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Resource Stream Source Para rubber tree – (Hevea brasiliensis) named for its country of origin, Brazil Major Rubber tree plantations are located: Tropical,

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Presentation on theme: "Resource Stream Source Para rubber tree – (Hevea brasiliensis) named for its country of origin, Brazil Major Rubber tree plantations are located: Tropical,"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Resource Stream

3 Source Para rubber tree – (Hevea brasiliensis) named for its country of origin, Brazil Major Rubber tree plantations are located: Tropical, rainy areas Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia Natural rubber is used in over 40,000 products Para rubber tree – (Hevea brasiliensis) named for its country of origin, Brazil Major Rubber tree plantations are located: Tropical, rainy areas Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia Natural rubber is used in over 40,000 products

4 Area under NR cultivation (thousand hectares) by country, average

5 Extraction Latex – milky white secretion extracted from trees Tapping About 20 seconds per tree trees per day per person Every other, every third day

6 Extraction Collection After all tapping is done Collected in half shell coconuts, glazed pottery, aluminum or plastic cups. Cup lump and tree lace, collected upon return 10-20% Latex must be collected before coagulation

7 From a Social Point of View... The tappers are often poor, uneducated women The pay is extremely low

8 PROCESSING Vulcanization 1. Rubber is mixed with sulfur, bisphenol, or peroxide 2. Molded or extruded into shape 3. Heated after rubber has taken final form To improve resilience and elasticity, durability and utility

9 MANUFACTURING Schematic of Tire Production Process

10 Transport The collected latex is transferred into tanks THEN transferred into air tight containers with sieving for ammoniation. After being mixed and extruded, the hot gummy compound is cooled into slabs and transported to breakdown mills where the rubber takes the desired form Shipped worldwide

11 Storage Before Use During Use

12 Tire Storage

13 Use

14 Disposal/ Dispersal Methods

15 Disposal/ Dispersal Methods Landfill Disposal Whole tires trap methane gas Shredded tires a better option Stockpiles and Illegal dumping Fire risk Vermin Mosquitoes High-Power Ultrasound Recycling

16 Tire Recycling Supply Stream Tire Derived Products 1. Whole tires Used by steel mills as carbon source, instead of coal or coke Barriers, such as collision reduction, erosion control Earthships! 2. Stamped (cut) tires Sandals and sub-road base 3. Chipped (shredded) tires Tire-Derived Fuels (TDF)

17 Tire Recycling Supply Stream continued Tire Derived Products 4. Ground (crumb) rubber Rubber Modified Concrete (Sidewalks) Rubber Modified Asphalt Carpet padding Patio decks Movable speed bumps Playground equipment

18 Environmental Impact Latex allergies Social and economic suppression of workers Road Dust: Particulate air pollution Water pollution: TDF – Air Pollution As of 2003, about 290 million tires are discarded in the U.S. every year (roughly one per person). Nearly 45% of these scrap tires (130 million) are used as "Tire Derived Fuel" (TDF), which involves burning the (usually shredded) tires. (Energy Justice)

19 Environmental Impact

20 Any Questions?

21 Literature Cited 1. American Chemical Society (1999, November 30). Road Dust - Something To Sneeze About. Science Daily. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from website: 2. Crop: Rubber. InfoComm, Market Information in the Commodities Area. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from website: 3. Environment: Life Cycle Assessments. Life Cycle Assessment of a Car Tire. Continental. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from website: online.com/generator/www/com/en/continental/portal/themes/esh/life_cycle_assessments_en/download/life_cycle_assessment_ en.pdf online.com/generator/www/com/en/continental/portal/themes/esh/life_cycle_assessments_en/download/life_cycle_assessment_ en.pdf 4. Kinneman, Ballew. (1997 March 08). A Brief Natural History of latex Rubber Allergy. Retrieved October 19, 2009 from website: 5. Natural Rubber. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 23 from website: 6. Parag R. Patel, Joshua J. Pun, Cory A. Robinson. (2001 April 25). Polymer Products in Everyday Life. Retrieved October 22, 2009 from website: 7. Stockpiles and Illegal Dumping. Wikipedia. Retrieved November 12, 2009 from website: Last modified on 29 November 2009.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tire_recycling 8. Tire-Derived Fuel. Wastes - Resource Conservation - Common Wastes & Materials - Scrap Tires. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved November 20, 2009 from website: Last updated on Wednesday, September 24th, 2008.http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/tires/basic.htm 9. What is "Tire Derived Fuel" and why is it dangerous? Energy Justice Network. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from website


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