DC: DCM S 2 PFC is suitable for Low power application due to inherent PFC with simple control

25 25 DCM S 4 PFC with DC Bus Voltage Feedback * F. Tsai etc. INTELEC96 Reduce the bulk cap voltage stress Reduce the switch current stress THD increase due to the dead time in input current (much larger than 10%)

26 26 DCM PFC +DCM DC/DC *Jingrong Qian, Ph.D dissertation, Good PFC Low DC bus voltage High current stress on the switch (only suitable for low power application) DCM Flyback + DCM Flyback Flyback PFC: DCM PFC + DCM DC/DC Low bus voltage stress l THD <10% Unity PF, Low I THD (<10%) Low and adjustable bus voltage Easy soft start Flyback DC/DC: large lamp load range (from open-circuit to short-circuit)

27 27 Derivation of proposed SSPFC Converter DCM Flyback (PFC) i av V in, Unity PF and Low THD can be achieved at constant D and fs DCM Buck-Boost (DC/DC) Constant P out means constant D and f s No isolation requirement

28 28 SSPFC AC/DC Front-end RLRL * S B1B1 * L2L2 CbCb D2D2 D1D1 D3D3 CoCo L 1a L 1b DCM Flyback DCM Buck-Boost Benefits Automatic unity PF and very low THD (<10%) Constant and low bulk cap voltage at all load conditions Simple duty cycle control, constant power regulation Easy soft start, no additional sw needed +Vb_+Vb_

29 29 Implementation Issues-1 High voltage stress on D 3 due to voltage ringing when I L2 ignition mode (Vo=300V) V L2 I L2 V D3 V b =120V V o =90V V o +V b VoVo V D3 = -(V o +V L2 ) V o,igi =300V 2V o,igi V o,igi +V b V gs D4D4

30 30 Implementation issue-2 Eliminate D1 Split S1 to two separate MOSFETs Large output voltage ripple due to the reverse recovery of D1 ** C b C b ** 1a L 1b L L 222 C b S1 C ooo D1D1 D2D2 D3D3 B1 D4D4 V in + V o - i rr of D1 i D1 I rr of D1 i D3 peak (vin > Vo) Solution:

31 31 Two-Switch Version of SSPFC Stage Benefits: Reduce the output voltage ripple (by eliminating the reverse recovery current of D1) Remove the clamping diode D4 by using the body diode of S2 Change 1 Mosfet to 2 smaller Mosfet (share the same gate signal), save 2 diodes Separate the power loss into two switches. S1.S2 can use smaller package (IPAK) and no heat sink is needed S2S2 **** S1S1 D2D2 D3D3 B1B1 L2L2 CoCo RLRL L 1a L 1b CbCb D4D4

32 32 Proposed HID Ballast Single stage PFC stage Inverter/Ignitor stage fs=200kHz fs=400Hz U.S. Patent 7,391,165 B2

33 33 Constant Power Control Scheme V VL KIIoKIIo V CL KVVoKVVo multiplier PI V con P ref Current limiting mode:V CL * K I I O = P ref I O =Const. Constant power mode: K I I O * K V V O = P ref V O I O =Const. Voltage limiting mode:V VL * K V V O = P ref V O =Const. Control scheme POPO VOVO 50V 300V Ideal ballast curve

34 34 Inverter/Ignitor Steady state: f s =400Hz, D=0.5 Ignition mode: f s =100~200kHz(sweeping), D=0.5 3 rd harmonic resonance is used to reduce the size of Lr (fr=450kHz) Auto-transformer structure is used to reduce the voltage across the cap Ignition ModeSteady state 90V fs=400Hz

35 35 Experimental Results – I PF>99.5%, I THD V in =120Vac +/-10%

36 36 Experimental Results-II V o =89V, P o =19.9W Efficiency = 84.7%(w/o control power) Efficiency 81.3%(with control power) Vlamp Ilamp Low bulk cap voltage at all load conditions Bulk cap voltage is lower than v in,pk

37 37 Experimental Results – III Constant power regulation during steady state Current limiting during start-up Voltage limiting before ignition

38 38 Power Density CPES Prototype Benchmark: Commercial 20W HID ballast 2.4W/in 3 4.5W/in 3 (1.8x) New commercial product 6.0W/in 3 (2.5x) Use same circuit topology


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