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**Let’s make engineering more easy**

Project FUNDA Hear it Learn it Let’s make engineering more easy engineering108.com

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SCALE engineering108.com

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**Scales 1. Basic Information 2. Types and important units**

3. Plain Scales (3 Problems) 4. Diagonal Scales - information 5. Diagonal Scales (3 Problems) 6. Comparative Scales (3 Problems) 7. Vernier Scales - information 8. Vernier Scales (2 Problems) 9. Scales of Cords - construction 10. Scales of Cords (2 Problems) engineering108.com

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SCALES DIMENSIONS OF LARGE OBJECTS MUST BE REDUCED TO ACCOMMODATE ON STANDARD SIZE DRAWING SHEET. THIS REDUCTION CREATES A SCALE OF THAT REDUCTION RATIO, WHICH IS GENERALLY A FRACTION.. SUCH A SCALE IS CALLED REDUCING SCALE AND THAT RATIO IS CALLED REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR. FOR FULL SIZE SCALE R.F.=1 OR ( 1:1 ) MEANS DRAWING & OBJECT ARE OF SAME SIZE. Other RFs are described as 1:10, :100, 1:1000, 1:1,00,000 SIMILARLY IN CASE OF TINY OBJECTS DIMENSIONS MUST BE INCREASED FOR ABOVE PURPOSE. HENCE THIS SCALE IS CALLED ENLARGING SCALE. HERE THE RATIO CALLED REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR IS MORE THAN UNITY. USE FOLLOWING FORMULAS FOR THE CALCULATIONS IN THIS TOPIC. DIMENSION OF DRAWING A REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR (R.F.) = DIMENSION OF OBJECT LENGTH OF DRAWING = ACTUAL LENGTH V AREA OF DRAWING = ACTUAL AREA V VOLUME AS PER DRWG. = 3 ACTUAL VOLUME B LENGTH OF SCALE = R.F MAX. LENGTH TO BE MEASURED. X engineering108.com

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**TYPES OF SCALES: = 10 HECTOMETRES = 10 DECAMETRES = 10 METRES**

= 10 DECIMETRES = 10 CENTIMETRES = 10 MILIMETRES 1 KILOMETRE 1 HECTOMETRE 1 DECAMETRE 1 METRE 1 DECIMETRE 1 CENTIMETRE BE FRIENDLY WITH THESE UNITS. TYPES OF SCALES: PLAIN SCALES ( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO SINGLE DECIMAL) DIAGONAL SCALES ( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO TWO DECIMALS) VERNIER SCALES ( FOR DIMENSIONS UP TO TWO DECIMALS) COMPARATIVE SCALES ( FOR COMPARING TWO DIFFERENT UNITS) SCALE OF CORDS ( FOR MEASURING/CONSTRUCTING ANGLES) engineering108.com

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**PLAIN SCALE 10 1 2 3 4 5 PLAIN SCALE:-**

This type of scale represents two units or a unit and it’s sub-division. PROBLEM NO.1:- Draw a scale 1 cm = 1m to read decimeters, to measure maximum distance of 6 m. Show on it a distance of 4 m and 6 dm. CONSTRUCTION:- a) Calculate R.F.= R.F.= 1cm/ 1m = 1/100 Length of scale = R.F. X max. distance = 1/100 X 600 cm = 6 cms b) Draw a line 6 cm long and divide it in 6 equal parts. Each part will represent larger division unit. c) Sub divide the first part which will represent second unit or fraction of first unit. d) Place ( 0 ) at the end of first unit. Number the units on right side of Zero and subdivisions on left-hand side of Zero. Take height of scale 5 to 10 mm for getting a look of scale. e) After construction of scale mention it’s RF and name of scale as shown. f) Show the distance 4 m 6 dm on it as shown. DIMENSION OF DRAWING DIMENSION OF OBJECT PLAIN SCALE 4 M 6 DM 10 1 2 3 4 5 METERS DECIMETERS R.F. = 1/100 PLANE SCALE SHOWING METERS AND DECIMETERS. engineering108.com

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PROBLEM NO.2:- In a map a 36 km distance is shown by a line 45 cms long. Calculate the R.F. and construct a plain scale to read kilometers and hectometers, for max. 12 km. Show a distance of 8.3 km on it. CONSTRUCTION:- a) Calculate R.F. R.F.= 45 cm/ 36 km = 45/ = 1/ 80,000 Length of scale = R.F max. distance = 1/ km = 15 cm b) Draw a line 15 cm long and divide it in 12 equal parts. Each part will represent larger division unit. c) Sub divide the first part which will represent second unit or fraction of first unit. d) Place ( 0 ) at the end of first unit. Number the units on right side of Zero and subdivisions on left-hand side of Zero. Take height of scale 5 to 10 mm for getting a look of scale. e) After construction of scale mention it’s RF and name of scale as shown. f) Show the distance 8.3 km on it as shown. PLAIN SCALE 8KM 3HM 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 KILOMETERS HECTOMETERS R.F. = 1/80,000 PLANE SCALE SHOWING KILOMETERS AND HECTOMETERS engineering108.com

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**DISTANCE TRAVELED IN 29 MINUTES.**

PROBLEM NO.3:- The distance between two stations is 210 km. A passenger train covers this distance in 7 hours. Construct a plain scale to measure time up to a single minute. RF is 1/200,000 Indicate the distance traveled by train in 29 minutes. CONSTRUCTION:- a) 210 km in 7 hours. Means speed of the train is 30 km per hour ( 60 minutes) Length of scale = R.F max. distance per hour = 1/ 2,00, km = 15 cm b) 15 cm length will represent 30 km and 1 hour i.e. 60 minutes. Draw a line 15 cm long and divide it in 6 equal parts. Each part will represent 5 km and 10 minutes. c) Sub divide the first part in 10 equal parts,which will represent second unit or fraction of first unit. Each smaller part will represent distance traveled in one minute. d) Place ( 0 ) at the end of first unit. Number the units on right side of Zero and subdivisions on left-hand side of Zero. Take height of scale 5 to 10 mm for getting a proper look of scale. e) Show km on upper side and time in minutes on lower side of the scale as shown. After construction of scale mention it’s RF and name of scale as shown. f) Show the distance traveled in 29 minutes, which is 14.5 km, on it as shown. PLAIN SCALE DISTANCE TRAVELED IN 29 MINUTES. 14.5 KM KM 5 10 15 20 25 KM MIN 10 20 30 40 50 MINUTES R.F. = 1/100 PLANE SCALE SHOWING METERS AND DECIMETERS. engineering108.com

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**The solved examples ON NEXT PAGES will **

We have seen that the plain scales give only two dimensions, such as a unit and it’s subunit or it’s fraction. DIAGONAL SCALE The diagonal scales give us three successive dimensions that is a unit, a subunit and a subdivision of a subunit. The principle of construction of a diagonal scale is as follows. Let the XY in figure be a subunit. From Y draw a perpendicular YZ to a suitable height. Join XZ. Divide YZ in to 10 equal parts. Draw parallel lines to XY from all these divisions and number them as shown. From geometry we know that similar triangles have their like sides proportional. Consider two similar triangles XYZ and 7’ 7Z, we have 7Z / YZ = 7’7 / XY (each part being one unit) Means 7’ 7 = 7 / 10. x X Y = 0.7 XY :. Similarly 1’ – 1 = 0.1 XY 2’ – 2 = 0.2 XY Thus, it is very clear that, the sides of small triangles, which are parallel to divided lines, become progressively shorter in length by 0.1 XY. Y X 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 7’ 8’ 9’ 10’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Z The solved examples ON NEXT PAGES will make the principles of diagonal scales clear. engineering108.com

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**DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING KILOMETERS.**

PROBLEM NO. 4 : The distance between Delhi and Agra is 200 km. In a railway map it is represented by a line 5 cm long. Find it’s R.F. Draw a diagonal scale to show single km. And maximum 600 km. Indicate on it following distances. 1) 222 km 2) 336 km 3) 459 km 4) 569 km DIAGONAL SCALE SOLUTION STEPS: RF = 5 cm / 200 km = 1 / 40, 00, 000 Length of scale = 1 / 40, 00, 000 X 600 X = 15 cm Draw a line 15 cm long. It will represent 600 km.Divide it in six equal parts.( each will represent 100 km.) Divide first division in ten equal parts. Each will represent 10 km.Draw a line upward from left end and mark 10 parts on it of any distance. Name those parts 0 to 10 as shown.Join 9th sub-division of horizontal scale with 10th division of the vertical divisions. Then draw parallel lines to this line from remaining sub divisions and complete diagonal scale. 569 km 459 km 336 km 222 km 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 KM KM 100 200 300 400 500 50 KM R.F. = 1 / 40,00,000 DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING KILOMETERS. engineering108.com

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**DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING METERS.**

PROBLEM NO.5: A rectangular plot of land measuring 1.28 hectors is represented on a map by a similar rectangle of 8 sq. cm. Calculate RF of the scale. Draw a diagonal scale to read single meter. Show a distance of 438 m on it. DIAGONAL SCALE SOLUTION : 1 hector = 10, 000 sq. meters 1.28 hectors = 1.28 X 10, 000 sq. meters = 1.28 X 104 X 104 sq. cm 8 sq. cm area on map represents = 1.28 X 104 X 104 sq. cm on land 1 cm sq. on map represents = 1.28 X 10 4 X 104 / 8 sq cm on land 1 cm on map represent = 1.28 X 10 4 X 104 / 8 cm = 4, 000 cm 1 cm on drawing represent 4, 000 cm, Means RF = 1 / 4000 Assuming length of scale 15 cm, it will represent 600 m. Draw a line 15 cm long. It will represent 600 m.Divide it in six equal parts. ( each will represent 100 m.) Divide first division in ten equal parts.Each will represent 10 m. Draw a line upward from left end and mark 10 parts on it of any distance. Name those parts 0 to 10 as shown.Join 9th sub-division of horizontal scale with 10th division of the vertical divisions. Then draw parallel lines to this line from remaining sub divisions and complete diagonal scale. 438 meters 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 M 100 200 300 400 500 50 M M R.F. = 1 / 4000 DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING METERS. engineering108.com

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**DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING CENTIMETERS.**

PROBLEM NO.6:. Draw a diagonal scale of R.F. 1: 2.5, showing centimeters and millimeters and long enough to measure up to 20 centimeters. DIAGONAL SCALE SOLUTION STEPS: R.F. = 1 / 2.5 Length of scale = 1 / 2.5 X 20 cm. = 8 cm. 1.Draw a line 8 cm long and divide it in to 4 equal parts. (Each part will represent a length of 5 cm.) 2.Divide the first part into 5 equal divisions. (Each will show 1 cm.) 3.At the left hand end of the line, draw a vertical line and on it step-off 10 equal divisions of any length. 4.Complete the scale as explained in previous problems. Show the distance cm on it. 13 .4 CM 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 MM 5 10 15 4 3 2 1 CM CENTIMETRES R.F. = 1 / 2.5 DIAGONAL SCALE SHOWING CENTIMETERS. engineering108.com

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**COMPARATIVE SCALE SHOWING MILES AND KILOMETERS**

These are the Scales having same R.F. but graduated to read different units. These scales may be Plain scales or Diagonal scales and may be constructed separately or one above the other. EXAMPLE NO. 7 : A distance of 40 miles is represented by a line 8 cm long. Construct a plain scale to read 80 miles. Also construct a comparative scale to read kilometers upto 120 km ( 1 m = km ) SOLUTION STEPS: Scale of Miles: 40 miles are represented = 8 cm : 80 miles = 16 cm R.F. = 8 / 40 X 1609 X 1000 X 100 = 1 / 8, 04, 500 CONSTRUCTION: Take a line 16 cm long and divide it into 8 parts. Each will represent 10 miles. Subdivide the first part and each sub-division will measure single mile. Scale of Km: Length of scale = 1 / 8,04,500 X 120 X 1000 X 100 = cm CONSTRUCTION: On the top line of the scale of miles cut off a distance of cm and divide it into 12 equal parts. Each part will represent 10 km. Subdivide the first part into 10 equal parts. Each subdivision will show single km. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 KM 5 10 20 30 5 50 60 70 MILES 40 R.F. = 1 / COMPARATIVE SCALE SHOWING MILES AND KILOMETERS engineering108.com

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**COMPARATIVE SCALE SHOWING MINUTES AND KILOMETERS**

SOLUTION STEPS: Scale of km. length of scale = RF X 60 km = 1 / 4,00,000 X 60 X 105 = 15 cm. CONSTRUCTION: Draw a line 15 cm long and divide it in 6 equal parts. ( each part will represent 10 km.) Subdivide 1st part in `0 equal subdivisions. ( each will represent 1 km.) Time Scale: Same 15 cm line will represent 60 minutes. Construct the scale similar to distance scale. It will show minimum 1 minute & max. 60min. COMPARATIVE SCALE: EXAMPLE NO. 8 : A motor car is running at a speed of 60 kph. On a scale of RF = 1 / 4,00,000 show the distance traveled by car in 47 minutes. 47 MINUTES 10 20 30 5 50 MINUTES 40 MIN. KM 10 20 30 5 50 KM 40 47 KM R.F. = 1 / 4,00,000 COMPARATIVE SCALE SHOWING MINUTES AND KILOMETERS engineering108.com

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**COMPARATIVE SCALE: Distance Scale ( km) Time scale: EXAMPLE NO. 9 :**

A car is traveling at a speed of 60 km per hour. A 4 cm long line represents the distance traveled by the car in two hours. Construct a suitable comparative scale up to 10 hours. The scale should be able to read the distance traveled in one minute. Show the time required to cover 476 km and also distance in 4 hours and 24 minutes. COMPARATIVE SCALE: SOLUTION: 4 cm line represents distance in two hours , means for 10 hours scale, 20 cm long line is required, as length of scale.This length of scale will also represent 600 kms. ( as it is a distance traveled in 10 hours) CONSTRUCTION: Distance Scale ( km) Draw a line 20 cm long. Divide it in TEN equal parts.( Each will show 60 km) Sub-divide 1st part in SIX subdivisions.( Each will represent 10 km) At the left hand end of the line, draw a vertical line and on it step-off 10 equal divisions of any length. And complete the diagonal scale to read minimum ONE km. Time scale: Draw a line 20 cm long. Divide it in TEN equal parts.( Each will show 1 hour) Sub-divide 1st part in SIX subdivisions.( Each will represent 10 minutes) At the left hand end of the line, draw a vertical line and on it step-off 10 equal divisions of any length. And complete the diagonal scale to read minimum ONE minute. TIME SCALE TO MEASURE MIN 1 MINUTE. 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HOURS MIN. 10 4 hrs 24 min. ( 264 kms ) 476 kms ( 7 hrs 56 min.) 10 5 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 kM kM DISTANCE SCALE TO MEASURE MIN 1 KM engineering108.com KILOMETERS

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**Vernier Scales: Figure to the right shows a part of a plain scale in**

These scales, like diagonal scales , are used to read to a very small unit with great accuracy. It consists of two parts – a primary scale and a vernier. The primary scale is a plain scale fully divided into minor divisions. As it would be difficult to sub-divide the minor divisions in ordinary way, it is done with the help of the vernier. The graduations on vernier are derived from those on the primary scale. Figure to the right shows a part of a plain scale in which length A-O represents 10 cm. If we divide A-O into ten equal parts, each will be of 1 cm. Now it would not be easy to divide each of these parts into ten equal divisions to get measurements in millimeters. Now if we take a length BO equal to = 11 such equal parts, thus representing 11 cm, and divide it into ten equal divisions, each of these divisions will represent 11 / 10 – 1.1 cm. The difference between one part of AO and one division of BO will be equal 1.1 – 1.0 = 0.1 cm or 1 mm. This difference is called Least Count of the scale. Minimum this distance can be measured by this scale. The upper scale BO is the vernier.The combination of plain scale and the vernier is vernier scale. 9.9 7.7 5.5 3.3 1.1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A B engineering108.com

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**Vernier Scale Example 10:**

Draw a vernier scale of RF = 1 / 25 to read centimeters upto 4 meters and on it, show lengths 2.39 m and 0.91 m Vernier Scale SOLUTION: Length of scale = RF X max. Distance = 1 / 25 X 4 X 100 = 16 cm CONSTRUCTION: ( Main scale) Draw a line 16 cm long. Divide it in 4 equal parts. ( each will represent meter ) Sub-divide each part in 10 equal parts. ( each will represent decimeter ) Name those properly. CONSTRUCTION: ( vernier) Take 11 parts of Dm length and divide it in 10 equal parts. Each will show 0.11 m or 1.1 dm or 11 cm and construct a rectangle Covering these parts of vernier. TO MEASURE GIVEN LENGTHS: (1) For 2.39 m : Subtract from i.e = 1.4 m The distance between ( left of Zero) and 1.4 (right of Zero) is 2.39 m (2) For 0.91 m : Subtract 0.11 from 0.91 i.e – 0.11 =0.80 m The distance between 0.11 and 0.80 (both left side of Zero) is 0.91 m 2.39 m 0.91 m .99 .77 .55 .33 .11 1.1 1 2 3 1.0 .9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 1.4 METERS METERS engineering108.com

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**Example 11: A map of size 500cm X 50cm wide represents an area of 6250 sq.Kms.**

Construct a vernier scaleto measure kilometers, hectometers and decameters and long enough to measure upto 7 km. Indicate on it a) 5.33 km b) 59 decameters. Vernier Scale SOLUTION: RF = = = 2 / 105 Length of scale = RF X max. Distance = 2 / 105 X 7 kms = 14 cm AREA OF DRAWING ACTUAL AREA V 500 X 50 cm sq. 6250 km sq. CONSTRUCTION: ( vernier) Take 11 parts of hectometer part length and divide it in 10 equal parts. Each will show 1.1 hm m or 11 dm and Covering in a rectangle complete scale. CONSTRUCTION: ( Main scale) Draw a line 14 cm long. Divide it in 7 equal parts. ( each will represent km ) Sub-divide each part in 10 equal parts. ( each will represent hectometer ) Name those properly. TO MEASURE GIVEN LENGTHS: a) For 5.33 km : Subtract from 5.33 i.e = 5.00 The distance between 33 dm ( left of Zero) and 5.00 (right of Zero) is 5.33 k m (b) For 59 dm : Subtract 0.99 from 0.59 i.e – 0.99 = km ( - ve sign means left of Zero) The distance between 99 dm and - .4 km is 59 dm (both left side of Zero) 59 dm 5.33 km Decameters 99 77 55 33 11 90 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 10 4 5 6 HECTOMETERS KILOMETERS engineering108.com

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**SCALE OF CORDS A O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 CONSTRUCTION:**

800 900 700 SCALE OF CORDS 600 500 400 300 200 100 O A 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 CONSTRUCTION: 1. DRAW SECTOR OF A CIRCLE OF 900 WITH ‘OA’ RADIUS. ( ‘OA’ ANY CONVINIENT DISTANCE ) 2. DIVIDE THIS ANGLE IN NINE EQUAL PARTS OF 10 0 EACH. 3. NAME AS SHOWN FROM END ‘A’ UPWARDS. 4. FROM ‘A’ AS CENTER, WITH CORDS OF EACH ANGLE AS RADIUS DRAW ARCS DOWNWARDS UP TO ‘AO’ LINE OR IT’S EXTENSION AND FORM A SCALE WITH PROPER LABELING AS SHOWN. AS CORD LENGTHS ARE USED TO MEASURE & CONSTRUCT DIFERENT ANGLES IT IS CALLED SCALE OF CORDS. engineering108.com

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**PROBLEM 12: Construct any triangle and measure it’s angles by using scale of cords.**

CONSTRUCTION: First prepare Scale of Cords for the problem. Then construct a triangle of given sides. ( You are supposed to measure angles x, y and z) To measure angle at x: Take O-A distance in compass from cords scale and mark it on lower side of triangle as shown from corner x. Name O & A as shown. Then O as center, O-A radius draw an arc upto upper adjacent side.Name the point B. Take A-B cord in compass and place on scale of cords from Zero. It will give value of angle at x To measure angle at y: Repeat same process from O1. Draw arc with radius O1A1. Place Cord A1B1 on scale and get angle at y. To measure angle at z: Subtract the SUM of these two angles from 1800 to get angle at z. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 00 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 O A B1 z 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 B SCALE OF CORDS 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 550 300 y x O1 A1 A O Angle at z = 180 – ( ) = 950 engineering108.com

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**PROBLEM 12: Construct 250 and 1150 angles with a horizontal line , by using scale of cords.**

CONSTRUCTION: First prepare Scale of Cords for the problem. Then Draw a horizontal line. Mark point O on it. To construct 250 angle at O. Take O-A distance in compass from cords scale and mark it on on the line drawn, from O Name O & A as shown. Then O as center, O-A radius draw an arc upward.. Take cord length of 250 angle from scale of cords in compass and from A cut the arc at point B.Join B with O. The angle AOB is thus 250 To construct 1150 angle at O. This scale can measure or construct angles upto 900 only directly. Hence Subtract from 1800.We get 750 angle , which can be constructed with this scale. Extend previous arc of OA radius and taking cord length of 750 in compass cut this arc at B1 with A as center. Join B1 with O. Now angle AOB1 is 750 and angle COB1 is 1150. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 00 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 O A B B1 SCALE OF CORDS 250 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 1150 A O 750 10 20 40 30 70 50 60 90 80 O C A To construct 250 angle at O. To construct 1150 angle at O. engineering108.com

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Send interesting contents about particular subjects , articles on global stuffs, engineering materials to us which will be helpful to your friends and others. We member of PROJECT FUNDA, provide a medium to make all this world wide through your great support. We request you to join this project and make tutorial of at least one chapter of your choice, that will help you to blow your name and your knowledge over the world. engineering108.com

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