2MCFR Hazmat Operations Level Training In our organization, we are trained to: NFPA Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Material IncidentsWe are trained to operate in the Hazmat Operations role. This roll allows us to perform all activities up to the edge of the HOT zoneWe can operate at this level in a DEFENSIVE manner only.MCFR trains
3Primary Responsibilities Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in an incident if possibleAnalyzing an incident to determine the nature and extent of the problemProtecting first responders, nearby persons, the environment, and property from the effects of a release
4Primary Responsibilities Developing a defensive plan of action to address the problems presented by the incidentImplementing the planned response to control a release from a safe distance and keep it from spreadingEvaluating the progress of the actions taken to ensure that response objectives are safely met
5Hazmat Managing Agencies -U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT)-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-OSHA-Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
6Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level I – Incident that can be controlled by first responder/s. No evacuation necessary beyond initial site. Small area that poses no immediate threats to life, property, or environment. Ex.: auto leaking fuel
7Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level II- Incident has greater hazard/area involved than Level I. May pose danger to life, property, and environment. This incident may require limited evacuation/protective area of surrounding sites. Requires the response of a formal response team. Ex.: Minor accidental chemical spill at industrial location.
8Hazmat Incident Response Levels Level III – Incident the poses severe danger to life, property, and environment. May involve large scale protective actions etc. Incident will require federal, state, regional assistance. Ex.: Large scale train derailment w/numerous tanker cars on fire.
9Routes of Exposure Inhalation Absorption Ingestion Penetration/Direct ContactInjection
10Hazardous Material Health Affects The acronym TRACEMP defines potential health affects:ThermalRadiologicalAsphyxiationCorrosiveEtiologicalMechanicalPsychological
11Hazmat Exposure Limits Threshold Limit Value (TLV) – 8 hrs./24 hr. dayPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)- 8 hrs./24 hr. dayShort Term Exposure Limit (STEL) – 15 mins./24 hr. dayImmediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) –ImmediateThis limit represents the maximum concentration from which an unprotected person can expect to escape in a 30-minute period of time without suffering irreversible health effects.
12Radioactive Material Incidents Three basic safety measures:TIMEDISTANCESHIELDING
19Site management: Public – Protect-in-Place/Evacuation Shelter-in Place – have areas affected turn off all HVAC, close windows etc., turn off exhaust fans etc. Stay in-doors in-place listening via radio or TV for instructions.Evacuation- have affected areas physically move to safe specific location. Remember factors such as ability to disseminate info, time involved, population at risk, routes of travel etc.
20Hazmat Identification Methods Seven primary clues:Shipping papers or documentsContainer shapes/typesPlacards/labelsDetection equipmentMarkings/colorsType of occupancy/locationSenses
21Sources for Names of Haz Mat at transportation Incidents ERGShipping papers
22Shipping Paper Identification Air transportShipping paper name — Air billLocation of shipping paper — CockpitResponsible party — PilotHighway transportShipping paper name — Bill of ladingLocation of shipping paper — Vehicle cabResponsible party — Driver
23Shipping Paper Identification Rail transportShipping paper name — Waybill/consistLocation of shipping paper — Engine or cabooseResponsible party — ConductorWater transportShipping paper name — Dangerous cargo manifestLocation of shipping paper — Bridge or pilothouseResponsible party — Captain or master
24North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Initials (reporting marks) and numberAre stenciled on both sides (to the left when facing the car) and both ends (upper center) of the tank car tankCan be used to get information about the car’s contents from the railroad’s computer or the shipper
25North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Capacity stencils — Show the volume of the tank car tankVolume in gallons (and sometimes liters) is stenciled on both ends of the car under the car’s initials and numberVolume in pounds (and sometimes kilograms) is stenciled on the sides of the car under the car’s initials and number
26North American Railroad Tank Car Markings Specification markingsIndicate the standards to which a tank car was builtAre stenciled on both sides of the tank, on the opposite end from the initials and number
27Rail Tank Cars Pressure tank car Contents: Flammable, nonflammable, and poison gases as well as flammable liquids
28Without expansion dome Rail Tank CarsNon-pressure tank carContents: Flammable liquids, flammable solids, reactive liquids, reactive solids, oxidizers, organic peroxides, poisons, irritants, corrosive materials, and similar productsWithout expansion domeWith expansion dome
29Cargo Tank Trucks Non-pressure liquid tank (MC306) Low-pressure chemical tank (MC307)Corrosive liquid tank (MC312)High-pressure tank (MC331)Cryogenic liquid tank (MC338, MC306)Compressed-gas/tube trailerDry bulk cargo tanker
30Equipment That May Indicate Hazardous Materials Presence Loading/unloading facilitiesForkliftsDollies and hand trucksBoomsA-framesRampsAssorted riggingsLoading docksFume hood vents or chemical exhaust stacksSpray rigs
31Limitations of Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials All but vision require close contact with hazardous material in order to hear, smell, taste, or feel it.WARNINGDeliberately using the human senses to detect the presence of hazardous materials is both unreliable and unsafe. It could kill you!
32Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages Non-bulk package: contains solids, liquids, or gases per DOT definitionsLiquids: capacity 119 gals. (450 liters) or lessSolids: net mass of 882 lbs. (400 kg) or less for solids, or capacity of 119 gals. (450 liters) or less.Gases: water capacity of 1001 lbs (454 kg) or less
33Hazmat Identification Methods: Non-bulk Packages Transportation container types for non-bulk materials may include:Bottles, carboys, jerricans, cylinders, boxes, barrels, bags, drums etc.
34Characteristics of DOT Labels Provide same information as vehicle placardsAre posted on packagesAre 3.9-inch (100 mm), square-on-point diamonds, that (with the exception of Class 7 labels) may or may not have written textRequire subsidiary risk labels for materials that meet the definition of more than one hazard class
35Manufacturer’s Labels and Signal Words Must be used by chemical manufacturers and importersMust include one of four signal words if for consumer use:CAUTION — Minor health effectsWARNING — Moderate hazardsDANGER — Highest degree of hazardPOISON — Highly toxic (pesticides)
36Manufacturer’s Labels and Signal Words Must include specific information:Name and business address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or sellerName of each hazardous ingredientStatement of the principal hazardPrecautionary statementsInstructions for first-aid treatmentInstructions for special handling or storageStatement “Keep out of the reach of children.”
37Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Bulk package- any packaging to include transports vehicles which meet DOT definitions:Liquids: capacity greater than 119 gals. (450 liters)Solids: net mass greater than 882 lbs. (400 kg) for solids, or capacity greater than 119 gals (450 liters)Gases: water capacity greater than 1001 lbs. (454 kg)
38Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Transportation containers for bulk materials may include any of the following:Bulk bags/boxes, cargo tanks, van trailers, rail cars, inter-modals etc.
39Hazmat Identification Methods: Bulk Packages Bulk packages may be identified using placards or markers.Placards are used in transportation.Markers such as NFPA 704 are used only on permanent facilities.
40DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions Class 1 – Explosives (Divisions 1.1–1.6)Class 2 - Gases - flammable/non-flammable/toxic (Divisions )Class 3 - Flammable liquids (and Combustible Liquids)Class 4 - Flammable solids, Spontaneously Combustible Materials, Dangerous When Wet, and Water Reactive Materials (Divisions )
41DOT Hazard Classes/Divisions Class 5 – Oxidizing Substances/Organic Peroxides (Divisions 5.1-2)Class 6 – Toxins/Infectious Substances (Divisions 6.1-2)Class 7 – Radioactive MaterialsClass 8 – Corrosive SubstancesClass 9 – Miscellaneous Hazardous materials/Products, Substances, Organisms*All classifications and associated divisions can be found via (Hazard Classification System, 2008 ERG, pg. 14)
42Parts of a DOT Placard Hazard Symbol Background Color Diamond shaped 4-Digit ID Number, UN or Hazard Class DesignationHazard Class Number
43DOT Placard Color Codes ExplosiveOxidizerFlammableHealth HazardWater ReactiveNonflammable Gas
47NFPA 704Provides a method for indicating the presence of hazardous materials at:Commercial facilitiesManufacturing facilitiesInstitutional facilitiesOther fixed-storage facilities
48NFPA 704 Not designed for the following situations: Transportation General public useNon-emergency occupational exposuresExplosive and blasting agentsChronic health hazardsEtiologic agents, and other similar hazards
49Hazard Communication Symbols BiologicalChemicalNuclear/ RadiologicalCarcinogen/ Cancer
50U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols Division 1: Mass explosionMay also be used for Division 5: Mass Explosion — Very insensitive explosivesDivision 2: Explosion with fragment hazardMay also be used for Division 6: Non-mass Explosion — Extremely insensitive ammunition
51U.S. Military Fire Division Symbols Division 3: Mass fireDivision 4: Moderate fire -No blast
52U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings Wear full protective clothing (Set One) “Red You’re Dead”Wear full protective clothing(Set Two) “Yellow You’re Mellow”Wear full protective clothing (Set Three) “White is Bright”
53U.S. Military Hazardous Chemical Markings Wear Breathing ApparatusApply No Water
54Pipeline Identification Required where a pipeline crosses another mode of transportation!Signal wordsProductOwnerEmergency telephone number
552008 Emergency Response Guidebook The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) is primarily a guide to aid 1st responders in quickly identifying the specific or generic hazards of materials involved in and emergency incident on a highway or railroad.It helps them protect themselves and the public during the initial response phase of the incident.The ERG does not address all possible circumstances that may be associated with a dangerous goods/ hazardous materials incident.
562008 Emergency Response Guidebook Explosives are not listed individually but appear under the general heading Explosives on the first page of the ID Number Index and alphabetically in the Name of Material index.The letter P following the Guide number in the yellow-bordered and blue-bordered pages identifies those materials that present a polymerization hazard under certain conditions.First responders should be familiar with the ERG before using it in an emergency!
57Methods for Determining the ERG Page for a Hazardous Material Using the numerical index for UN/NA ID numbersUsing the alphabetical index for chemical namesUsing the Table of Placards and Initial Response Guides
58ERG ID Number Index (Yellow-Bordered Pages) Index hazardous materials in numerical order of their 4-digit ID numbersFollow ID number with material’s assigned ERG Guide number followed by the material’s nameHighlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
59ERG Material Name Index (Blue-Bordered Pages) Alphabetically index hazardous materials by nameFollow the material’s name with the ERG Guide number and the material’s 4-digit ID numberHighlight substances that release toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
60Initial Action Guides (Orange-Bordered Pages) Provide safety recommendations and general hazard informationPresent each guide in a two-page formatPotential hazards sectionPublic safety sectionEmergency response section
61Table of Initial Isolation Distances (Green-Bordered Pages) List TIH materials by ID number in Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action DistancesInclude water-reactive materials that produce toxic gases in Table of Water-Reactive TIH Materials
62Initial Isolation Distance Distance within which all persons are considered for evacuation in all directions from the actual spill/leak source
63Table of Initial Isolation Distances Green section
64Protective Action Distance A downwind distance from a spill/leak source within which protective actions should be implemented (steps taken to preserve the health and safety of emergency responders and the public)Green section
66Small Spills vs. Large Spills Small spill —A spill that involves less than 53 gallons (200 liters) of material.Large spill — A spill that involves a spill from a large package, or multiple spills from many small packages
67Elements of the General Hazardous Material Behavior Model StressBreachReleaseDispersion/engulfmentExposure/contactHarm
68Timeframes Associated with Exposure and Contact Immediate — Milliseconds, secondsShort-term — Minutes, hoursMedium-term — Days, weeks, monthsLong-term — Years, generations
69Standard Strategic Goals of Haz Mat Incidents IsolationNotificationIdentificationProtectionSpill controlLeak controlFire controlRecovery/termination
70ConfinementControlling the product that has already been released from its containerFunction — Minimizes the amount of contact the product makes with people, property, and the environmentTacticsAbsorptionAdsorptionBlanketing/coveringDam, dike, diversion, and retentionVapor suppression
71Leak Control/Containment Tactics Patching/pluggingOverpackingProduct transferCrimpingValve actuationVacuumingPressure isolation and reductionSolidification
72Hazards Encountered Due to Skin Contact with Hazardous Materials Chemical burnsAllergic reactionsRashesAbsorption of toxic materials into the body
73Types of PPE Used at Haz-Mat Incidents Structural fire-fighting protective clothingHigh-temperature protective clothingChemical-protective clothingLiquid-splash protective clothingVapor-protective clothing
75EPA Classification System Level ALevel BLevel CLevel DThese levels are also recognized by NIOSH, OSHA, and USCG.
76EPA Level A Ensemble Components Vapor protective suit Pressure-demand, full-face SCBAInner chemical-resistant glovesChemical-resistant safety bootsTwo-way radio communicationCooling system (optional)Hard hat (optional)Outer gloves (optional)
77EPA Level B Ensemble Components SCBA required with a splash protective garmentVapor protection not requiredChemical protective gloves may not be attached to the suit
78EPA Level C Ensemble Components Support Function Protective Garment Full-facepiece, air-purifying, canister-equipped respiratorChemical-resistant gloves and safety bootsTwo-way communications systemHard hatFaceshield (optional)Escape SCBA (optional)
79EPA Level D Ensemble Components Ordinary work clothing Minimal Skin ProtectionRequires no respiratory protectionLevel D protection is not adequate for first responders
80Types of Respiratory Protection Atmosphere-supplying respiratorsClosed-circuit SCBAOpen-circuit SCBASupplied-air respirators (SARs)Air-purifying respirators (APRs)Particulate removingVapor and gas removingCombination particulate and vapor-and-gas removing
81Contamination TermsExposure — The process by which people, animals, the environment, and equipment are subjected to or actually come in contact with a hazardous materialHazard — The harm that can be done by a material
82Types of Contamination PrimaryThe direct transfer of a hazardous material to persons, equipment, and the environmentOccurs in the hot zone because of direct contact with a hazardous material
83Types of Contamination SecondaryThe contamination of people, of equipment, or the environment outside the hot zoneThe contaminant is carried from the hot zone by personnel’s clothing or tools, air currents, and runoff water.If personnel are not decontaminated before leaving the hot zone, they can contaminate whomever and whatever they touch thereafter.
84Contamination TermsContamination — The process of transferring a hazardous material from its source to people, animals, the environment, or equipmentDecontaminationThe process of removing hazardous materials to prevent the spread of contaminants beyond a specific area and reduce the level of contamination to levels that are no longer harmfulIs performed when a victim, responder, animal, or equipment leaves the hot zone
85Criminal and Terrorist Incident Response Essentially the same as other haz mat incidentsLaw enforcementMust be notifiedMust be includedResponsible for evidence collection
86Elements of TerrorismTerrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force.Actions intend to intimidate or coerce.Actions are committed in support of political or social objectives.
87Categories of Terrorist Incidents BiologicalNuclearIncendiaryChemicalExplosive
88SLUDGEMThe acronym SLUDGEM is used to remember chemical agent health problems:Salivation (drooling)Lacrimation (tearing)UrinationDefecationGastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping)Emesis (vomiting)Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms
892008 ERG pagesCriminal/Terrorist use of Chemical/Biological/Radiological AgentsCan be found in the case of a terrorist incident
90Guidelines for Preserving Evidence Remember and document when something was touched or movedMinimize the number of people working in the area, if possibleLeave fatalities and their surroundings undisturbedIdentify witnesses, victims, and the presence of evidence
91Guidelines for Preserving Evidence Preserve potentially transient physical evidenceFollow departmental procedures for establishing chain of custody, documentation, and security measures to store crime scene evidence
92SourcesHildebrand, Noll, Yvorra, Hazardous Materials:Managing the Incident 3rd. Edition, Redhat Publishing Company, Inc., copyright 2005Copley, Terry, Hazardous Materials For First Responders 3rd. Edition, Board of Regents, OSU, copyright 20042008 Emergency Response Guidebook