Presentation on theme: "Genetics. Process of DNA being copied before cell division occurs Must make an exact copy or mutations will occur (which could be harmful) The 2 strands."— Presentation transcript:
Process of DNA being copied before cell division occurs Must make an exact copy or mutations will occur (which could be harmful) The 2 strands of the DNA helix split and each side serves as a template for the other side Process makes sure that information is not loss during the replication process
TranscriptionTranslation Information from the DNA (in the nucleus) is copied in the form of messenger RNA. Copies only the information for the protein that needs to be made The mRNA then leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosome. Decodes the information from the mRNA Occurs in the ribosome Needs tRNA and mRNA to make the protein correctly according to the directions that were specified in the original DNA Genetic code for each amino acid is the same in ALL organisms.
Original DNA THE CAT ATE THE FAT RAT. Silent Mutation THA CAT ATE THE FAT RAT Nonsense Mutation THE CAT ATE THE. Missense Mutation THE CAR ATE THE FAT RAT. Frameshift Mutation THE CCA TAT ETH EFA TRA T. THC ATA TET HEF ATR AT.
DNA Individual Nucleotide
One trait completely masks/dominants the other trait when it is expressed. Can be homozygous or heterozygous dominant
The recessive trait is seen when there are 2 copies present (homozygous recessive)
Both traits are equally dominant and neither will give in so both traits are shown.
Black Feathered Chicken White feathered chicken Checkered feather chicken
Traits are not dominant or recessive. The traits blend together to make a new color/trait.
The trait is carried on the sex –chromosome (x- chromosome) so the inheritance is different for males and females. Males inherit one gene from mother on X chromosome and an unaffected Y from father. Females inherit an X from their father and an X from their mother.
Trait controlled by 2 or more genes and produces a range of outcomes (examples: skin color, eye color, hair color, height)
More than 2 forms of a gene control the trait.
These mutations alter the composition or number of chromosomes in the organism. Usually have severe consequences for the organism. Usually occur during meiosis