1019 SeptemberBy evening, Confederate attacks shift from north to center of Union line
1119 SeptemberBy evening, Confederate attacks shift from north to center of Union line
12Army of Tennessee Morning of 20 September GEN Braxton Bragg LTG James LongstreetLeft WingLTG Leonidas PolkRight WingMG Simon B. BucknerBuckner’s CorpsLTG DH HillHill’s CorpsMG John B. HoodLongstreet’s CorpsMG W.H. WalkerReserve Corps
1420 September 11:00 a.m.: Union disaster! MG William Rosecrans BG Thomas Wood
1520 September Evening: BG James Garfield, chief of staff to Rosecrans “Thomas is standing like a rock.”BG James Garfield, chief of staff to RosecransMG George ThomasXIV Corps
16BUT. . . Army of the Cumberland defeated, not destroyed. Results of the BattleRosecrans is "confused and stunned like a duck hit on the head.”A. LincolnUnion Army surrounded in Chattanooga(on three sides)and a new general set to arrive on the sceneBUT. . . Army of the Cumberland defeated, not destroyed.
17Results of the Battle Longstreet corps detached to Knoxville Didn’t destroy the Army of the Cumberland.Didn’t liberate any territory lost that summer.Did stop advance towards Atlanta.And a morale boost after a terrible summer. . .
19DeploymentThe “Flanks”Theoretically there were around 100 men in each of 10 companies— around 1000 men. In reality, there were usually much less.Flags played a key role in the regiment.
20Small Arms Enfield Rifled Musket—Minie Projectiles and Cartridge BayonetModel 1842 Smoothbore Musket—Buck and Ball Projectiles and Cartridge
21The Theoretical Arithmetic of Logistics requires 3 pounds of food per day (not incl. water).The daily individual ration for a Union soldier:20 ounces of fresh or salt beef or 12 ounces of pork or bacon1 pound of hard bread or 18 ounces of flour or 20 of cornmeal.Additionally per every 100 men:15 pounds of beans or peas10 pounds of rice or hominy10 pounds of green coffee or 1.5 pounds of tea15 pounds of sugar4 quarts of vinegar3.75 pounds of salt4 ounces of pepper30 pounds of potatoeswhen practicable, 1 quart of molasses.Approximately: 3,000 calories.
22Water and railroad supply allowed your army to look like this … 100,000 menrather than this!10,000 men
23There are roughly 9,500 miles of rail lines in the Confederacy.
25As far as a logistician is concerned the advantages of railroads are legion. Can you think of any?Advantages:CAPACITYA Civil War-era railcar could carry as much as 15 tons. One 10-car train could carry as many supplies as 150 wagons.SPEEDA train traveled 5 times faster than a wagon train, which meant more round trips and that fewer resources needed to be devoted to supply services.DEPENDABILITYAnyone who has ever dealt with mules will tell you they have a mind of their own. Enough said!AVAILABILITYMore rolling stock and locomotives could be produced on demand and in different models. This doesn’t apply to mules and horses!
26Can you think of two reasons why? As good as railroads were for supply, knowledgeable commanders, especially Union ones, preferred supply lines based on water transport.Can you think of two reasons why?SECURITY“We are much obliged to the Tennessee [River] which has favored us most opportunely, for I am never easy with a railroad which takes a whole army to guard, each foot of rail is essential to the whole; whereas, they can’t stop the Tennessee … .”General William Tecumseh Sherman, “Sinews of War”CAPACITYAn ordinary Ohio River steamboat of 500 tons carried enough supplies to supply an army of 40,000 men and 18,000 horses for nearly two days. This was the equivalent of five 10-car freight trains.
27The past is a foreign country . . . Why use military history?Tactics: critical thinking, relationship between technology and tacticsPersonalities: politics, leadership, ironyBattle: critical thinking, results– battle the arbiterDocument based research and questions:Defend or refute Bragg’s statement that if it were not for the loss of these four hours (on 20 Sept), "our independence might have been won.”Battle analysis:Students assigned role of commandersDiscuss what they knew, what they thought they knew, and their decisions on a map.
28Suggested Sources Some really good websites to start: National parks—www.nps.govNational Archives (NARA)—www.archives.govThe War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, a.k.a the O.R.Steven E. WoodworthSix Armies in Tennessee: The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns.A Deep Steady Thunder: The Battle of ChickamaugaRobertson, William GlennThe Battle of Chickamauga: National Park Civil War Series."The Chickamauga Campaign: The Fall of Chattanooga." Blue & Gray Magazine, Fall 2006."The Chickamauga Campaign: McLemore's Cove." Blue & Gray Magazine, Spring 2007."The Chickamauga Campaign: The Armies Collide.” Blue & Gray Magazine, Fall 2007."The Chickamauga Campaign: The Battle of Chickamauga, Day 1." Blue & Gray Magazine, Spring 2008."The Chickamauga Campaign: The Battle of Chickamauga, Day 2." Blue & Gray Magazine, Summer 2008.