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MCFRS Annual Re-certification

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1 MCFRS Annual Re-certification
Hazardous Materials MCFRS Annual Re-certification Vers 10.3 lrs Click to advance slides

2 MCFR Hazmat Operations Level Training
In our organization, we are trained to: NFPA Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Material Incidents We are trained to operate in the Hazmat Operations role. This roll allows us to perform all activities up to the edge of the HOT zone We can operate at this level in a DEFENSIVE manner only. MCFR trains

3 Primary Responsibilities
Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in an incident if possible Analyzing an incident to determine the nature and extent of the problem Protecting first responders, nearby persons, the environment, and property from the effects of a release

4 Primary Responsibilities
Developing a defensive plan of action to address the problems presented by the incident Implementing the planned response to control a release from a safe distance and keep it from spreading Evaluating the progress of the actions taken to ensure that response objectives are safely met

5 Hazmat Managing Agencies
-U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) -Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -OSHA -Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

6 Hazmat Incident Response Levels
Level I – Incident that can be controlled by first responder/s. No evacuation necessary beyond initial site. Small area that poses no immediate threats to life, property, or environment. Ex.: auto leaking fuel

7 Hazmat Incident Response Levels
Level II- Incident has greater hazard/area involved than Level I. May pose danger to life, property, and environment. This incident may require limited evacuation/protective area of surrounding sites. Requires the response of a formal response team. Ex.: Minor accidental chemical spill at industrial location.

8 Hazmat Incident Response Levels
Level III – Incident the poses severe danger to life, property, and environment. May involve large scale protective actions etc. Incident will require federal, state, regional assistance. Ex.: Large scale train derailment w/numerous tanker cars on fire.

9 Routes of Exposure Inhalation Absorption Ingestion
Penetration/Direct Contact Injection

10 Hazardous Material Health Affects
The acronym TRACEMP defines potential health affects: Thermal Radiological Asphyxiation Corrosive Etiological Mechanical Psychological

11 Hazmat Exposure Limits
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) – 8 hrs./24 hr. day Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)- 8 hrs./24 hr. day Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) – 15 mins./24 hr. day Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) – Immediate This limit represents the maximum concentration from which an unprotected person can expect to escape in a 30-minute period of time without suffering irreversible health effects.

12 Radioactive Material Incidents
Three basic safety measures: TIME DISTANCE SHIELDING

13 Environmental Emergencies
Heat emergencies: heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke Cold emergencies: frostbite, hypothermia

14 Site management: Initial actions
Establish command Confirm command Select incident command post location Establish staging area as needed Request additional units as needed

15 Commercial Occupancies Containing Hazardous Materials
Fuel storage facilities Gas/service stations and convenience stores Paint supply stores Plant nurseries, garden centers, and agricultural facilities Pest control and lawn care companies Medical facilities Photo processing laboratories Dry cleaners Plastics and high-technology factories

16 Site management: Positioning
ALWAYS approach uphill and upwind if possible Look for possible clues to the incident upon approach

17 Site management: Hazard Perimeters/Distances/Zones
Establish initial isolation perimeters/distances as soon as possible. Establish COLD, WARM, and HOT zones.

18 Hazard Zones

19 Site management: Public – Protect-in-Place/Evacuation
Shelter-in Place – have areas affected turn off all HVAC, close windows etc., turn off exhaust fans etc. Stay in-doors in-place listening via radio or TV for instructions. Evacuation- have affected areas physically move to safe specific location. Remember factors such as ability to disseminate info, time involved, population at risk, routes of travel etc.

20 Hazmat Identification Methods
Seven primary clues: Shipping papers or documents Container shapes/types Placards/labels Detection equipment Markings/colors Type of occupancy/location Senses

21 Sources for Names of Haz Mat at transportation Incidents
ERG Shipping papers

22 Shipping Paper Identification
Air transport Shipping paper name — Air bill Location of shipping paper — Cockpit Responsible party — Pilot Highway transport Shipping paper name — Bill of lading Location of shipping paper — Vehicle cab Responsible party — Driver

23 Shipping Paper Identification
Rail transport Shipping paper name — Waybill/consist Location of shipping paper — Engine or caboose Responsible party — Conductor Water transport Shipping paper name — Dangerous cargo manifest Location of shipping paper — Bridge or pilothouse Responsible party — Captain or master

24 North American Railroad Tank Car Markings
Initials (reporting marks) and number Are stenciled on both sides (to the left when facing the car) and both ends (upper center) of the tank car tank Can be used to get information about the car’s contents from the railroad’s computer or the shipper

25 North American Railroad Tank Car Markings
Capacity stencils — Show the volume of the tank car tank Volume in gallons (and sometimes liters) is stenciled on both ends of the car under the car’s initials and number Volume in pounds (and sometimes kilograms) is stenciled on the sides of the car under the car’s initials and number

26 North American Railroad Tank Car Markings
Specification markings Indicate the standards to which a tank car was built Are stenciled on both sides of the tank, on the opposite end from the initials and number

27 Rail Tank Cars Pressure tank car
Contents: Flammable, nonflammable, and poison gases as well as flammable liquids

28 Without expansion dome
Rail Tank Cars Non-pressure tank car Contents: Flammable liquids, flammable solids, reactive liquids, reactive solids, oxidizers, organic peroxides, poisons, irritants, corrosive materials, and similar products Without expansion dome With expansion dome

29 Cargo Tank Trucks Non-pressure liquid tank (MC306)
Low-pressure chemical tank (MC307) Corrosive liquid tank (MC312) High-pressure tank (MC331) Cryogenic liquid tank (MC338, MC306) Compressed-gas/tube trailer Dry bulk cargo tanker

30 Equipment That May Indicate Hazardous Materials Presence
Loading/unloading facilities Forklifts Dollies and hand trucks Booms A-frames Ramps Assorted riggings Loading docks Fume hood vents or chemical exhaust stacks Spray rigs

31 Limitations of Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials
All but vision require close contact with hazardous material in order to hear, smell, taste, or feel it. WARNING Deliberately using the human senses to detect the presence of hazardous materials is both unreliable and unsafe. It could kill you!

32 Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages
Non-bulk package: contains solids, liquids, or gases per DOT definitions Liquids: capacity 119 gals. (450 liters) or less Solids: net mass of 882 lbs. (400 kg) or less for solids, or capacity of 119 gals. (450 liters) or less. Gases: water capacity of 1001 lbs (454 kg) or less

33 Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages
Transportation container types for non-bulk materials may include: Bottles, carboys, jerricans, cylinders, boxes, barrels, bags, drums etc.

34 Characteristics of DOT Labels
Provide same information as vehicle placards Are posted on packages Are 3.9-inch (100 mm), square-on-point diamonds, that (with the exception of Class 7 labels) may or may not have written text Require subsidiary risk labels for materials that meet the definition of more than one hazard class

35 Manufacturer’s Labels and Signal Words
Must be used by chemical manufacturers and importers Must include one of four signal words if for consumer use: CAUTION — Minor health effects WARNING — Moderate hazards DANGER — Highest degree of hazard POISON — Highly toxic (pesticides)

36 Manufacturer’s Labels and Signal Words
Must include specific information: Name and business address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller Name of each hazardous ingredient Statement of the principal hazard Precautionary statements Instructions for first-aid treatment Instructions for special handling or storage Statement “Keep out of the reach of children.”

37 Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages
Bulk package- any packaging to include transports vehicles which meet DOT definitions: Liquids: capacity greater than 119 gals. (450 liters) Solids: net mass greater than 882 lbs. (400 kg) for solids, or capacity greater than 119 gals (450 liters) Gases: water capacity greater than 1001 lbs. (454 kg)

38 Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages
Transportation containers for bulk materials may include any of the following: Bulk bags/boxes, cargo tanks, van trailers, rail cars, inter-modals etc.

39 Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages
Bulk packages may be identified using placards or markers. Placards are used in transportation. Markers such as NFPA 704 are used only on permanent facilities.

40 DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions
Class 1 – Explosives (Divisions 1.1–1.6) Class 2 - Gases - flammable/non-flammable/toxic (Divisions ) Class 3 - Flammable liquids (and Combustible Liquids) Class 4 - Flammable solids, Spontaneously Combustible Materials, Dangerous When Wet, and Water Reactive Materials (Divisions )

41 DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions
Class 5 – Oxidizing Substances/Organic Peroxides (Divisions 5.1-2) Class 6 – Toxins/Infectious Substances (Divisions 6.1-2) Class 7 – Radioactive Materials Class 8 – Corrosive Substances Class 9 – Miscellaneous Hazardous materials/Products, Substances, Organisms *All classifications and associated divisions can be found via (Hazard Classification System, 2008 ERG, pg. 14)

42 Parts of a DOT Placard Hazard Symbol Background Color Diamond shaped
4-Digit ID Number, UN or Hazard Class Designation Hazard Class Number

43 DOT Placard Color Codes
Explosive Oxidizer Flammable Health Hazard Water Reactive Nonflammable Gas

44 DOT Symbols Explosive Oxidizer Radioactive Flammable Corrosive
Nonflammable Gas Poison

45 Specialized Systems for Hazardous Materials Include:
NFPA 704 Common hazardous communications labels International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Globally harmonized system Military markings Pipeline identifications

46 NFPA 704 Flammability Health Instability

47 NFPA 704 Provides a method for indicating the presence of hazardous materials at: Commercial facilities Manufacturing facilities Institutional facilities Other fixed-storage facilities

48 NFPA 704 Not designed for the following situations: Transportation
General public use Non-emergency occupational exposures Explosive and blasting agents Chronic health hazards Etiologic agents, and other similar hazards

49 Hazard Communication Symbols
Biological Chemical Nuclear/ Radiological Carcinogen/ Cancer

50 U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols
Division 1: Mass explosion May also be used for Division 5: Mass Explosion — Very insensitive explosives Division 2: Explosion with fragment hazard May also be used for Division 6: Non-mass Explosion — Extremely insensitive ammunition

51 U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols
Division 3: Mass fire Division 4: Moderate fire -No blast

52 U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings
Wear full protective clothing (Set One) “Red You’re Dead” Wear full protective clothing (Set Two) “Yellow You’re Mellow” Wear full protective clothing (Set Three) “White is Bright”

53 U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings
Wear Breathing Apparatus Apply No Water

54 Pipeline Identification
Required where a pipeline crosses another mode of transportation! Signal words Product Owner Emergency telephone number

55 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook
The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) is primarily a guide to aid 1st responders in quickly identifying the specific or generic hazards of materials involved in and emergency incident on a highway or railroad. It helps them protect themselves and the public during the initial response phase of the incident. The ERG does not address all possible circumstances that may be associated with a dangerous goods/ hazardous materials incident.

56 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook
Explosives are not listed individually but appear under the general heading Explosives on the first page of the ID Number Index and alphabetically in the Name of Material index. The letter P following the Guide number in the yellow-bordered and blue-bordered pages identifies those materials that present a polymerization hazard under certain conditions. First responders should be familiar with the ERG before using it in an emergency!

57 Methods for Determining the ERG Page for a Hazardous Material
Using the numerical index for UN/NA ID numbers Using the alphabetical index for chemical names Using the Table of Placards and Initial Response Guides

58 ERG ID Number Index (Yellow-Bordered Pages)
Index hazardous materials in numerical order of their 4-digit ID numbers Follow ID number with material’s assigned ERG Guide number followed by the material’s name Highlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases

59 ERG Material Name Index (Blue-Bordered Pages)
Alphabetically index hazardous materials by name Follow the material’s name with the ERG Guide number and the material’s 4-digit ID number Highlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases

60 Initial Action Guides (Orange-Bordered Pages)
Provide safety recommendations and general hazard information Present each guide in a two-page format Potential hazards section Public safety section Emergency response section

61 Table of Initial Isolation Distances (Green-Bordered Pages)
List TIH materials by ID number in Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances Include water-reactive materials that produce toxic gases in Table of Water-Reactive TIH Materials

62 Initial Isolation Distance
Distance within which all persons are considered for evacuation in all directions from the actual spill/leak source

63 Table of Initial Isolation Distances
Green section

64 Protective Action Distance
A downwind distance from a spill/leak source within which protective actions should be implemented (steps taken to preserve the health and safety of emergency responders and the public) Green section

65 Protective Action Zone

66 Small Spills vs. Large Spills
Small spill —A spill that involves less than 53 gallons (200 liters) of material. Large spill — A spill that involves a spill from a large package, or multiple spills from many small packages

67 Elements of the General Hazardous Material Behavior Model
Stress Breach Release Dispersion/engulfment Exposure/contact Harm

68 Timeframes Associated with Exposure and Contact
Immediate — Milliseconds, seconds Short-term — Minutes, hours Medium-term — Days, weeks, months Long-term — Years, generations

69 Standard Strategic Goals of Haz Mat Incidents
Isolation Notification Identification Protection Spill control Leak control Fire control Recovery/termination

70 Confinement Controlling the product that has already been released from its container Function — Minimizes the amount of contact the product makes with people, property, and the environment Tactics Absorption Adsorption Blanketing/covering Dam, dike, diversion, and retention Vapor suppression

71 Leak Control/Containment Tactics
Patching/plugging Overpacking Product transfer Crimping Valve actuation Vacuuming Pressure isolation and reduction Solidification

72 Hazards Encountered Due to Skin Contact with Hazardous Materials
Chemical burns Allergic reactions Rashes Absorption of toxic materials into the body

73 Types of PPE Used at Haz-Mat Incidents
Structural fire-fighting protective clothing High-temperature protective clothing Chemical-protective clothing Liquid-splash protective clothing Vapor-protective clothing

74 Chemical Protective Clothing

75 EPA Classification System
Level A Level B Level C Level D These levels are also recognized by NIOSH, OSHA, and USCG.

76 EPA Level A Ensemble Components Vapor protective suit
Pressure-demand, full-face SCBA Inner chemical-resistant gloves Chemical-resistant safety boots Two-way radio communication Cooling system (optional) Hard hat (optional) Outer gloves (optional)

77 EPA Level B Ensemble Components
SCBA required with a splash protective garment Vapor protection not required Chemical protective gloves may not be attached to the suit

78 EPA Level C Ensemble Components Support Function Protective Garment
Full-facepiece, air-purifying, canister-equipped respirator Chemical-resistant gloves and safety boots Two-way communications system Hard hat Faceshield (optional) Escape SCBA (optional)

79 EPA Level D Ensemble Components Ordinary work clothing
Minimal Skin Protection Requires no respiratory protection Level D protection is not adequate for first responders

80 Types of Respiratory Protection
Atmosphere-supplying respirators Closed-circuit SCBA Open-circuit SCBA Supplied-air respirators (SARs) Air-purifying respirators (APRs) Particulate removing Vapor and gas removing Combination particulate and vapor-and-gas removing

81 Contamination Terms Exposure — The process by which people, animals, the environment, and equipment are subjected to or actually come in contact with a hazardous material Hazard — The harm that can be done by a material

82 Types of Contamination
Primary The direct transfer of a hazardous material to persons, equipment, and the environment Occurs in the hot zone because of direct contact with a hazardous material

83 Types of Contamination
Secondary The contamination of people, of equipment, or the environment outside the hot zone The contaminant is carried from the hot zone by personnel’s clothing or tools, air currents, and runoff water. If personnel are not decontaminated before leaving the hot zone, they can contaminate whomever and whatever they touch thereafter.

84 Contamination Terms Contamination — The process of transferring a hazardous material from its source to people, animals, the environment, or equipment Decontamination The process of removing hazardous materials to prevent the spread of contaminants beyond a specific area and reduce the level of contamination to levels that are no longer harmful Is performed when a victim, responder, animal, or equipment leaves the hot zone

85 Criminal and Terrorist Incident Response
Essentially the same as other haz mat incidents Law enforcement Must be notified Must be included Responsible for evidence collection

86 Elements of Terrorism Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. Actions intend to intimidate or coerce. Actions are committed in support of political or social objectives.

87 Categories of Terrorist Incidents
Biological Nuclear Incendiary Chemical Explosive

88 SLUDGEM The acronym SLUDGEM is used to remember chemical agent health problems: Salivation (drooling) Lacrimation (tearing) Urination Defecation Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping) Emesis (vomiting) Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms

89 2008 ERG pages Criminal/Terrorist use of Chemical/Biological/Radiological Agents Can be found in the case of a terrorist incident

90 Guidelines for Preserving Evidence
Remember and document when something was touched or moved Minimize the number of people working in the area, if possible Leave fatalities and their surroundings undisturbed Identify witnesses, victims, and the presence of evidence

91 Guidelines for Preserving Evidence
Preserve potentially transient physical evidence Follow departmental procedures for establishing chain of custody, documentation, and security measures to store crime scene evidence

92 Sources Hildebrand, Noll, Yvorra, Hazardous Materials:Managing the Incident 3rd. Edition, Redhat Publishing Company, Inc., copyright 2005 Copley, Terry, Hazardous Materials For First Responders 3rd. Edition, Board of Regents, OSU, copyright 2004 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook

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