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Spectrochemical Instrumentation Modules1. Light Source 2. Optical Components 3. Sampling Device 4. Wavelength Selector 5. Detector 6. Signal Processor
Spectrochemical Instrumentation Modules
Spectroscopic Light Sources1. Continuum Sources 2. Line Sources 3. Quasi-continuum Sources
Continuum Sources Emit radiation over a broad spectral range.Continuum in Wavelength, not necessarily in time. Most of these are “black body emitters. The spectral range depends upon the temperature of the black body.
Spectral Radiance of a Black Body
Hydrogen or Deuterium LampCurrent through low pressure H2 or D2 Fused silica window nm
Xenon Lamps Pass current through high pressure Xenon Gasnm output, sapphire window Provide high intensity, but with high noise
Line Sources Emit intense radiation over a narrow spectral range (or line). The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) for these sources is: FWHM ≤ 0.01 nm
Typical of Line Sources1. Low pressure pen lamps (Hg pen lamp) 2. Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) 3. Electrode-less Discharge Lamp (EDL)
Pen Lamps Low pressure metal vapor inside an electrical dischargeSpectra characteristic of the metal vapor Often used for calibration purposes
Hg Calibration Spectrum
Hollow Cathode Lamps Cylindrical Cathode containing metal of interestLow pressure inert gas atmosphere Produces spectrum of cathode metal
Hollow Cathode Lamp Spectrum
Electrode Discharge LampsMetal salt in inert atmosphere Atomized and excited by RF field 10 x stronger than HCL for volatile metals
Interaction of radiation & matter
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