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Spectrochemical Instrumentation Modules 1. Light Source 2. Optical Components 3. Sampling Device 4. Wavelength Selector 5. Detector 6. Signal Processor
Spectrochemical Instrumentation Modules
Spectroscopic Light Sources 1. Continuum Sources 2. Line Sources 3. Quasi-continuum Sources
Continuum Sources Emit radiation over a broad spectral range. Continuum in Wavelength, not necessarily in time. Most of these are black body emitters. The spectral range depends upon the temperature of the black body.
Spectral Radiance of a Black Body
Hydrogen or Deuterium Lamp Current through low pressure H 2 or D 2 Fused silica window 160-400 nm
Xenon Lamps Pass current through high pressure Xenon Gas 200-1000 nm output, sapphire window Provide high intensity, but with high noise
Line Sources Emit intense radiation over a narrow spectral range (or line). The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) for these sources is: FWHM 0.01 nm
Typical of Line Sources 1. Low pressure pen lamps (Hg pen lamp) 2. Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) 3. Electrode-less Discharge Lamp (EDL)
Pen Lamps Low pressure metal vapor inside an electrical discharge Spectra characteristic of the metal vapor Often used for calibration purposes
Hg Calibration Spectrum
Hollow Cathode Lamps Cylindrical Cathode containing metal of interest Low pressure inert gas atmosphere Produces spectrum of cathode metal
Hollow Cathode Lamp Spectrum
Electrode Discharge Lamps Metal salt in inert atmosphere Atomized and excited by RF field 10 x stronger than HCL for volatile metals
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