Presentation on theme: "Ch. 15 – Acids & Bases l ACIDS – Have a H+ H+ ion (Hydronium ion) l Corrosive l pH lower than 7 l Electrolyte l Sour taste l Mix acid to water to dilute;"— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 15 – Acids & Bases l ACIDS – Have a H+ H+ ion (Hydronium ion) l Corrosive l pH lower than 7 l Electrolyte l Sour taste l Mix acid to water to dilute; never mix water to acid.
Common Acids l Nitric acid – HNO 3 l Hydrochloric acid – HCl l Phosphoric acid – H 3 PO 4 l Sulfuric acid – H 2 SO 4 l Carbonic acid – HCO 3 l Acetic acid – HC 2 H 3 O 2
l Phosphoric acid l Flavor agent in beverages l Acetic acid l 5% of vinegar l Fermentation product in juices, wines, & beer l Hydrochloric acid l Stomach acid l Used to pickle metals
l Nitric acid l Making explosives l Turns skin yellow – protein indicator l Sulfuric acid l Strongest acid l Used in car batteries l Dehydrating agent (anhydrous)
Bases l Base – has an OH - ion (hydroxide ion) l Corrosive l pH higher than 7 l Electrolyte l Bitter taste l Pink with phenophalthene as an indicator lH+ lH+ & OH - ions tend to neutralize each other out Neutralization
Common Bases l Lithium hydroxide – LiOH strong l Calcium hydroxide – Ca(OH) 2 weak l Sodium hydroxide – NaOH strong l Lye & drain cleaner l Potassium hydroxide – KOH strong l Magnesium hydroxide – Mg(OH) 2 weak l Ant-acid
l A substance with OH- form a soluble base is called an alkaline. l An acid with a compound of H, O, & a third element is called an Oxyacid. l Ex. HNO 3, H 2 SO 4 l NH4 is the only base without OH in it.
l Basic anhydride is an oxide that reacts with water to form an alkaline solution. l A base without water l Takes water out of a substance when it comes in contact with it. l Very strong bases (lye) l The stronger the base the more anhydric it is.
l Acid anhydride is an oxide that reacts with water to form an acid. l An acid without water l Takes water out of substances when it comes in contact with them. l Very strong acids (sulfuric acid) l The stronger the acid the more anhydric it is.
lAlACIDS & BASES COMBINE TO FORM A SALT & WATER. lNlNaOH + HCl H2O + NaCl lHlHCl + LiOH H2O + LiCl lAlAmphoteric is any solution that can react as either an acid or a base.