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Hazardous Materials MCFRS Annual Re-certification Vers 10.3 lrs Click to advance slides
MCFR Hazmat Operations Level Training In our organization, we are trained to: NFPA Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Material Incidents We are trained to operate in the Hazmat Operations role. This roll allows us to perform all activities up to the edge of the HOT zone We can operate at this level in a DEFENSIVE manner only.
Primary Responsibilities Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in an incident if possible Analyzing an incident to determine the nature and extent of the problem Protecting first responders, nearby persons, the environment, and property from the effects of a release
Primary Responsibilities Developing a defensive plan of action to address the problems presented by the incident Implementing the planned response to control a release from a safe distance and keep it from spreading Evaluating the progress of the actions taken to ensure that response objectives are safely met
Hazmat Managing Agencies - U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) -Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -OSHA -Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level I – Incident that can be controlled by first responder/s. No evacuation necessary beyond initial site. Small area that poses no immediate threats to life, property, or environment. Ex.: auto leaking fuel
Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level II- Incident has greater hazard/area involved than Level I. May pose danger to life, property, and environment. This incident may require limited evacuation/protective area of surrounding sites. Requires the response of a formal response team. Ex.: Minor accidental chemical spill at industrial location.
Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level III – Incident the poses severe danger to life, property, and environment. May involve large scale protective actions etc. Incident will require federal, state, regional assistance. Ex.: Large scale train derailment w/numerous tanker cars on fire.
Routes of Exposure Inhalation Absorption Ingestion Penetration/Direct Contact Injection
Hazardous Material Health Affects The acronym TRACEMP defines potential health affects: Thermal Radiological Asphyxiation Corrosive Etiological Mechanical Psychological
Hazmat Exposure Limits Threshold Limit Value (TLV) – 8 hrs./24 hr. day Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)- 8 hrs./24 hr. day Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) – 15 mins./24 hr. day Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) – Immediate This limit represents the maximum concentration from which an unprotected person can expect to escape in a 30-minute period of time without suffering irreversible health effects.
Radioactive Material Incidents Three basic safety measures: TIME DISTANCE SHIELDING
Site management: Initial actions 1. Establish command 2. Confirm command 3. Select incident command post location 4. Establish staging area as needed 5. Request additional units as needed
Commercial Occupancies Containing Hazardous Materials Fuel storage facilities Gas/service stations and convenience stores Paint supply stores Plant nurseries, garden centers, and agricultural facilities Pest control and lawn care companies Medical facilities Photo processing laboratories Dry cleaners Plastics and high- technology factories
Site management: Positioning ALWAYS approach uphill and upwind if possible Look for possible clues to the incident upon approach
Site management: Hazard Perimeters/Distances/Zones Establish initial isolation perimeters/distances as soon as possible. Establish COLD, WARM, and HOT zones.
Site management: Public – Protect-in-Place/Evacuation Shelter-in Place – have areas affected turn off all HVAC, close windows etc., turn off exhaust fans etc. Stay in-doors in-place listening via radio or TV for instructions. Evacuation- have affected areas physically move to safe specific location. Remember factors such as ability to disseminate info, time involved, population at risk, routes of travel etc.
Hazmat Identification Methods Seven primary clues: Shipping papers or documents Container shapes/types Placards/labels Detection equipment Markings/colors Type of occupancy/location Senses
Sources for Names of Haz Mat at transportation Incidents ERG Shipping papers
Shipping Paper Identification Air transport Shipping paper name Air bill Location of shipping paper Cockpit Responsible party Pilot Highway transport Shipping paper name Bill of lading Location of shipping paper Vehicle cab Responsible party Driver
Shipping Paper Identification Rail transport Shipping paper name Waybill/consist Location of shipping paper Engine or caboose Responsible party Conductor Water transport Shipping paper name Dangerous cargo manifest Location of shipping paper Bridge or pilothouse Responsible party Captain or master
North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Initials (reporting marks) and number Are stenciled on both sides (to the left when facing the car) and both ends (upper center) of the tank car tank Can be used to get information about the cars contents from the railroads computer or the shipper
North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Capacity stencils Show the volume of the tank car tank Volume in gallons (and sometimes liters) is stenciled on both ends of the car under the cars initials and number Volume in pounds (and sometimes kilograms) is stenciled on the sides of the car under the cars initials and number
North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Specification markings Indicate the standards to which a tank car was built Are stenciled on both sides of the tank, on the opposite end from the initials and number
Rail Tank Cars Pressure tank car Contents: Flammable, nonflammable, and poison gases as well as flammable liquids
Rail Tank Cars Non-pressure tank car Contents: Flammable liquids, flammable solids, reactive liquids, reactive solids, oxidizers, organic peroxides, poisons, irritants, corrosive materials, and similar products Without expansion dome With expansion dome
Cargo Tank Trucks Non-pressure liquid tank (MC306) Low-pressure chemical tank (MC307) Corrosive liquid tank (MC312) High-pressure tank (MC331) Cryogenic liquid tank (MC338, MC306) Compressed-gas/tube trailer Dry bulk cargo tanker
Equipment That May Indicate Hazardous Materials Presence Loading/unloading facilities Forklifts Dollies and hand trucks Booms A-frames Ramps Assorted riggings Loading docks Fume hood vents or chemical exhaust stacks Spray rigs
WARNING Deliberately using the human senses to detect the presence of hazardous materials is both unreliable and unsafe. It could kill you! Limitations of Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials All but vision require close contact with hazardous material in order to hear, smell, taste, or feel it.
Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages Non-bulk package: contains solids, liquids, or gases per DOT definitions Liquids: capacity 119 gals. (450 liters) or less Solids: net mass of 882 lbs. (400 kg) or less for solids, or capacity of 119 gals. (450 liters) or less. Gases: water capacity of 1001 lbs (454 kg) or less
Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages Transportation container types for non-bulk materials may include: Bottles, carboys, jerricans, cylinders, boxes, barrels, bags, drums etc.
Characteristics of DOT Labels Provide same information as vehicle placards Are posted on packages Are 3.9-inch (100 mm), square-on-point diamonds, that (with the exception of Class 7 labels) may or may not have written text Require subsidiary risk labels for materials that meet the definition of more than one hazard class
Manufacturers Labels and Signal Words Must be used by chemical manufacturers and importers Must include one of four signal words if for consumer use: CAUTION Minor health effects WARNING Moderate hazards DANGER Highest degree of hazard POISON Highly toxic (pesticides)
Manufacturers Labels and Signal Words Must include specific information: Name and business address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller Name of each hazardous ingredient Statement of the principal hazard Precautionary statements Instructions for first-aid treatment Instructions for special handling or storage Statement Keep out of the reach of children.
Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Bulk package- any packaging to include transports vehicles which meet DOT definitions: Liquids: capacity greater than 119 gals. (450 liters) Solids: net mass greater than 882 lbs. (400 kg) for solids, or capacity greater than 119 gals (450 liters) Gases: water capacity greater than 1001 lbs. (454 kg)
Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Transportation containers for bulk materials may include any of the following: Bulk bags/boxes, cargo tanks, van trailers, rail cars, inter-modals etc.
Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Bulk packages may be identified using placards or markers. Placards are used in transportation. Markers such as NFPA 704 are used only on permanent facilities.
DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions Class 1 – Explosives (Divisions 1.1–1.6) Class 2 - Gases - flammable/non- flammable/toxic (Divisions ) Class 3 - Flammable liquids (and Combustible Liquids) Class 4 - Flammable solids, Spontaneously Combustible Materials, Dangerous When Wet, and Water Reactive Materials (Divisions )
DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions Class 5 – Oxidizing Substances/Organic Peroxides (Divisions 5.1-2) Class 6 – Toxins/Infectious Substances (Divisions 6.1-2) Class 7 – Radioactive Materials Class 8 – Corrosive Substances Class 9 – Miscellaneous Hazardous materials/Products, Substances, Organisms *All classifications and associated divisions can be found via (Hazard Classification System, 2008 ERG, pg. 14)
Parts of a DOT Placard Background Color Hazard Symbol Diamond shaped Hazard Class Number 4-Digit ID Number, UN or Hazard Class Designation
DOT Placard Color Codes Explosive Oxidizer Flammable Health Hazard Water Reactive Nonflammable Gas
DOT Symbols ExplosiveOxidizerRadioactiveFlammable Poison Corrosive Nonflammable Gas
Specialized Systems for Hazardous Materials Include: NFPA 704 Common hazardous communications labels International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Globally harmonized system Military markings Pipeline identifications
NFPA 704 Health Flammability Instability
NFPA 704 Provides a method for indicating the presence of hazardous materials at: Commercial facilities Manufacturing facilities Institutional facilities Other fixed-storage facilities
NFPA 704 Not designed for the following situations: Transportation General public use Non-emergency occupational exposures Explosive and blasting agents Chronic health hazards Etiologic agents, and other similar hazards
Hazard Communication Symbols BiologicalChemicalNuclear/ Radiological Carcinogen/ Cancer
U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols Division 1: Mass explosion May also be used for Division 5: Mass Explosion Very insensitive explosives Division 2: Explosion with fragment hazard May also be used for Division 6: Non-mass Explosion Extremely insensitive ammunition
U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols Division 3: Mass fire Division 4: Moderate fire -No blast
U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings Wear full protective clothing (Set One) Red Youre Dead Wear full protective clothing (Set Two) Yellow Youre Mellow Wear full protective clothing (Set Three) White is Bright
U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings Wear Breathing Apparatus Apply No Water
Pipeline Identification Product Emergency telephone number Owner Signal words Required where a pipeline crosses another mode of transportation!
2008 Emergency Response Guidebook The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) is primarily a guide to aid 1 st responders in quickly identifying the specific or generic hazards of materials involved in and emergency incident on a highway or railroad. It helps them protect themselves and the public during the initial response phase of the incident. The ERG does not address all possible circumstances that may be associated with a dangerous goods/ hazardous materials incident.
2008 Emergency Response Guidebook Explosives are not listed individually but appear under the general heading Explosives on the first page of the ID Number Index and alphabetically in the Name of Material index. The letter P following the Guide number in the yellow-bordered and blue-bordered pages identifies those materials that present a polymerization hazard under certain conditions. First responders should be familiar with the ERG before using it in an emergency!
Methods for Determining the ERG Page for a Hazardous Material Using the numerical index for UN/NA ID numbers Using the alphabetical index for chemical names Using the Table of Placards and Initial Response Guides
ERG ID Number Index (Yellow-Bordered Pages) Index hazardous materials in numerical order of their 4-digit ID numbers Follow ID number with materials assigned ERG Guide number followed by the materials name Highlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
ERG Material Name Index (Blue-Bordered Pages) Alphabetically index hazardous materials by name Follow the materials name with the ERG Guide number and the materials 4-digit ID number Highlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
Initial Action Guides (Orange-Bordered Pages) Provide safety recommendations and general hazard information Present each guide in a two-page format Potential hazards section Public safety section Emergency response section
Table of Initial Isolation Distances (Green-Bordered Pages ) List TIH materials by ID number in Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances Include water-reactive materials that produce toxic gases in Table of Water-Reactive TIH Materials
Initial Isolation Distance Distance within which all persons are considered for evacuation in all directions from the actual spill/leak source
Table of Initial Isolation Distances
Protective Action Distance A downwind distance from a spill/leak source within which protective actions should be implemented (steps taken to preserve the health and safety of emergency responders and the public)
Protective Action Zone
Small Spills vs. Large Spills Small spill A spill that involves less than 53 gallons (200 liters) of material. Large spill A spill that involves a spill from a large package, or multiple spills from many small packages
Elements of the General Hazardous Material Behavior Model Stress Breach Release Dispersion/engulfment Exposure/contact Harm
Timeframes Associated with Exposure and Contact Immediate Milliseconds, seconds Short-term Minutes, hours Medium-term Days, weeks, months Long-term Years, generations
Standard Strategic Goals of Haz Mat Incidents Isolation Notification Identification Protection Spill control Leak control Fire control Recovery/termination
Confinement Controlling the product that has already been released from its container Function Minimizes the amount of contact the product makes with people, property, and the environment Tactics Absorption Adsorption Blanketing/covering Dam, dike, diversion, and retention Vapor suppression
Leak Control/Containment Tactics Patching/plugging Overpacking Product transfer Crimping Valve actuation Vacuuming Pressure isolation and reduction Solidification
Hazards Encountered Due to Skin Contact with Hazardous Materials Chemical burns Allergic reactions Rashes Absorption of toxic materials into the body
Types of PPE Used at Haz-Mat Incidents Structural fire- fighting protective clothing High-temperature protective clothing Chemical-protective clothing Liquid-splash protective clothing Vapor-protective clothing
Chemical Protective Clothing
EPA Classification System Level A Level B Level C Level D These levels are also recognized by NIOSH, OSHA, and USCG.
EPA Level A Ensemble Components Vapor protective suit Pressure-demand, full-face SCBA Inner chemical-resistant gloves Chemical-resistant safety boots Two-way radio communication Cooling system (optional) Hard hat (optional) Outer gloves (optional)
Components SCBA required with a splash protective garment Vapor protection not required Chemical protective gloves may not be attached to the suit EPA Level B Ensemble
EPA Level C Ensemble Components Support Function Protective Garment Full-facepiece, air-purifying, canister- equipped respirator Chemical-resistant gloves and safety boots Two-way communications system Hard hat Faceshield (optional) Escape SCBA (optional)
Components Ordinary work clothing Minimal Skin Protection Requires no respiratory protection Level D protection is not adequate for first responders EPA Level D Ensemble
Types of Respiratory Protection Atmosphere-supplying respirators Closed-circuit SCBA Open-circuit SCBA Supplied-air respirators (SARs) Air-purifying respirators (APRs) Particulate removing Vapor and gas removing Combination particulate and vapor-and-gas removing
Contamination Terms Exposure The process by which people, animals, the environment, and equipment are subjected to or actually come in contact with a hazardous material Hazard The harm that can be done by a material
Types of Contamination Primary The direct transfer of a hazardous material to persons, equipment, and the environment Occurs in the hot zone because of direct contact with a hazardous material
Types of Contamination Secondary The contamination of people, of equipment, or the environment outside the hot zone The contaminant is carried from the hot zone by personnels clothing or tools, air currents, and runoff water. If personnel are not decontaminated before leaving the hot zone, they can contaminate whomever and whatever they touch thereafter.
Contamination Terms Contamination The process of transferring a hazardous material from its source to people, animals, the environment, or equipment Decontamination The process of removing hazardous materials to prevent the spread of contaminants beyond a specific area and reduce the level of contamination to levels that are no longer harmful Is performed when a victim, responder, animal, or equipment leaves the hot zone
Criminal and Terrorist Incident Response Essentially the same as other haz mat incidents Law enforcement Must be notified Must be included Responsible for evidence collection
Elements of Terrorism Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. Actions intend to intimidate or coerce. Actions are committed in support of political or social objectives.
Categories of Terrorist Incidents B iological B iological N uclear N uclear I ncendiary I ncendiary C hemical C hemical E xplosive E xplosive
SLUDGEM The acronym SLUDGEM is used to remember chemical agent health problems: Salivation (drooling) Lacrimation (tearing) Urination Defecation Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping) Emesis (vomiting) Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms
2008 ERG pages Criminal/Terrorist use of Chemical/Biological/Radiological Agents Can be found in the case of a terrorist incident
Guidelines for Preserving Evidence Remember and document when something was touched or moved Minimize the number of people working in the area, if possible Leave fatalities and their surroundings undisturbed Identify witnesses, victims, and the presence of evidence
Guidelines for Preserving Evidence Preserve potentially transient physical evidence Follow departmental procedures for establishing chain of custody, documentation, and security measures to store crime scene evidence
Sources Hildebrand, Noll, Yvorra, Hazardous Materials:Managing the Incident 3 rd. Edition, Redhat Publishing Company, Inc., copyright 2005 Copley, Terry, Hazardous Materials For First Responders 3 rd. Edition, Board of Regents, OSU, copyright Emergency Response Guidebook