3 IntroductionIf you load or unload hazardous materials in bulk containers, it is your responsibility to follow the correct procedures. Incidents involving hazardous materials can lead to serious injury, property and environmental damage, and even death.
4 IntroductionDepartment of Transportation statistics show that 97 percent of all hazardous material incidents involve tank cars and tank trucks.And surveys show that up to 50 percent of all vehicles are placarded incorrectly.
5 Identifications & Markings Bulk Packaging is packaging other than a vessel or barge that hazardous materials are loaded onto which has a maximum capacity greater than 119 gallons, has a maximum net mass greater than 882 pounds, or has a water capacity greater than 1,000 pounds.
6 Identifications & Markings This includes railroad tank cars, tank trucks, and portable tanks that meet the criteria just mentioned. All bulk containers must have the correct placards and markings according to the requirements in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
7 Identifications & Markings Railroad Tank CarsProper Shipping NameReporting MarksTank Car ClassificationSafety Valve & Tank Test InformationDOT Hazard Warning Placarding
8 Identifications & Markings Tank TrucksShipper’s Name and LocationDOT Hazard Warning PlacardingUN or NA Identification Number
9 Identifications & Markings Railroad tank cars can be divided into two groups:Pressurized Tank CarsGeneral Purpose Tank Cars
10 Identifications & Markings A general purpose or non-pressurized tank car is cylindrical in shape with convex (curves or bulges outward) heads.
11 Identifications & Markings Loading devices and equipment are found in the platform area on the top of the tank car.
12 Identifications & Markings In addition, bottom outlet valves for unloading are at the center of the car, and heater coil outlets sometimes protrude from underneath the tank.
13 Identifications & Markings Pressure tank cars are also cylindrically shaped with convex heads. Pressurized tank cars are always loaded from the top. The loading devices and fittings are located in one housing on the top center of the tank cars.
14 Loading & UnloadingAs a person who loads and unloads bulk shipments of hazardous material, there are two reasons why it is important that you follow the proper procedures and safeguards:
15 Loading & Unloading 1. To ensure your safety and health. 2. To reduce the odds of a release occurring during transport.
16 Loading & UnloadingIt is also important that you are familiar with the material you work with.
17 Loading & UnloadingThough Material Safety Data Sheets do not necessarily provide specific DOT information, they are a valuable source for finding out the physical characteristics and hazards of a material, the recommended Personal Protective Equipment to be worn, and other safety precautions.
18 Loading & UnloadingThere are specific requirements that must be followed when loading and unloading tank trucks or portable tanks into or onto trucks.
19 Loading & UnloadingWhen loading or unloading a bulk package on a truck, whether the tank is portable or cargo, the vehicle’s engine must be shut off, the parking brake set, and the wheels chocked.
20 Loading & UnloadingBecause of the possible buildup of static electricity, the vehicle must also be grounded.
21 Loading & UnloadingThe responsible person must verify that the driver understands the potential hazards of the material, is wearing the proper Personal Protective Equipment, and knows the proper procedures to follow in case of an emergency.
22 Loading & UnloadingThe driver must have a clear view of the vehicle and remain within 25 feet of the truck during the loading or unloading process.
23 Loading & UnloadingBefore loading or unloading, the person performing the function must inspect the tank to make sure all fittings, valves, and safety relief devices are in proper condition for safe transportation.
24 Loading & UnloadingLoading and unloading both pressure and general purpose tank cars requires the same thorough checklist as tank trucks. Before the process begins, blue flags are positioned with one of the two following warnings:
25 STOP, TANK CAR CONNECTED Loading & UnloadingSTOP, TANK CAR CONNECTEDorSTOP, MEN AT WORK
26 The wheels are then chocked, and the hand brake is set. Loading & UnloadingThe wheels are then chocked, and the hand brake is set.
27 Loading & UnloadingBecause of the potential for static electricity buildup, the tank car is grounded.
28 Loading & UnloadingOn general purpose tank cars equipped with secondary outlet valves, the plugs must be removed, and the top and bottom valves opened during loading. Internal heating coil caps must also be removed during loading.
29 Loading & UnloadingIf loading, check the tank car’s interior for cleanliness, and to verify that the previous contents are compatible with the material being loaded.
30 Loading & UnloadingMake sure all valves and fittings are in their proper setting, and all loading or unloading connections are properly attached. If corrective actions are needed to the tank car before loading or unloading, notify the switching office or terminal manager.
31 Loading & UnloadingAfter loading and before shipment or unloading and release, disconnect the appropriate lines or hoses. If loading, check to make sure the required outage has been left to allow for expansion, or that the tank is empty if you have been unloading.
32 Loading & UnloadingMake sure you properly seal the dome cover and uniformly cross-tighten all securing nuts. All valves must also be securely closed.
33 Loading & UnloadingCheck to be sure that all valve caps and plugs are in place and have been tightened with a wrench. All protective housings and covers must also be in place, closed, and wrench tight.
34 Loading & UnloadingOn general purpose tank cars, make sure the bottom outlet valve gasket is in good condition. Tighten the bottom outlet valve cap with a wrench that has a minimum 36-inch handle.
35 Loading & UnloadingThe plug in the bottom outlet valve should be wrench tight. Make sure all secondary outlet valves and plugs are tight.
36 Loading & UnloadingCheck the tank car for any signs of leakage or spills, and make sure the correct placards are in place.
37 Loading & UnloadingIf loading, check the marks to see that the load limit has not been exceeded and the OSHA hazard warning is in place.
38 Loading & UnloadingThe person loading or unloading must be able to rapidly halt cargo transfer during the process if the material is hazardous.
39 PlacardingAfter all final checks, once the tank cars, portable tanks, and tank trucks have been loaded or unloaded, but before their shipment, they must be placarded according to 49 CFR Part
40 PlacardingPlacards inform emergency response personnel of the hazard class and associated dangers of the material being transported.
41 PlacardingThe regulations require specific placards for each of the nine hazard classes, as well as specific placards for those hazard classes that are further separated into divisions.
42 PlacardingMost bulk transport containers require four placards, one on each side and each end.
43 PlacardingAs a general rule of thumb, placards must be visible on all four sides of a bulk packaging and at least three inches away from any other markings.
44 PlacardingIf a portable container holds more than 119 gallons, but less than 1,000 gallons, the tank may be placarded on two opposite ends.
45 PlacardingSometimes a material will have a primary and a secondary, or subsidiary, hazard. In these cases, placards showing both hazards must be displayed, but the secondary hazard class placard must have the hazard class number removed or obliterated.
46 SummaryLoading and unloading hazardous materials is a serious responsibility. Be familiar with and respect the hazards associated with the material you load or unload.
47 SummaryFollow all procedures and safe work practices, including proper selection of tools and Personal Protective Equipment.
48 SummaryMake sure you double check that all valves, fittings, caps, seals, and closures are properly secured, whether you used them or not.
49 Check the placards before releasing the bulk container. SummaryCheck the placards before releasing the bulk container.
50 SummaryKnowing and following the proper procedures can ensure safe transportation of bulk shipments.
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