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GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS in Transportation Adam Winstanley National Centre for Geocomputation Department of Computer Science GIS-T GIS in Practice.

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Presentation on theme: "GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS in Transportation Adam Winstanley National Centre for Geocomputation Department of Computer Science GIS-T GIS in Practice."— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS in Transportation Adam Winstanley National Centre for Geocomputation Department of Computer Science GIS-T GIS in Practice NCG 25/1/06 © ncg and originators of data

2 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS in Transportation Jianquan Cheng Tim McCarthy Peter Mooney Matthew Sammon Adam Winstanley GIS-T

3 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS in Transportation Cheap sensors – GPS, cameras, LIDAR Loads of data Data standards Fast networks Processing power Software algorithms Graphics Web technologies

4 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley GIS-T Applications Location Route Coverage Journey planners Vehicle Tracking Location-based Services Infrastructure management Emergency Services Disaster area Evacuation Transport planning Sustainability Efficiency Spatial strategy Asset inventory Tolling ITS Positioning Sensors Network Algorithms Spatial Analysis

5 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Data Processing Issues A comparison of navigation before (left image) and after (right image) data processing. This data was acquired recently in the West End, central London. Primary Navigation Used DGPS, secondary comprised optical DMI sensor & road centre line.

6 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley AutoTram Development of imaging and control technology for a public-transport vehicle in unsegregated environments Objectives: Sensor and control systems for rail vehicles Collision avoidance systems Warning and safety systems Autonomous control system

7 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Location-based Public Transport Information Systems Applications using positioning systems in public-transport vehicles for passenger information systems, vehicle tracking and fleet control. Free drink with every meal and your tram ticket at this stop e.g. In-vehicle multi-media passenger information system

8 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Tim McCarthy IBI Group-RouteMapper Virtual Tolling Noise Modelling Asset Inventory & Infrastructure Mapping Virtual Route Corridors (2.5-D & 3-D reconstruction) We design and prototype all critical modules, algorithms and sub-systems

9 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Examples of NCGs partnership with transportation industry Image Mapping Systems for Asset Inventory Ongoing partnership with UK/Canadian companies developing a range of route corridor mapping systems for transportation projects Noise Modelling Due to initiate new ten-month R&D project with a commercial company and governement agency. Involves development of airborne and ground based survey systems for measuring route corridor geometry. This will be used as an input to modelling noise along motorway sections in ireland. This falls under the 2007 EU directive.

10 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Asset Inventory system Road mapping systems use advanced camera technology together as well as navigation sensors to record multiple fields of view along route corridor at speeds of upto 100kph. 4 X Progressive scan cameras (1024*768) at 5fps DGPS (1m level) GPS timing National Instrument synchronisation Optical DMI (0.5% error) Monoscopic and Stereoscopic configurations for 2-D and 3-D measurement Robust Datalogging PC Power, mount subsystems Data-throughput is in the order of 50 MB/s

11 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Key Challenges – Design & construction of mobile route corrdior survey systems Sensor Integration Integrating imaging, navigation, laser sensors & other third-party sub- systems Addressing latency and synchronisation issues Choosing correct navigation system Software Engineering, algorithm design & visualisation Development of robust DataAcq modules, Data processing algorithms How do we visualise these multi-sensor datastreams

12 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Route corrdior asset inventory can be sub-divided into three main areas; Data Acquisition Survey vehicle, power, camera subsystems. Primary & secondary navigation (DGPS, DMI, IMU). Additional sensors such as GPR Data Processing Recovering navigation and integration with images including back interpolation, data cleaning, camera calibration (monoscopic & stereoscopic) Data Analysis Browser providing core functionality enabling user to measure, digitise and store data. API to inetgrate with industry standard applications such as ArcGIS, MapInfo, GeoMedia.

13 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Example of simple monoscopic calibration IBI Group- RouteMapper

14 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Simplified diagram depicting a typical route corrdior data acquisition system IBI Group- RouteMapper

15 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Data Acquisition system IBI Group- RouteMapper

16 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Browser Interface Multiple images Video controls Map controls Image ID Mapping (GIS layers) spatially linked to video and database IBI Group- RouteMapper

17 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley High resolution imagery Image controls Image clarity: 1024 x 768 resolution, non interlaced Road Network referencing Text overlay on image (retrieved from database) IBI Group- RouteMapper

18 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Measurement and export In-frame measurement Magnifier to improve measurement accuracy Jump to network segment or ahead/back x metres Business systems integration: Export to HAPMS (+ GIS, database applications) IBI Group- RouteMapper

19 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Creation of GIS layers from Video Tracing an asset in the video creates an underlying feature in the shape file, linked to its description based on a customised asset database For the Highways Agency, the Browser is based on the HAs chart node referencing system The use of standard file formats allows asset information to be exported into standard GIS software (eg Arcview) for further analysis IBI Group- RouteMapper

20 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Integration of multiple sensors RADAR pavement thickness data, displayed alongside video & map Change in pavement condition, visible from GPR data & video IBI Group- RouteMapper

21 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Six camera system for street surveying IBI Group- RouteMapper

22 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Data browsing available over the Internet IBI Group- RouteMapper

23 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Virtual route corridors will be common place within next 10 years IBI Group- RouteMapper

24 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley The AA Route Planner Geographical Distance Only

25 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example A (1) Origin / destination selection Pre-approved O/D, requiring: –Transit stop locations User-entered O/D, requiring (in addition): –Text-matching of addresses / postcodes –Geocoding of addresses / postcodes Trip constraints Consideration of accessibility of stops Minimisation of trip parameters such as: –Fare cost –Number of transfers –Time: In transit Walking to / between stops Trip Planner, Regional Transportation Authority, Illinois, USA

26 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Trip Planner, Regional Transportation Authority, Illinois, USA Interactive Trip Planning Example A (2) Route selection Requires path-finding algorithm and vector data: –for entire transit network, at minimum –for entire street network, where user enters O/D Allows (inter-stop) walking/cycling distance/time Arrival / departure time reporting Requires detailed regular schedule information Mode / service, direction and stop reporting Requires: –Names of modes / services and stops –Mode / service branding with colours / symbology –Understanding of travel direction WRT stops –Knowledge of transfer stops Fare reporting Requires fare and passenger-type information

27 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Journey Planner, Transport for London, UK Interactive Trip Planning Example B (1) Additional trip constraints Allow user to select preferred modes

28 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example B (2) Journey Planner, Transport for London, UK Enhanced accessibility constraints User can specify mobility impairment type, not merely indicate such impairment Requires more information for each stop Specification of non O / D via-location Additional location must be incorporated into trip Enhanced walking / cycling parameters Requires: Additional data about stops / services, e.g. Which services allow bicycles Which stops have bicycle parks Information on walking / cycling travel speeds

29 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example B (3) Journey Planner, Transport for London, UK Indication of total trip time Listing of alternative routes Enhances user choice by displaying no. of transfers per route

30 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example B (4) Journey Planner, Transport for London, UK Detailed description of route Allows route to be printed and followed Account taken of congestion For on-street transit, user notified of maximum journey time, given prevailing conditions Requires congestion data for each street Incorporation of real-time information User notified of service delays and emergencies Alternative routing suggested Requires live updates from services

31 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example B (5) Journey Planner, Transport for London, UK Relevant map for each stop Shows: Route (with mode changes) Nearby: Landmarks Transit stops

32 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example C (1) Google Transit Trip Planner Experimental trip planning by Google User can enter free-text description of: Origin Destination Proposed arrival / departure time Trip duration, categorized by: In transit time Walking time Cost comparison: Public transit Car Simultaneously: Describes route Maps route Incorporates data provided by local public transit companies

33 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Interactive Trip Planning Example C (2) Google Transit Trip Planner Experimental trip planning by Google Also maps route by car, for comparison

34 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Considerations Example (1): We often wish to optimise (minimise) overall travel time – but are willing to tradeoff some travel time – for a journey that does not require us to change trains/buses more than once Example (2): Searching for the optimal route (based on criteria X) and ignoring all other optimisation criteria Y may return a route with minimal X but very high Y values (ie cost, risk, etc)

35 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Using an EA for Journey Planning Research carried out at CS Dept/NCG evaluated the implementation of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) - within a GIS - to evolve routes on transportation networks exhibiting optimal tradeoffs between the N criteria considered Users choose what they perceive as the most important set of criteria to optimise The EA searches for valid routes on the GIS representation of the transportation network The GIS displays the route options to the user

36 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) (1) Transport for Londons iBus system for London Buses To be rolled out over 4 years - trials started Dec 2005 £177m on AVL and telecoms technology ~15 private companies under contract buses 6.3m daily passengers 17,500 stops 700 routes wayside signs Technology from Siemens

37 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) (2) Transport for Londons iBus system for London Buses Vehicle position determined by GPS –Useful for emergencies –Useful for bus performance monitoring Position relayed by GPRS to central computer Predicted arrival times sent by: –GPRS to potential passengers mobile phones –GPRS / ISDN to wayside signs –GPRS to buses, so that drivers can: Know headway info (time gap between consecutive buses) Can make decisions to maintain regularity and prevent bunching

38 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Chicago Transit Authority Automated Voice Annunciation System (AVAS) System automatically: –Displays and announces the next stop to passengers –Announces at each bus stop to those waiting: Bus route Destination Position determined using: –GPS –odometer inputs that provide distance travelled –gyroscope that observes changes in direction Technology from CleverDevices Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) (3)

39 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Where change occurs it may be possible to: –Determine the beneficiaries, using GIS –Tax them –Use the revenue to pay for the transit system Croydon Tramlink, UK –Consortium led by Atisreal (2004) found increases in property values within central Croydon Orange Line, Chicago –McMillen & McDonald (2004) showed that value increases prior to construction were caused by the expectation of improved accessibility Transport Interactions with Property Values (1)

40 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley

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42 Major raw data sources: Amsterdam Region Inhabitants Employment Car networkTransit network

43 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Focal points of Employment

44 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley TAZ from Neighbourhood units

45 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Travel time- OD Matrix Car route Transit route

46 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Virtual Network

47 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Car Corridor

48 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Transit Corridor

49 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Low (< average) Virtual speed Classification High (> average) Low (average) Public Transport share Visual speed = Distance /( t-time * share + c-time*(1-share))

50 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Spatial strategy

51 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Ratio of employment to inhabitants Ratio of job opportunity to inhabitants Different spatial patterns

52 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Job accessibility/ (un-sustainability) Spatial conflicts

53 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Example of strategy Sustainable accessibility

54 GIS in Transport Adam Winstanley Thank you Jianquan Cheng Tim McCarthy Peter Mooney Matthew Sammon Adam Winstanley National Centre for Geocomputation, John Hume Building, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland. © ncg and originators of data


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