2Personal Pronouns I love you! This is my problem, not yours. Subject PronounObject PronounPossessiveAdjectivePossessive PronounReflexive PronounIyouhesheitwetheymeyouhimheritusthemmyyourhisheritsourtheirmineyourshishers-ourstheirsmyselfyourselfhimselfherselfItselfourselvesyourselvesthemselvesI love you!This is my problem, not yours.Judy can take car of herself.
3Relative Pronouns You are the professional whom I’m looking for. thatwhichwho (whom)queYou are the professional whom I’m looking for.whichwhomqualquemThis is the policy in which I believe.whosecujoJohn is the man whose car was stolen.wherewhatwhenondequequandoThis is the moment when I say goodbye.
4Prepostions aboard about above across after against along amid among antiaroundasatbeforebehindbelowbeneathbesidebesidesbetweenbeyondbutbyininsideintoconcerningconsideringpastperplusunderunderneathunlikeuntilupupondespitedownduringofoffonontooppositeoutsideoverregardingroundsavesincethanthroughtotowardtowardsexceptexceptingexcludingversusviawithwithinwithoutfollowingforfrom
5Prepostions Classes will be over within a week. timeClasses will be over within a week.placeThese words come within my heart.agentThis poem was written by Edgar Allan Paul.deviceGetting around by bus seems very difficult.
6Linking Words although though even though In spite of despite notwithstandingfor examplefor instancelikeasHowever,yetyetnonethelessneverthelesshencethereforethusplusmoreoverwhat’s morebesidesfurthermoreandbecausesinceForas
7Articles A car destroyed in an accident. indefiniteA car destroyed in an accident.definiteThe real problems are yet to come.
9Indefinite Pronouns I have some money in the back. anyHave you had any problems?noI have no money to lend you.noneNone of you will understand what is in my head.compoundsthing – where – time – body - one.
10Nouns Trained dogs can become lethal weapons. Make love, not war. CountableTrained dogs can become lethal weapons.UncountableMake love, not war.gerundDancing is really restoring!
11Adverbs The train hasn't arrived yet. We saw you there. timeThe train hasn't arrived yet.placeWe saw you there.mannerYou must drive your car carefully.frequencyI won’t be home very often.
12Verb Tenses She sings in a band. She sang in a band last year. Simple PresentShe sings in a band.Simple PastShe sang in a band last year.Simple FutureShe will sing in a band.Immediate FutureShe is going to sing in a band.Future of the PastShe would sing in a band.Present PerfectShe has sung in a band.Past PerfectShe had sung in a band.Continuous = verb be + ing.
13Modal We all can attain our goals. CouldMark could ride a bike when he was 8.MayStudies may prove you are wrong.MightIt might rain tomorro.MustMark must see a doctor.ShouldSammy should see a doctor too.Ought toYou ought to show respect to the elderly.
14Phrasal Verbs We had to make up a story to convience him to come. go withoutWhen I was young, we went without winter boots.hand smth downI handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.pass awayHis uncle passed away last night after a long illness.wear offMost of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.
15Comparative of Superiority long adjectivesJosh is more handsome than Jerry.short adjectivesJane is taller than Sue.goodWater is better than soda.badWinter is worse than summer.farHawaii is farther than Japan.
16Superlative of Superiority long adjectivesSally is the most attractive girl that I know.short adjectivesThat tower is the highest bulding in the city.goodPhysics is the best subject in school.badRandy’s is the worst restaurant in town.farHawaii is the farthest place on Earth.
17Passive and Active Voice They have cut more trees.Passive VoiceMore trees have been cut.Active VoiceShirley loves you very much.Passive VoiceYou are loved by Shirley very much.
18a) personal pronoun, reflexive pronoun, object pronoun 1. (2010-1) The words “We” (line 1), “our” (line 5), “us” (line 6), are consecutively:a) personal pronoun, reflexive pronoun, object pronounb) object pronoun, possessive adjective, personal pronounc) object pronoun, personal pronoun, possessive adjectived) personal pronoun, reflexive pronoun, possessive adjectivee) personal pronoun, possessive adjective, object pronoune
19a) to learn, to meet, to bring, to try 2. The infinitive of the verbs: “learned” (line 1), “met” (line 2), “brought” (line 9), “tried” (line 15) , is consecutively:a) to learn, to meet, to bring, to tryb) to larne, to met, to broug, to triec) to learn, to met, to bring, to trid) to learne, to meet, to brough, to trye) to lear, to meet, to bring, to tria
20a) surmounting (line 15) is a substantive 3. Mark the alternative which represents the correct grammar use of the vocabulary in the text.a) surmounting (line 15) is a substantiveb) Best of all (line 5) is a comparative of superiorityc) powerful (line 10) is an adverbd) thus (line 21) is an adverbe) back (line 11) is a part of the bodyd
214. The two underlined sentences are consecutively: a) question tag and present perfect.b) simple past question and simple present question.c) tag question and simple present question.d) simple past question and imperative.e) tag question and imperative.a
22a) adverb, comparative of superiority, pronoun, adverb. 5. (2010-1) The words: “yearly” (line 2), “higher” (line 10), “rainy” (line 16), “which” (line 10), are used consecutively in the text as:a) adverb, comparative of superiority, pronoun, adverb.b) noun, adverb, relative pronoun, adjective.c) comparative of superiority, noun, adverb, comparative of superiority.d) adverb, comparative of superiority, noun, adjective.e) adjective, comparative of superiority, adjective, pronoun.e
23a) idiom, adjective, preposition. b) noun, number, preposition. 6. (2010-1) The words “even though” (line 17), “a three-way” (line 18), “upon” (line 19), are used consecutively in the text as:a) idiom, adjective, preposition.b) noun, number, preposition.c) substantive, noun, preposition.d) noun, adjective, conjunction.e) idiom, number, noun.a
247. (2011-1) The correct verb tense used in the sentence “… others have been bitten by the travel bug…” (lines 2 and 3) is:a) past perfect.b) present simple.c) present perfect.d) past simple.e) active voice.c
258. (2011-1) Some of the prepositions we find in the text are: 8. (2011-1) Some of the prepositions we find in the text are:a) for, also, that, the.b) to, the, of, for.c) of, the, or, and.d) and, that, from, into.e) into, of, from, for.e
26e) present perfect continuous. 9. (2011-1) The words “collecting” (line 7), “processing” (line 7) and “remanufacturing” (line 7) are being used inthe text as:a) negative inversion.b) gerund.c) simple present.d) subjunctive.e) present perfect continuous.b
27b) an adverb, a superlative, an adverb, a conjunction. 10. (2011-2) The words “roughly” (line 11), “lighter” (line 10), “nearby” (line 21) and “Plus” (line 10) are used in thetext as:a) an adverb, a comparative of superiority, an adjective, a conjunction.b) an adverb, a superlative, an adverb, a conjunction.c) a conjunction, a comparative of inferiority, a verb and an adverb.d) a subjunctive, comparative of superiority, preposition and an adjective.e) a conjunction, a superlative, a preposition, an adverb.a
28b) comparative of superiority c) superlative d) equality e) synonyms 11.(2012-1) The words “biggest” (line 6) and “brightest” (line 6) are examples of:a) inferiorityb) comparative of superiorityc) superlatived) equalitye) synonymsc
2912. (2012-1) The verb tenses “have speculated” (line 4), “have determined” (line 7) and “have known” (line 16)are:a) Past perfectb) Simple presentc) Present perfectd) Past participlee) Gerundc
3013. Mark the correct alternative which replaces the underlined expression in: “We made stuff up”. a) inventedb) destroyedc) controlledd) solde) reacheda
31text, then mark the correct alternative. 14. Analyze the sentences which contain the correct grammar definition from words, as used in thetext, then mark the correct alternative.I. Outside: adverb of place; stuff: noun.II. Commercially: adverb of manner; until: adjective.III. Turned out: gerund; overnight: adverb of time.IV. Stuff: noun; commercially: adjective.V. Were used and applied: passive voice; turned out: phrasal verb.a) I and V are correct.b) I, II and V are correct.c) III and IV are correct.d) II and IV are correct.e) All options are correcta
32a) not only you will be scandalized by seeing good… 15. (2011-1) The negative inversion of “…you will be scandalized by seeing good… ” (line 1) would be:a) not only you will be scandalized by seeing good…b) hardly will you be scandalized by seeing good…c) you will not be scandalized by seeing good …d) since will not you be scandalized by seeing good…e) as you will be scandalized by seeing good …e
33Recycle – Reduce – Reuse Easier – Recycle means to process old, used items in order that the material can be used to make new products. Examples of things that are often recycled are glass, plastic, newspapers, aluminum cans, used motor oil, and batteries. Here, reduce refers to lessening the amount of items or resources that are consumed, using only the amount that is needed, and looking for alternatives that will lessen our use. And reuse means extending the 'life' or repurposing an item rather than discarding or throwing it away.Harder – Recycling is the processes of collecting, processing, remanufacturing, and reusing materials instead of discarding them. This helps conserve raw materials and energy that manufacturers would otherwise use in producing new products. Recycling also reduces the amount of material going into landfills. Recycling helps lessen the pollution that may result from waste disposal. Reducing our consumption of materials and reducing the waste of materials also adds to the conservation of our resources.
3416. The word “lessening” (line 3) means: a) to become stronger. a) to become stronger.b) to throw things away.c) to help.d) to take care of something.e) to become weaker.e
3517. Mark the correct alternative. a) Reuse materials won ́t sum up resources.b) Plastic, paper and batteries are seldom recycled.c) To search for new possibilities of using things, would lessen the consumerism.d) Throwing things away would reduce consumerism.e) Recycle is throwing away things into landfills.c
3618. Mark the incorrect alternative. a) Recycle is the process of discarding materials.b) If we recycle we will have less materials going into landfills.c) Using things longer means extending their “life”.d) We can recycle cans, glass and newspapers.e) Some pollution may come from waste disposal.b