Presentation on theme: "Causative Luz Selene Zequera Sebastián Autor:. The causative is a common structure in English. It is used when one thing or person causes another thing."— Presentation transcript:
Causative Luz Selene Zequera Sebastián Autor:
The causative is a common structure in English. It is used when one thing or person causes another thing or person to do something. This work will explain how causatives are formed, and how to use them. There are two basic causative structures: As active. As passive. I had John fix the car. (I arranged for the car to be fixed by John -- I caused him to fix it.) I had the car fixed. (I arranged for the car to be fixed by someone. We don't know who, so this is like a passive.)
Active Causative Structures. The basic grammar structure for active causative is: SubjectCausative verbAgentAction verbObject 1. Susanhadher brotherdoher homework. 2.The police hadthe suspectstophis car. 2 The police had the suspect stop his car
Passive Causative Structure. The basic grammar structure for passive causative is: SubjectCausative verbObjectAction verb Wehadour doorfixed. Mariahadher haircut. In the passive form, there is usually no agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it: My mother had the windows cleaned
Some other causative verbs. Many other verbs can be used in causatives. In the active form, some of these verbs require the action verb to have "to" before it. These are some examples of the most common causative verbs. VerbMeaningForm of Action VerbExamples makeforce, compelsimple form The robbers made us laid on the floor. [No passive form] getsame as "have""to" infinitive I got Jae Won to pick me up in the car. She got her hair cut. letallowsimple form I'll let you borrow my bike. [No passive form] Make, Get, and Let. These verbs Express the idea that X causes Y to do something. When they are used as causative verbs, their meanings are similar but not identical.
Causative Make It is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. Make gives the idea that X forces Y to do something. I made my brother carry my suitcase. My brother had no choice. I insisted that he carry my suitcase.
Causative Get. It is followed by a to infinitive. Get gives the idea that X persuades Y to do something. I got my brother to carry my suitcase. I persuade my brother to carry my suitcase In some cases get can be used as have. I got my car polished.
Causative Let. It is followed by a simple verb. It gives the idea of permission I let my brother carry my suitcase. I allow my brother carry my suitcase.