Presentation on theme: "New Organisational Forms and CSCW (part 2) M. Baptista Nunes 14/03/2000."— Presentation transcript:
New Organisational Forms and CSCW (part 2) M. Baptista Nunes 14/03/2000
Organisational Structure, Culture and Communication l Characteristics of Traditional Organisations n n Functional Specialisation; n n Clear Boundaries; n n Hierarchical Structure; n n Communication Barriers; n n Poor Response to Change.
Organisational Structure, Culture and Communication l Characteristics of Networking Organisations n n Flexible Specialisation; n n Networked Project Teams; n n Communication Barriers Broken Down; n n Information Exchange Encouraged; n n Rapid Response to Change.
Organisational Structure, Culture and Communication l Working Definition of Organisational Culture:... the values, beliefs, philosophies, ways of doing things and ways of relating to other people exhibited by members of an organisation.
Organisational Structure, Culture and Communication l Factors Influencing Structure and Culture n n history and ownership; n n organisational goals and objectives; n n the wider context or environment; n n size and complexity of the organisation; n n the members of the organisation; n n technology.
ICT Infrastructure MIS Basic technological building blocks (ICT): Networks - Link different areas of the organisation dispersed both functionally and geographically; Databases - Enable storage, maintenance and retrieval of relevant organisational data; CMC - Enable electronic communication and collaborative work and sharing of information.
Benefits of CMC ? :-) Enable communication where it wouldn't otherwise be possible; Cuts down on travel costs; Enables groups with common interests but dispersed geographically and functionally throughout the organisation; Saves time and cost in group work; Facilitates group brainstorming and problem-solving; Enable new modes of communication, such as anonymous interchanges or structured interactions.
GroupwareGroupware Intentional GROUP processes and procedures to achieve specific purposes plus softWARE tools designed to support and facilitate the group's work (Hiltz & Turoff, 1992:69)
GroupwareGroupware Groupware are Computer Supported Working Systems (CSCW). Computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a common task and that provide an interface to a shared environment. (Smith, 1997:328-337)
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Systems Databases CMCNetworks Computer Supported Working Systems (Groupware)
Computer Supported Collaborative Work CSCW proposes to enhance co-operation between groups of individuals working to the same organisational objective or goal. This implies two very important concepts: Co-operation; Group.
Computer Supported Collaborative Work This implies two very important concepts: Co-operation Group behaviour that can have distinct, even critical, advantages in problem identification and problem solving (Clarke and Smyth, 1993) Group A set of people who are knowingly collaborating on a common goal, who require communication and co-ordination among group members (Olson, 1993)
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Elements of Co-operation: Goal directed behaviour - there must be an agreed common goal; Behavioural Norms - legitimate socially shared behavioural standards and expected patterns; Reward Systems - successful task completion is not always appropriate reward; Distributed Responses - all members of the team must receive feedback; Effective co-ordination - appropriate division of labour according to the group members different specialising; Effective communication !
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Elements of Co-operation: Participants Artefacts of Work P P A Shared Understanding Communication Control and Feedback
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Characterisation of CSCW : b b Time and Place of co-operation; CMC; Conferencing Systems; Meeting Systems. b b Nature of functionality afforded by the groupware; Meeting Systems; Shared Applications; Co-authoring Systems; Argumentation Tools.
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Characterisation of CSCW : Asynchronous Synchronous Co-located Remote Meeting Systems Electronic Meeting Rooms Decision Conferencing Electronic Chat Systems Electronic Mail Co-authoring Systems Electronic Conferencing Systems Video Conferencing Systems Argumentation Tools
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Reasons why CSCW is becoming increasingly important: b b Increased complexity of organisations and of the environment in which they operate; b b Social and cultural changes have led to more participatory management methods; b b IT revolutionary evolution.
Information System Management Information Systems Computer Supported Collaborative Work Systems
Information System Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) Systems can be defined as an organisational and management solution, based on information and communication technology, to a challenge posed by the environment. CSCW Systems can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and retrieve, and distribute information to support communication, decision making, co-ordination and control, problem solving, negotiation and even socialisation in an organisation.
Computer Supported Collaborative Work Consequences of CSCW: b b Improved performance of both teams and individuals (Galegher and Kraut, 1994); b b Improved social experience and communication (Sproull and Kiesler, 1991); b b Improved quality and effectiveness of teams (Smith, 1997). b b But … there are deeper and more significant consequences