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Connect communicate collaborate Baseline studies of an NREN and the whole GÉANT network Anastasios Zafeiropoulos, GRNET GN3 Green networking: advances.

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Presentation on theme: "Connect communicate collaborate Baseline studies of an NREN and the whole GÉANT network Anastasios Zafeiropoulos, GRNET GN3 Green networking: advances."— Presentation transcript:

1 connect communicate collaborate Baseline studies of an NREN and the whole GÉANT network Anastasios Zafeiropoulos, GRNET GN3 Green networking: advances in environmental policy and practice Utrecht, 05-06/03/2012

2 connect communicate collaborate Outline Introduction – Energy efficiency demand Green GÉANT Team: GHG reports GÉANT GHG Report GRNET GHG Report Comparative data – Statistics Green GRNET activities Next Steps

3 connect communicate collaborate Introduction The energy consumption of the Internet is exploding increasing number of devices connected to it continuous expansion of networks explosion of traffic volume fuelled by video and mobile data applications ICT sector accounts for more than 2% of global carbon emissions. Energy expenses constitute nearly 25% of the total network costs. Restrictions on carbon footprints and increased emphasis on corporate responsibility. The energy consumption of the Internet will be one of the main challenges that technology will have to face in the future. First step is to measure – Then, to act in order to reduce consumption and emissions

4 connect communicate collaborate Energy consumption trend and potential energy saving Energy consumption estimation for the European telcos network infrastructures in the Business- As-Usual (BAU) and in the Eco sustainable (ECO) scenarios, and cumulative energy savings between the two scenarios. Source: European Commission DG INFSO report OPEX estimation related to energy costs for the European telcos network infrastructures in the Business-As-Usual (BAU) and in the Eco sustainable (ECO) scenarios, and cumulative savings between the two scenarios. Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, F. Cucchietti, Energy Efficiency in the Future Internet: A Survey of Existing Approaches and Trends in Energy-Aware Fixed Network Infrastructures, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 2, pp , 2 nd Qr

5 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT Green Team – GHG audits Measuring and monitoring GHG emissions are essential features of a strategy to reduce such emissions. The GÉANT Green Team has been carrying out audits of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NRENs and the GÉANT pan-European network. The Green Team has adopted the ISO standard for its carbon audits. A common scheme or template for their networks has been adopted, to enable the audits to be carried out in a methodical and consistent manner.

6 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT Green Team – GHG audits The ISO standard and associated sources refer collectively to the greenhouse gases. The standard lists 26 such gases, each with its own global-warming potential. The predominant gas is Carbon Dioxide, CO 2, but there are several other reasonably familiar chemicals, such as Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O), and the Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). As CO 2 is the largest component of GHG emissions, it is often used as the reference for all such gases. The exclusion of other GHGs does not affect the overall results significantly, as CO 2 has by far the largest share in global GHG emissions.

7 connect communicate collaborate Completed NREN GHG audits NetworkType of Research and Education Network Responsible Partner Year GÉANTPan-European (30+ countries)DANTE, UNI-C2009 HEAnetNationalHEAnet2009 HUNGARnetNationalNIIF2009 NORDUnetRegional (5 countries)UNI-C2009 PIONIERNationalPSNC2009 SURFnetNationalSURFnet2010 GRNETNationalGRNET2010

8 connect communicate collaborate Organizational components for the GHG inventory Office emissions from heating, air conditioning and electricity the office space, whether owned or leased, used by an NREN to house its staff. Network Backbone equipment managed by the NREN as part of its backbone network. dark fibre and associated equipment, and access circuits if they are dark fibre. leased wavelength circuits. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) that is managed by the NREN.

9 connect communicate collaborate Organizational components for the GHG inventory Data centers the data centers used by the NRENs, whether owned or rented, are facilities that consume significant amounts of electrical power. Transportation transportation used by staff in carrying out their duties for the NREN – transportation involved in commuting to and from work – transportation necessitated by travel for the NREN (travel to work at off-site facilities, attendance at conferences, meetings with clients at their institutions, etc.)

10 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT GHG Audit Organizational Boundaries direct and indirect GÉANT-related emissions of the offices, data centers, and network links owned or leased by DANTE. the emissions produced by business and commuting travelling by the employees. Direct Emissions DANTE does not own any car or other transportation vehicle or any other source of direct emission of the GHGs listed below. the direct Carbon Dioxide equivalence (CO 2 -eq) emission is 0 tons CO 2 -eq.

11 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT topology GÉANT topology – June 2011

12 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT GHG Audit – Indirect emissions Office emissions from heating, air conditioning and electricity the DANTE main office values are based on bills from the electricity and gas providers. energy consumption in DANTE offices including the NOC. totally 243 tons CO 2 -eq. Data centers the electricity consumption figures for the data center hosted equipment are based on detailed data sheet specifications. PUE factors are in general not yet available from most data centers and therefore a common PUE factor of 1,7, based on measurements at UNI-Cs data center during totally 1094 tons CO 2 -eq.

13 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT GHG Audit – Indirect emissions Network Backbone all equipment managed by the GÉANT as part of its backbone network. It includes any dark fibre and associated equipment, and access circuits if they are dark fibre, as well as leased wavelength circuits. the values are based on detailed equipment specifications. a PUE factor of 1,7 has been applied to the theoretical values. leased lines amounting to a total length of km provide a considerable part of the GÉANT connectivity, accounting for an estimated 10% share of the backbone electricity consumption. to calculate the emissions from these leased wavelengths, a European mean of 700g CO 2 -eq/kWh has been used. totally 582 tons CO 2 -eq.

14 connect communicate collaborate GÉANT GHG Audit – Indirect emissions Transportation These, so-called scope three emissions, are partly estimated (commuting), partly traced back from company records (business travelling). For transportation by car, taxi, bus or train, the distance travelled is multiplied by the matching GHG emission coefficients published from the public national information source. For flight transportation, the emission by each trip has been calculated using the International Civil Aviation Organisations (ICAOs) CO 2 calculator. Totally 582 tons CO 2 -eq.

15 connect communicate collaborate GRNET GHG Audit This is the first GHG inventory for GRNET, covering the year January 2010 to December This period will serve as historical base year as well as base year for this inventory. Data Sources Real time measurements Manufacturers datasheets and technical documentation Online database for network equipment Emission factors from Public Power Corporation S.A reports GHG emission of heating with a gasoil boiler - Transportation – input from questionnaire and emission factors from and

16 connect communicate collaborate Scope 1: Direct GHG Emissions GRNET does not own any car or other form of motorized transport which causes direct or combustion related emissions of the GHGs listed. GRNET makes use of approximately 45 locations varying in size from a small computer room (a few square meters) to locations with more than 120 square meters. Typically the larger DataCenters make use of oil powered generators as a backup for mains electricity. The use of those oil powered generators is generally restricted to outages and interruptions of mains electricity and periodic operational testing. The total Scope 1 CO 2 -eq emission is 0 tons.

17 connect communicate collaborate Scope 2: Indirect GHG Emissions - Office Office: leased premises electricity usage for the office itself. electricity for building services. computer room. total energy consumption in offices: KWh 142,54 tons CO 2 -eq litre of oil 4,1 tons CO 2 -eq. energy consumption from communal bills: ,3 KWh 83,71 tons CO 2 -eq. totally 230,35 tons CO 2 -eq.

18 connect communicate collaborate Scope 2: Indirect GHG Emissions – Backbone Network Backbone Network new generation optical fiber network based on WDM technology at high speeds (1- 10 Gbps). the core network is formed by IP routers that are interconnected with PoS 2.5 Gbps circuits over 10Gbps wavelengths that are implemented via owned DWDM equipment. L2 network based on Ethernet equipment totally KWh 909,39 tons CO 2 -eq.

19 connect communicate collaborate Scope 2: Indirect GHG Emissions – Data Centers GRNET owns two data centers where high-density computational and storage equipment is installed. the first data center is hosted in the National Hellenic Research Foundation. This data center hosts the GÉANT Point of Presence (PoP) in Athens as well as a HellasGrid site (Grid node). – there are 10 racks with servers and 14 racks with telecom equipment. – average energy consumption for the GÉANT PoP is 63 kW; for the Grid node it is 67 kW.

20 connect communicate collaborate Scope 2: Indirect GHG Emissions – Data Centers The second GRNET data center is located within the premises of the Greek Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs. – 4 racks are hosting servers and 2 racks storage equipment, but GRNET is currently loading 18 extra racks with computational and storage equipment. – average energy consumption around 90 kW. GRNET operates the HellasGrid infrastructure that consists of 6 Grid Nodes including the previously mentioned one in NHRF. Totally 3.300,33 KWh 6600,66 tons CO 2 -eq

21 connect communicate collaborate Scope 3: Other indirect GHG emissions - Transportation Transportation is necessitated for GRNET staff in commuting to and from work, and in the normal course of work. Transportation on mission, for instance, is involved in attending projects meetings, or in carrying out on-site maintenance at a network PoP. The sources of these emissions arise from the following sources: Gasoline and diesel fuel: used by private cars, motorbikes, taxis, buses, and trains. Aviation fuel: used by aircraft for air travel. Electricity: used by trains and trams. 31,14 tons CO2-eq are emitted due to personnel commuting. 93,7 tons CO 2 -eq are emitted due to personnel flights. Totally for transportation: 124,84 tons CO 2 -eq. Totally for GRNET: 7865 tons CO 2 -eq.

22 connect communicate collaborate GRNET GHG Audit - Uncertainties on the Accuracy of the Data Uncertainties exist in the estimations of emissions that are due to transportation, since the accurate and updated emission factors per type of transportation were not available. Regarding the energy consumption in the GRNET network and data centers, uncertainties exist due to the estimation of data in cases where real time monitoring of energy consumption of the computational, storage and networking equipment was not available. An uncertainty with minor impact to the total tons of CO 2 emitted by GRNET has to do with energy consumption from the electricity used by the offices for the building services (lifts, security, lighting) in communal places.

23 connect communicate collaborate Comparative data - Statistics

24 connect communicate collaborate Comparative data - Statistics

25 connect communicate collaborate Green GRNET activities GRNET joined the Green GÉANT Team in GRNET participates to the FP7 ECONET (low Energy COnsumption NETworks) IP project. GRNET participates to the FP7 6DPELOY-2 and GEN6 project IPv6 as an enabler for energy efficiency in ICT. in a pilot installation, a large number of smart energy meters placed in different geographical areas will be interconnected, creating an IPv6 network of Internet connected objects. GRNET is planning to install a green data center outdoors in the northwest part of mainland Greece, close to a power-production hydro- electric plant facility. GRNET is taking actions for improving energy efficiency in its data centers. GRNETs environmental policy is defined in More at:

26 connect communicate collaborate Next steps To recruit more NRENs in environmental policy and practice, promoting the added value of NRENs, and working with others to meet the targets of carbon neutrality. To collect and disseminate best practices and results to research and academic community. To set targets for efficiency and for use of carbon offsets based on the data available on the reports. To increase the uptake of services which are based on or which generate carbon reduction effects, such as virtualisation, teleworking, videoconferencing etc. To further develop NREN insights and practices on Green IT, so that others may benefit. To push NRENs to improve energy efficiency in networking and computational infrastructures.

27 connect communicate collaborate Thank you for your attention! Questions? https://twitter.com/#!/GreenGRnet

28 connect communicate collaborate What is GÉANT? 7th generation of pan-European research network infrastructure – continuation of a success story Connects 40 European countries through 32 NREN partners (and 4 Associate NRENs) Serves over 8,000 research and education establishments across Europe Over 40 million users Funded jointly by NRENs and EC Provides extensive international connectivity to other world regions Overall co-ordination and management of project is performed by DANTE on behalf of the NRENs and EC


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