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1 Children and smokers in cars: Differences across two NZ city areas Oceania Conference - October 2011 Vimal Patel, George Thomson, Nick Wilson Vimal Patel,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Children and smokers in cars: Differences across two NZ city areas Oceania Conference - October 2011 Vimal Patel, George Thomson, Nick Wilson Vimal Patel,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Children and smokers in cars: Differences across two NZ city areas Oceania Conference - October 2011 Vimal Patel, George Thomson, Nick Wilson Vimal Patel, George Thomson, Nick Wilson Department of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington University of Otago, Wellington

2 2 Aims To compare the point prevalence of smoking and SHS exposure in vehicles: To compare the point prevalence of smoking and SHS exposure in vehicles: For areas: Between two areas of contrasting socioeconomic status in NZ For areas: Between two areas of contrasting socioeconomic status in NZ Over time: Between 2005 and 2011 Over time: Between 2005 and 2011

3 3 Background: SES difference in SHS exposure in NZ cars In 2010 NZ survey of yr students: In 2010 NZ survey of yr students: In four most deprived deciles 33% report exposure to SHS in cars In four most deprived deciles 33% report exposure to SHS in cars In two least deprived deciles 14% report exposure to SHS in cars In two least deprived deciles 14% report exposure to SHS in cars Most deprived 2.4 more exposed Most deprived 2.4 more exposed

4 4 Methods During Feb-April 2011 we observed in Wainuiomata and Karori During Feb-April 2011 we observed in Wainuiomata and Karori (high/low deprivation areas in Wellington, New Zealand) (high/low deprivation areas in Wellington, New Zealand)

5 5 Observation sites Wainuiomata Karori (low dep) (Deciles 7-9:(Deciles 1-4: 30% smoking)11% smoking)

6 6 What we observed 1.Smoking in vehicles Whether the smokers were with: Whether the smokers were with: othersothers childrenchildren 2.(Later) Adults and children in all vehicles, to get vehicle occupancy rates per site

7 7 Results 149,886 vehicles were observed 149,886 vehicles were observed Point prevalence of any smoking in cars: Point prevalence of any smoking in cars: 3.9 times more in Wainuiomata (high dep area) 3.9 times more in Wainuiomata (high dep area). For vehicles with children: For vehicles with children: 10.9 times greater in Wainuiomata 10.9 times greater in Wainuiomata

8 8 Children and smoking in cars in 2011 Karori vs. Wainuiomata

9 9 Car smoking changes: % reduction in the low dep area - Karori (2.0% to 1.2%) 24% reduction in the high dep area – Wainuiomata (6.4% to 4.9%)

10 10 Discussion The SES gradients (3.9+ RR) were far greater than in survey (2.4 RR) and census (2.7 RR) data The SES gradients (3.9+ RR) were far greater than in survey (2.4 RR) and census (2.7 RR) data Why? Why? Point prevalence v survey Point prevalence v survey One week recall problem for self-report survey? One week recall problem for self-report survey? Greater normality affects survey report? Greater normality affects survey report?

11 11 Why use car observations? A way to measure private smoking: A way to measure private smoking: Vehicles are uniquely: Vehicles are uniquely: confined and private confined and private observable from the outside observable from the outside Helps triangulation of survey data Helps triangulation of survey data

12 12 Policy implications Large and widening socioeconomic gulf in exposure to SHS in vehicles: Large and widening socioeconomic gulf in exposure to SHS in vehicles: Need for more effective tobacco control efforts for those in SES deprived areas Need for more effective tobacco control efforts for those in SES deprived areas Need for greater protection of children in cars Need for greater protection of children in cars Children are influenced by the extent and normality of smoking around them Children are influenced by the extent and normality of smoking around them

13 13 Smokefree car laws Support: In 2007–2008 survey of NZ smokers, 96% supported smokefree car regulation when young children were in the car (Thomson et al., (1285):139-40) Support: In 2007–2008 survey of NZ smokers, 96% supported smokefree car regulation when young children were in the car (Thomson et al., (1285):139-40) Precedent: At least 11 states/provinces in Australia, Canada, and USA have smokefree car laws to protect children Precedent: At least 11 states/provinces in Australia, Canada, and USA have smokefree car laws to protect children Effect: After 2007 South Australia smokefree law, survey increase in smokefree cars with children: Effect: After 2007 South Australia smokefree law, survey increase in smokefree cars with children: 69% in 2005 to 82% in (Hickling, Miller, & Hosking, Oceania Tobacco 69% in 2005 to 82% in (Hickling, Miller, & Hosking, Oceania Tobacco Control Conference. 2009: Darwin) Control Conference. 2009: Darwin)

14 14 Acknowledgements Cancer Society of New Zealand for funding Cancer Society of New Zealand for funding The other observers: Catherine Jones, Losa Moataane, and Priyesh Patel The other observers: Catherine Jones, Losa Moataane, and Priyesh Patel Dr James Stanley who provided statistical advice and support Dr James Stanley who provided statistical advice and support Contact: Contact:


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