Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group task Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group task Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group task Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex Learning Group task Discussion

3

4 1. Design learning tasks 2. Sequence task classes 8. Analyze cognitive rules 3. Set performance objectives 4. design supportive information 5. Analyze cognitive strategies 6. Analyze mental models 7. design procedural information 9. Analyze prerequisite knowledge 10. design part-task practice Ten Steps

5 1. Design learning tasks 2. Sequence task classes 3. Set performance objectives Ten Steps

6 searching for literature

7 Step 1

8 Step 1.1 Design learning tasks You typically need more than one learning task for a task class Start from concrete cases (files) that provide a basis for the design of the learning task Key learning process is induction: Learners mindfully abstract away from their concrete experiences

9 given state goal state solution problem solving process Task support Guidance generation transformation interpretation

10 Product-oriented tasks Case study/ worked example Reverse task Imitation task Goal free task Completion task Conventional task Much support Little support scaffolding / problem-solving support

11 Case study Learners receive a research question, a list with found articles, and a search query that has been used to generate the list with articles. They must evaluate the quality of the list with articles and the search query

12

13 Reverse task Learners receive a list with articles and a search query that has been used to generate this list with articles. They must indicate for which possible research questions the list with articles and the search query could be relevant

14 Given situation: System does not work correctly. Goal: Diagnose the faulty component and repair it SOLUTION Reparation of PID Controller TC 2. Given situation: System does not work correctly. Goal: Diagnose the faulty component and repair it SOLUTION Reparation of PID Controller TC 2. ¿ What were the symptoms ?

15 to the left is an example of a three-room appartment. Now make a design for a two-room appartment. Imitation task

16 Completion task Learners receive a research question, the goal to generate a list with a limited number of relevant articles, and an incomplete search query. They must complete the search query, perform the search and make a selection of relevant articles

17 Goalfree task Learners receive a research question and an a-specific goal, e.g. to come up with as many search queries as possible that could be relevant to the research question. They must formulate those search queries

18 Conventional task Learners receive a research question and the goal to generate a list with limited number of relevant articles. They formulate the search query, perform the search, and make a selection of relevant articles

19 Given: A car that starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at 2 meters/s 2 in a straight line has an average velocity of 17 meters/s. Goal: How far has it traveled? Operators: s = v * t, v =.5V and V = a * t (V=final velocity, v=average velocity, a=accelaration, t=time, s=distance) Conventional task

20 Assignment: design learning tasks 1.Describe the problem for searching relevant literature in (1) given situation, (2) goal situation, and (3) solution 2.Complete the training blueprint by designing two learning tasks for the third task class

21 Task Class 3: Learners are confronted with situations where the concepts in the to-be- searched domain are not clearly defined. Identical terms are used for different concepts, and identical concepts are described with different terms. A large amount of articles are written about the subject and articles are written in several fields of research. Therefore, next to searching on titles of articles, the search also needs to be performed on abstracts and texts. Also, databases from different fields of research have to be searched. Many search terms need to be interconnected with Boolean operators to make sure that all relevant articles (using different terminology) are found and that irrelevant articles (using the same terminology as relevant ones) are excluded. Supportive Information: Presentation of cognitive strategies SAP for determining the number of databases to search and whether to also search on abstracts and full texts. Supportive Information: Presentation of mental models Structural model of templates of search queries describing Boolean combinations of search terms that can be used to search for articles about ill-defined subjects. Conceptual model of different types of databases for different fields of study, describing structure, special search requirements, etc. Learning Task 3.1: t.b.a.Procedural information Procedures for searching specific databases Part-task Practice Applying Boolean operators Learning Task 3.2: t.b.a.Procedural information Procedures for searching specific databases (fading) Supportive Information: Cognitive feedback Learners receive feedback on their approach to solve the problem in Learning Task 3.2.

22 Task Class 3: Learners are confronted with situations where the concepts in the to-be- searched domain are not clearly defined. Identical terms are used for different concepts, and identical concepts are described with different terms. A large amount of articles are written about the subject and articles are written in several fields of research. Therefore, next to searching on titles of articles, the search also needs to be performed on abstracts and texts. Also, databases from different fields of research have to be searched. Many search terms need to be interconnected with Boolean operators to make sure that all relevant articles (using different terminology) are found and that irrelevant articles (using the same terminology as relevant ones) are excluded. Supportive Information: Presentation of cognitive strategies SAP for determining the number of databases to search and whether to also search on abstracts and full texts. Supportive Information: Presentation of mental models Structural model of templates of search queries describing Boolean combinations of search terms that can be used to search for articles about ill-defined subjects. Conceptual model of different types of databases for different fields of study, describing structure, special search requirements, etc. Learning Task 3.1: Completion + Reverse Learners receive a research question and an elaborate search query. They have to predict which databases should be used and then perform the query. They then have to refine the query and select relevant articles. Procedural information Procedures for searching specific databases Part-task Practice Applying Boolean operators Learning Task 3.2: Conventional Learners receive a research question. They have to perform a literature search for the 10 most relevant articles. Procedural information Procedures for searching specific databases (fading) Supportive Information: Cognitive feedback Learners receive feedback on their approach to solve the problem in Learning Task 3.2.

23 process-oriented tasks product-oriented tasks given state goal state solution applying operators or problem solving

24 Process support Expert modeling Performance constraints or training wheels Process worksheets or cognitive tools Conventional tasks Much support Little support scaffolding / problem-solving support

25 Modeling examples ­Worked-out examples in which explicit attention is paid to the problem-solving process ­E.g., a video on which an expert is solving a problem and thinking aloud: explaining what he is doing and why he is doing it

26

27

28 Performance Constraints ­Identify the phases the learner must go through in a systematic problem-solving process (cognitive strategy) ­E.g., a systematic problem-solving approach for solving chemistry problems. Performance constraint: one particular phase may only be entered after correctly completing the previous phase.

29

30 Process worksheets ­Describe the phases to go through while solving a problem (cognitive strategy) ­List rules-of-thumb that may help to complete each phase ­E.g., systematic approach to problem solving for preparing a plea, judging a patent application...

31 Search with program to retrieve documents Specify classes, keywords, databases Read application Perform examination Write draft communication Write draft vote Write search report Are there major defects? start stop Build first impression, by looking at drawings, main claims, and the first page If you read an application, then start with studying the drawings and put them next to the text. start with reading the main claims. Get a grip on an application by reading the whole thing minus claims If you read an application, then highlight/underline passages that refer to prior art, technical effects, and formal defects. first study any independent claims if reference is made to such claims in the text. focus attention on detailed descriptions related to drawings. use any references that are made to prior art as input or starting point for your search. only study dependent claims after you understand the application. start stop yesno

32

33 Assignment: design learning tasks 1. Think of a systematic approach and some rules of thumb to solve the problem from the previous assignment 2.Design several types of process support for your learning tasks

34 sequence skill clusters and/or task classes Step 2

35 ...the ability to produce a coherent and appropriate sequence of case studies and problems is a key feature in the design of constructivist learning environments (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1987)

36 Step 2.1 Sequencing task classes Sequence task classes from simple to complex Whole-task approach Learners develop a holistic vision on the task zoom-lens metaphor focus on the coordination and integration of constituent skills

37 simplifying assumptions see SAP ­Make a list with simplifying assumptions or complexity factors ­First task class: simplest level for all factors ­Final task class: most difficult level for all factors ­Add task classes in between

38 Assignment: simplifying assumptions 1. Think of a systematic approach and some rules of thumb to solve the problem from the previous assignment 2.Design several types of process support for your learning tasks

39 Example: Searching for literature: simplifying assumptions Number of expected articles (a few, many) Type of search (titles, abstracts, full texts) Amount of search terms and Boolean operators (few search terms, many search terms but no Booleans, many search terms connected with Booleans) Type of database that is searched (one familiar database, all relevant databases)

40 ­Variability and contextual interference ­Facilitates mindful abstraction ­Important for reaching transfer NOT Simple-to- complex Sequencing learning tasks within one task class

41 Step 2.2 (optional!) Sequence on macro level Only for highly complex skills! If: impossible to find a task class that is simple enough to start the training with Define small number of skill clusters Meaningfully interrelated set of constituent skills Reflect authentic and non-trivial tasks Clusters preferably overlap First cluster enables learners to quickly start with practice

42 E ABCD ­forward chaining ­one-by-one A - B - C - D ­snowballing A- AB - ABC - ABCD=E ­backward chaining ­one-by-one D based on results of ABC - C based on results of AB - B based on results of A - A ­snowballing D based on results of ABC - CD based on results of AB - BCD based on results of A - ABCD=E Confront with useful models right from the beginning

43 Performing substantive examination Issuing the communication or vote (including B09) Re-examining the application Examination of amendments Discussions with applicant Writing further communication or refusal Patent examination Preparing the search report Analyze applications Determine main features of invention Classify application Determine invention described/ inventive concept Determine invention claimed Lack of unity? Perform the search Determine search strategy Use search tools Evaluate search results Write B09 (pre-examination result) Determine claimed subject-matter Novelty/ inventive step? Other EPC requirements? Compare documents with invention Select relevant documents 123

44 Example (patent examination: skill clusters) ­perform a substantive examination based on an application and given search report ­write a B-09 (pre-examination results) and perform a substantive examination, based on an application and given search results ­perform the complete patent examination And then define task classes for each skill cluster…...

45 Example Task classes for cluster 1 ­Application and search report given. Writing votes for clear applications, search report correctly citing A-documents only. ­Application and search report given. Writing communications for clear applications. Search report citing X and Y-documents. ­Application and search report given. Writing communication. Application is long and verbose; search report citing A- documents only.

46 analyse non- recurrent aspects analyze recurrent aspects 8 cognitive rules 9 prerequisite knowledge 5 cognitive strategies 6 mental models 3 performance objectives 2 task classes 1 learning tasks 4 supportive information 7 procedural information 10 part-task practice Discussion on steps 3-10

47 Computer tools for 4C/ID ­Develop, store and edit all intermediate analysis and design products ­Different perspectives, filtering ­Integrated set of 10 editors ­Template use, consistency checking, partial automation ­Enables re-use of all products ­Blueprint is XML-compatible (IMS-LD) ­Input for Authorware, Toolbook, EML-authoring system??

48

49 1. Design learning tasks 2. Sequence task classes 8. Analyze cognitive rules 3. Set performance objectives 4. design supportive information 5. Analyze cognitive strategies 6. Analyze mental models 7. design procedural information 9. Analyze prerequisite knowledge 10. design part-task practice Ten Steps

50 Discussion

51 Questions? Information

52

53

54

55 Thank you for your attention!

56


Download ppt "Workshop schedule Introduction: Complex learning and Instructional Design Four-component Instructional Design Group task Coffee break Ten Steps to Complex."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google