Presentation on theme: "The Analogy of the Car A Way to Remember Seven Reading Comprehension Strategies By Judi Moreillon Coteaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary."— Presentation transcript:
The Analogy of the Car A Way to Remember Seven Reading Comprehension Strategies By Judi Moreillon Coteaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary School Libraries: Maximizing Your Impact (Chicago: American Library Association, 2012)
Why an analogy? Researchers who have studied intelligence and those who have studied achievement on standardized tests agree that people who can recognize and create analogies have more pathways in their brains that can help them understand new information. Marzano, Robert J., Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001. 26.
What is an analogy? People (speakers and writers) use analogies to express relationships among things. Like similes and metaphors, analogies show similarities and differences. Analogy: Michael Jackson was to 1980s popular culture as Elvis Presley was to 1950s Rock n Roll. How were they similar? They both were influential singers and both were called The King. How were they different? Let me count the ways!
Why a car? Connecting the parts of the car with reading comprehension strategies can help readers remember the various options that can help them gain or regain comprehension. The parts of a car have functions that parallel the way readers use reading comprehension strategies. Just as new drivers must learn to use all the parts of the car to drive safely, readers must learn to use fix-up options to be effective, strategic readers.
How do you know when youve lost comprehension? What are the symptoms? Share your ideas. Then, consider mine… The reader feels bored or confused starts to daydream
How do you know when youve lost comprehension? The reader starts to mentally do other tasks (think about after- school activities or next weekend) starts to physically do something else (tap pen, shake foot, doodle, reach for phone, bother neighbor)
Reading Comprehension Strategy Make connections with the text: Text-to-self Text-to-text Text-to-world Activating or Building Background Knowledge
Analogy Activating or Building Background Knowledge Rearview mirrors are to drivers as background knowledge is to readers. Drivers should always look in their rearview mirrors before setting out on a journey; they have to know what is behind them before they go forward. Building and activating background knowledge supports comprehension just as knowing what is behind the car helps drivers safely and competently navigate roads.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Using Sensory Images Engage all five senses in creating mental images or visualizing.
Analogy Using Sensory Images Headlights are to nighttime drivers as sensory images are to readers. When driving at night, drivers turn on their headlights so they can see where they are going. Using sensory images to support comprehension is best when it involves sight as well as the other four senses: hearing, taste, touch, and smell.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Questioning Ask questions before, during, and after reading. Does this make sense? Question the text and the author.
Analogy Questioning The steering wheel is used by drivers the way questioning is used by readers. Drivers use the steering wheel to take charge and direct their journey. Readers use questioning to be active participants in meaning making. They use questions to determine the direction of their inquiry.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Drawing Inferences Evidence in the Text + Background Knowledge = Inference
Analogy Drawing Inferences Accelerators are to drivers as inferences are to readers. When readers make inferences and are able to read between the lines, they can derive more meaning from the texts they read. Inferences, like accelerators, help readers move faster and more confidently through texts.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Determining Main Ideas Another way to say this is to determine the relative importance of ideas and information. Which are the main ideas? Which are the supporting details?
Analogy Determining Main Ideas Tires are to cars as main ideas are to readers. Drivers should always make sure a cars tires are inflated; without tires, the car cannot go anywhere. Readers must know their purpose for reading and must be able to determine importance, the main ideas, so they can get somewhere in their reading.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Using Fix-up Options Readers can use these 16 ways to regain comprehension once they have lost it…
Analogy Using Fix-up Options Brakes are to driving as fix-up options are to readers. When drivers realize they are going too fast or in the wrong direction, they apply the brakes to get the car under control or get back on track. Readers regain control of meaning making, they get back on track, by applying fix-up options.
Reading Comprehension Strategy Synthesizing Synthesizing involves combining information and ideas from various parts of a text or from multiple texts with the readers own interpretation.
Analogy The car is to drivers as synthesis is to readers. When readers use all of the reading comprehension strategies effectively, they can synthesize ideas and information from many parts of a text and from multiple texts. Just as it takes all of the parts to make a functioning car, readers can put all the pieces together to deeply comprehend what they read, view, and hear. Synthesizing
Strategic Readers Use Reading Comprehension Strategies They practice using all the strategies. They learn to pick the strategy or strategies that will work best for that text and for their purpose for reading. If one strategy doesnt work, they try another. Sometimes it takes more than one strategy to regain comprehension.