Text-centered notions: cohesion Cohesion concerns the way in which the components of the surface text, i.e. the actual words we hear or see, are mutually connected within a sequence. Cohesion rests upon grammatical forms and conventions
Text-centered notions: coherence Coherence concerns the ways in which the meanings within a text (concepts, relations among them and their relations to the external world) are established and developed. Some of the major relations of coherence are logical sequences: cause-consequence (and so), condition- consequence (if), instrument-achievement (by), contrast (however), compatibility (and), etc.
Cohesion and coherence are text-centered notions, designating operations directed at the text materials.
User-centered notions Intentionality: the producers attitude aims at producing a set of occurrences which should constitute a cohesive and coherent text. Acceptability: it implies the receivers attitude that the set of occurrences should constitute a cohesive and coherent text.
Grices conversational maxims –Maxims of quantity –Make your contribution as informative as required. –Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. –Maxims of quality –Do not say what you believe to be false. –Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. –Maxim of relation –Be relevant. –Maxims of manner –Avoid obscurity of expression. –Avoid ambiguity. –Be brief. –Be orderly.
Maxim of quantity A: Where is the post office? B: Down the road, about 50 metres past the second left. vs B: Not far.
Maxim of relevance A: How are you doing in maths? B: Not too well, actually VS B: Sunday was a fine day to go to the beach!
Maxim of manner A: What did you think of that movie? B: I liked the storyline, but the ending was a real shock! VS B: It was interestingly done, sir.
Informativity concerns the extent to which the occurrences of the presented text are expected vs unexpected or known vs unknown/certain.
In language: the degree of informativity is inversely proportional to contextual probability: The sea is water The sea is water only in the sense that water is the dominant substance present. Actually, it is a solution of gases and salts in addition to vast numbers of living organisms...
Situationality concerns the factors which make a text relevant to a situation of occurrence connected with coherence and acceptability. Deictics, for instance, can be decoded only on the basis of situationality.
Intertextuality concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts: If you are on a diet, your question may be:To eat or not to eat If you are ready to any compromise, you can borrow Henry IVs statement Paris is worth a mass.
Channel Oral textsWritten texts Intent of the Communicator Various types of texts (procedural, expository, persuasive, narrative, descriptive)
Intent of the communicator Genre of texts: –Narrative –Procedural –Expository (Informative) –Persuasive (Hortatory) –Descriptive
When are they used? procedural text: gives instructions on how to do something. expository text: is used to explain something hortatory text (persuasive): is used to encourage or to get someone to do something. As a matter of fact, it is argumentation descriptive text: lists the characteristics of something. narrative text: account of events (novel, newspaper article, biography)
TEXT FORMS Text forms evolve and change Authentic text forms are often mixed According to modern studies, there may be even more text types. Nonetheless, practical suggestions tend to classify texts in 3 main types:
Text Types (Sabatini) Group 1 scientific texts technical texts legal, normative, regulative texts (treatises,essays, technical textbooks and essays; laws and decrees; regulations, administrative acts)
Text Types (Sabatini) Group 2 expository and didactic texts popularising informative texts (e.g. textbooks on social, historical,political topics, popularising texts of various topics,newspaper and magazine articles)
Text Types (Sabatini) Group 3 literary texts, both poetry and fiction.
A text is a sequence of paragraphs that represents an extended unit of speech.
Specialized texts How do we identify them? –External parameters (elements of the communication process) –Internal parameters (formal structure; knowledge structure; linguistic structure)
External Parameters A specialized text must be written by a specialist Those who want to translate specialized texts should get familiar with their specialized context, and should know the domain conventions and lexical/structural peculiarities
Internal Parameters Formal structure Knowledge structure Linguistic structure: Morphological level Lexical level Syntactic level Textual level Specialized texts are precise, more concise, and more systematic. Precision is a relevant feature. Only experts can control it.
Procedural texts Procedural texts can –explain how something works or how to use instruction manuals; – instruct how to do a particular activity.
Procedural texts Structure: elementary. Format: according to the type of procedural text. Language: focuses on people in general –Verb tense: present; –use of action verbs; –use of linking words related to time, first, then, when.
Persuasive (or Hortatory ) texts The persuasive text represents the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in a certain way. It wants to be convincing so that the addressee is made to share the writers opinion.
Features of Persuasive Texts Emotive language – to get a sympathetic reaction. Imperatives – telling the reader what to do. Short sentences – dramatic effect. Logical connectives – e.g. therefore, because. Alliteration Address reader directly. Personal and informal tone. Use of contrasts to emphasize particular points. Use of facts to shock the reader.
Example In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesnt seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country. While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Example Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners dont seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. I feel that the country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.
LANGUAGE FEATURES ANALYSIS Focusing on the writer: using the first personal pronoun I Using abstract noun: discussion Using action verb: treat Using thinking verb: think, seem Using passive voice: should be treated differently Using simple present tense: there doesnt seem…, there is no public transport.., etc
Text genre variation Text genre can be modified: linguistic changes mirror the communicators intentions.
FROM PERSUASIVE TO ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 1. No sooner had the British occupation authorities gained control of Iraq than they set out to issue all manner of declarations and orders to secure their domination over the countrys economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses. After they had established their position in Iraq, the British occupation authorities set out to issue all kinds of rules and regulations to secure their domination over the countrys economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses.
2. The British occupation sapped the labours of poverty–stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, and burdened these desperate people with all kinds of taxes. The labours of poverty–stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, were sapped and they were burdened with various types of taxes.
3. The British occupying power subsequently seized the countrys agricultural resources and mercilessly plundered these assets to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation. Subsequently, the countrys agricultural resources were seized and mercilessly plundered to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation.
The expository text (or explanatory text): structures Description, enumerative or listing Sequence Comparison and contrast Cause and effect Problem and solution
STRUCTURES Description, enumerative or listing –includes listing connected information, outlining a series of steps, or placing ideas in a hierarchy
Structures Sequence –when a series of events leads up to a conclusion, which means that these events are not a mere succession, rather they are organized
Structures Comparison and contrast when you describe how two or more events, places, characters, or other ideas are similar and/or different in several ways
Structures Cause and effect reasons why an event occurred, or several effects from one cause
Structures Problem and solution this technique is used to identify the problem, give possible solutions with possible results, and present the solution that was chosen
Narrative texts Narrative texts aim at entertaining, though they can also teach or inform, or even influence attitudes and social opinions (e.g. soap operas dealing with topical issues). The stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually be resolved.
Narrative texts 2 Features Characters with defined personalities/identities. Dialogues (almost always, but not necessarily). Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and enhance the story.
Narrative texts 3. Structure: The focus of the text is on a series of actions: –Introduction –Complication –Resolution
Narrative texts 4. Language Action verbs Frequent use of past tense Specific nouns Active nouns (nominalizations) Careful use of adjectives and adverbs; use of connectives Use of rhetorical devices (metaphor,simile, personification, onomatopoeia)
Key terms Text Semiotics Semantic Syntax Pragmatics Transcoding Specialized text Non-specialized text