Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (ABNORMALITY)"— Presentation transcript:
1PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (ABNORMALITY) You will learn about:Definitions of AbnormalityTheories of AbnormalityTreating Abnormality
2Abnormality is… A psychological condition or behaviour that departs from the norm or isharmful and distressing tothe individual or thosearound them.Behaviours that violatesociety’s ideas of what isan appropriate level offunctioning.
3Learning Objectives Define : Deviation from the social norms By the end of this lesson you will be able toDefine : Deviation from the social normsIdentify: Some of the indicators of Deviation from the social norms adequatelyIdentify: Two or more limitations to this definition
4Definitions of Abnormality Deviation from Social Norms Abnormal behaviouris seen as a deviationfrom implicit rulesabout how one ‘ought’to behave. Anythingthat violates these rulesis considered abnormal.
5Limitations Cultural: what it Acceptable behaviour in one culture may not beacceptable in another.Consistent through time:These ‘rules’ vary acrosstime and across . Whatwas acceptable behaviour50 years ago may not beacceptable now,.
6Behaviour that deviates From social norms is not always considered LimitationsBehaviour that deviatesFrom social norms isnot always consideredabnormal.E.g. eccentric behaviour, superstitious behaviour or dressing up for charity.
7Limitations Deviations can Become political e.g. where certain regimes usediagnosis as a meansof controlling thosewith opposingpolitical viewse.g. Russia
8Test Your Knowledge Answer these questions on last weeks lesson. Define: What is meant by social norms?Describe: The deviation from social norms definition of abnormality?Identify: An example of behaviour which deviates from social norms?Explain: Three limitations of this definition?
9Learning Objectives Define : Failure to function adequately By the end of this lesson you will be able toDefine : Failure to function adequatelyIdentify: Some of the indicators of the failure to function adequately definitionIdentify: Two or more limitations to this definition
10Failure to Function Adequately Mentally healthy people are judged as being able to operate within certain acceptable limits. If abnormal behaviour interfered with daily functioning, it may be considered abnormal.
11LimitationsIt is possible that some apparently dysfunctional behaviour is actually adaptive and functional for the individual, e.g. some anxiety disorders may lead to extra attention for the individual, and so are functional in reaching this goal.
12LimitationsContext – Behaviour that appears to be FFA may be normal depending on context e.g. political prisoners going on hunger strike.Outside factors causing the behaviour – economic factors, prejudice and discrimination may prevent people from acting normally.Coping normally – Some people namage to function normally despite being clinically diagnosed with psychological disorders.
13Learning Objectives Define : Deviation from mental health By the end of this lesson you will be able toDefine : Deviation from mental healthName: 4 characteristics of someone with normal mental healthIdentify: Two limitations to this definition
14Deviation from Ideal Mental Health Abnormality is seen as deviating from the Ideal Person,
15What is a Normal Person Jahoda – A normal person should be… In touch with their own identity and feelings.Resistant to Stress.Focussed on the future and self-actualisationAutonomous individuals with an accurate idea of reality.Empathy and understanding of others.positive attitude towards the self,
16Limitations According to these criteria, most of us are abnormal in some way.We should instead askhow many of these needto be lacking before aperson would bejudged as abnormal.
17However, it has been argued that LimitationsPhysical health vsMental Health:Why are we lookingat the idea personrather than looking atthe problems presented.In Physical health weAlways look at the areathat is causing pain.However, it has been argued thatthere are non physical reasons for mental health problems therefore we need other methods of diagnosing it.
18LimitationsCultural relativism: Jahoda’s characteristics are too westernisedIndividual Cultures:Work towards individual achievements (Self actualisation)Collective Cultures:Work towards the good of the group.
19The Biological Model of Abnormality The medical/biological model of abnormality is the most widely accepted model of mental illness, because the dominant view in psychiatry is that mental problems are illnesses to be treated much like physical illnesses.
20Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Define : The biological model of abnormalityIdentify: The four factors that may cause mental disordersIdentify: Two strengths and two weakness of the biological approach.Janssen: Exclusively Dedicated to Mental Health
21Four Possible Factors Infection: Torrey states that schizophrenia maybe linked to motherscontracting a specificstrain of influenza duringpregnancy. Lies dormantuntil hormones releasedduring puberty.Genetics: Research looksat twins. If one twin hasschizophrenia there are highconcordance rates that the othertwin develops the disorder.
22Genetics determine both biochemisty and neuroanatomy Biochemistry: Either toomuch or too littleneurotransmitters.Schizophrenia may bethe result of increasedlevels of dopamine.Brain damage: It has beenshown that people withschizophreniahave enlarged ventricles inthe brain which indicate shrinkage of brain tissue.
23Biology/genetics distinction. Brain activity/chemistry can beinherited e.g. depression. Butgenetics are not the only causeof the problem.Everyday experiences can alsoaffect your brain chemistry.A combination of stress andgenetics may be neededto trigger psychopathologyThis is sometimes called the diathesis-Stress model.
24Evaluation of the Biological Model Strengths:No Blame Approach – Because the cause of a person’s illness is a result of their biology they cannot be held responsible for their behaviour.Wealth of Scientific Knowledge – Brain scanning, drug therapies and genetics tests have all been proved as effective diagnostic tools and treatments.Treatments can be quick, inexpensive and effective e.g. antidepressants.
25Evaluation of the Biological Model Weaknesses:Diathesis- Stress – genetics do not offer a complete explanation.Reductionist – It assumes that complex medical conditions can be broken down into simple biological explanations.Stigma – People will be labelled as having a ‘mental illness’ and this can affect other aspects of their lives when they become passive and give up responsibility for their illness.Treatments – Drugs are not effective for everyone.Research into Diagnosing Abnormality by Rosenham
26Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Outline : How drug treatment worksExplain: The process used in Electroconvulsive therapyIdentify: Two strengths of biological therapies.Identify: Two weakness of biological therapies.
27THERAPIES FOR THE BIOLOGICAL MODEL Used forSchizophreniaAnd bipolar depressionAnimated Minds :: The Light Bulb Thing
29Drugs for depression1990’s, a new group of antidepressants were introduced.Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), the most famous being Prozac, They block the reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic gap into the pre-synaptic neuron.MAOIs block an enzyme that destroys any excess serotonin in the synaptic gap
30Drugs for schizophrenia Chlorpromazine acts by reducing dopamine activity on the brainHowever there is many side effect and therefor new drugs have been developedOne of these is chlozapine,This drug work on a fewdifferent neurotransmitters,including dopamine and serotonin.
31Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) An electric shock of volts is given to the patient’s brain,This would help relieve depression, however, it did produce memory loss.
32Psychosurgery Involves separating or destructing brain parts, This is not a cure, but only relieves symptoms,Moniz, (1930), frontallobotomy-he wouldseparate frontal lobes-thisreduced aggression andmade individuals more placid.
33StrengthsTherapy- Biological therapies help relieve conditions and are cheap and easy to take. They act fastSupport: The world health organisation state that schizophrenics do better with the drugs than a placebo drug. However not as good as a combination of drugs and CBT.
34WeaknessesTherapy- This also raises ethical concerns. The drugs prescribed can produce an addiction. Also, the drugs may only suppress the symptoms and not cure the disorder.Also, the treatments like ECT are irreversible and there is issues of fully informed consent.Side effects: Memory loss with ECT and increased suicide thoughts with and increased anxiety; SSRI’s
35The Psychodynamic model explains abnormality as theconsequence of unresolvedconflicts of childhood whichare unconscious, and aims totreat mental illness by makingthe unconscious conscious,through the use of psychoanalysis.
36Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Define : The psychodynamic model of abnormalityIdentify: The three different components of the personality structureIdentify: The four basic principles that explain the development of abnormality.
37AssumptionsMental disorder results from psychological rather than physical causes.Unresolved conflicts cause mental disorder.Early experiences cause mental disorderUnconscious motivations cause mental disorder
38Personality Structure The id: This is the reservoir ofunconscious and instinctual psychicenergy including libido (life instinct).It works on the pleasure principle.The ego: This is our conscious self.It regulates interactions with ourenvironment and works on thereality principle.The super-ego: this is our personal moral authority. It isformed when the child internalises societies moral andsocial norms.
39The role of conflictIntra-psychic conflict between the id ego and superego can lead to anxiety. To protect ourselves we use ego defence mechanisms.
40Defence mechanisms Activity: In your worksheet look at each of the situations and statewhither the defence mechanismbeing used isRepression, Displacement or Denial.Extension activityThink of behaviour that your or your friends might use as a defence mechanism for each Repression, Displacement and Denial
41Stages of developmentOral: 0-18 months. The mouth is the focus of attention.Anal: 18 months – 3 yrs. Gratification focuses on the anus. This is the first time the child can exert control over their environment.Phallic: up to age 4 or 5. Gender differences are noticed. The most important feature is the Oedipus or Elektra complex.Latency from 4/5 until puberty. Psychosexual development is static emerging at puberty focussed on potential partners rather than self.YouTube - Fight for kisses.flv
42Evaluation of Psychodynamic model StrengthsThe concept of the unconscious is widely accepted.He was first to suggest that adult abnormality is caused in childhood.He invented talking therapy. You can talk through your problems.
43Evaluation of Psychodynamic model He over emphasised children’s sexuality and ignored other aspects of development.He based his theory on case studies of neurotic adults, but wrote about children’s development.It is impossible to test scientifically especially the concepts of unconscious, id etc.It is a product of its time – it was developed in late 19th century Vienna.
44Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Outline : The Psychodynamic therapy for treating psychological disorders.Identify: Two Strengths of the psychotherapy.Identify: Two Weaknesses of the psychotherapy.
45THERAPIES FOR THE PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL Looks at uncounscious thoughts and childhood developmentAnimated Minds :: My Blood is My Tears
50StrengthsFirst talking therapy which has been the foundation of other talking therapies including CBT as well as counsellingIt accepts humans as complicated beings and treats problems that have been caused during childhood.It tries to treat the underlying cause of the disorder rather than just the symptoms.
51WeaknessIt takes a long time. Often appointments are 3 times a week for over 5 years.It is also expensive with therapies costing around £45 – £60 per session.It is not suitable for people who are unwilling to analyse their livesThere are ethical issues due to the unpleasant memories clients will have to face
52THE BEHAVIOURAL MODELEmphasises the role of learning through operant and classical conditioning.Watson & Raynor (1920)classically conditioned an11 month old child knownas Little Albert to fear awhite rat. The responsesthen generalised to all fluffy animals.Activity: in pairs consider the methodological issues of this study.
53Classical Conditioning Involves unconditioned natural responses being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (bell) until this stimulus alone produces the response.
54Conditioning and abnormality Classical conditioning has been said to account for the development of phobias.Seligman proposed theconcept of preparedness– the idea that in ourevolutionary history webecame prepared todevelop a fear of dangerous stimuli.
55Operant conditioning Skinner (1974) demonstrated that rats could be taughtvoluntary responsesby reward andpunishment of behaviour.Different patterns of behaviour are taughtthrough use of different schedules ofreinforcement.
56Social Learning Theory This is an extension of skinner’s work and suggests that we learn through observing another’s behaviour and it’s consequences. We imitate behaviour that we see rewarded – vicarious reinforcement.
57EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH Man's balloon phobia deflated live on radio (18 April 2007) A Hertfordshire company helped cure a man live on radio of his 33-year phobia of balloons. Paul Reason, from Welwyn Garden City, suffered from balloon fear since the age of six when his mother burst one of the party pieces in front of his face. Mr Reason’s fear was so blown up out of all proportion that on one occasion he fainted when hundreds of balloons were released onto a dance floor at a party he was attending. Mr Reason’s children, Sophie and Joshua, who are now allowed to celebrate birthdays and Christmas with balloons. “The change is remarkable,” said Mr Key. “He had been on Valium for five years and he was crying in the car park before the show because he didn’t know what we were going to do.”
58answer these three questions Can the behavioural approach explain this phobia?Does everyone who has a phobia have an incidence in their past that they can pin point as the cause?Can fear of balloons be related to evolutionary adaptiveness to help survival? Why
59Evaluation of the Behavioural approach Treatments can be effective. Especially when treating phobiaThere is a lot of experimental evidence supporting the behavioural modelHowever a lot of it has been conducted on animals or is unethicalTreats the symptoms and notthe cause, underlying fear is oftentransferred to another object aftertreatment of the original phobia
60StrengthsIt lends itself to scientific examination. If we place a person in a situation then give them a reward we can see if their behaviour changes over timeIt has been very successfulin treating phobiaSupport for the studiescomes from the experimenton little Albert by John Watson.
61Criticisms of the Behavioural approach Reductionism – It explains behaviour in simpleforms ignoring cognitive (perception andintelligence) and emotional contributions.It ignores the role of genetics.In that phobia’s might be the resultof too much dopamineIt is deterministic – suggesting thatall behaviour is pre-programmedthrough learning and there is nochoice in how we act.We all however have free will.
62LimitationReductionist: Very limited view, as it thinks we are all blank sheets with no personality or individual thought processesStudies done on Animals: Not generalisable to humans The study that was done on little Albert was very unethicalTreats the symptoms and not the cause: Fear is often displaced onto other phobias
63Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Define :Identify:
64THERAPIES FOR THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL Systematic Desensitisation Used forPhobiasAnimated Minds :: Fish on a Hook
65What is a phobia? An exaggerated fear of an object or situation According to the learningapproach it is a learnedresponse to a stimulus
66An example in everyday life... How Ivan became phobic of walking in the forest
67It is a step by step approach How does SD work?The client learns relaxations techniquesIt is a step by step approachThe client works out a hierarchy of fear from the least frightening to the most frighteningThe client works through the hierarchy learning to use relaxation techniques in the presence of the feared objectFurDog
68THE COGNITIVE MODEL OF ABNORMALITY Ellis and Beck
69Assumptions Unhappy or traumaticexperiencesin childhoodcreatenegativeschemata.Negative schemata lead to negative automatic thoughts which are misplaced or false beliefs about ourselves.All behaviour is influenced by schemata; facts or beliefs held about situations, but mostly about ourselves e.g. “Iam a nice person”.
70Beck’s model of depression Negative view about self, world and futureA negative cognitive Triad.
71Attributional style Behaviour is seen as internal or external in cause ‘ It’s my fault’.OrIt’s your faultBehaviour is seen as specific or global ‘It’s only happening here and now’Behaviour is stable or unstable ‘I must always act this way, it is appropriate’.
72Ellis’ ABC Activating events: Seeing a large dog Beliefs about those events: Dogs biteConsequences: feelings and actions: Panic
73Individual is in control Free will: In contrast to the other models where something outside the individual is responsible for the abnormalityCognitive psychologist believe it is the individual control over their own negative thinking.People must change the way they think
74Evaluation of the cognitive model There is clear research evidence for cognitive bias and dysfunctional thinking.Cognitive therapy is very effective.It ignores biological and genetic factors.The problem e.g. depression may cause the faulty thinking rather than the other way around.
75Criticism for the cognitive model Sometimes negative thoughts are an accurate view of the world. This is called depressive realism.
76Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to Outline : Cognitive Behavioural TherapyIdentify: Two strengths of CBTIdentify: Two weaknesses of CBT
77THERAPIES FOR THE COGNITIVE MODEL Can be used forObsessive compulsive disorderAnimated Minds :: Over and Over (and Over) Again
78CBTTherapy is normally once a week for a period of between 6 weeks to months.Therapist and client work together to evaluate the usefulness of thought patterns and resulting behaviour.Therapist helps client find a more positive way of looking at life and encourages them to enjoy life by doing more things they like.
79Rational Emotive Therapy Albert Ellis: We need to challenge our irrational belief in order to change our behaviourLogical disputing: Look at your thought patterns and see if they make senseEmpirical disputing: Try and find prove to support your irrational thoughtsPragmatic disputing: Look at how these beliefs do not have any usefulness in our lives.
80StrengthsREBT is a successful treatment: Engels et al found in a meta analysis study the REBT was very good for Obsessive-compulsive disorders and social phobiaReliability: It can be used by all sorts of people, both normal and people with psychological disorders.It has been successful with all age group and genders, older people and children find this therapy useful
81WeaknessIt does not always look at the cause of the irrational thoughts.Reality: There are many things in a persons life which are negative and thinking of them as positive would not meet with the reality of the situation.It takes a lot of effort to change your belief system and sometime people find it to difficult.