Presentation on theme: "Vehicle Components and Systems Purpose: Become acquainted with a vehicles main systems and components in terms of their purpose, safe and legal use,"— Presentation transcript:
Vehicle Components and Systems Purpose: Become acquainted with a vehicles main systems and components in terms of their purpose, safe and legal use, maintenance, and certain economic considerations.
Vehicle Systems and components Vehicle frame and body: The purpose of a vehicles frame is to support the body, engine, and other components. The frame itself is supported by the wheels and tires through the vehicles suspension system. Vehicle Frame
Vehicle Systems and components The engine: When you start your car: (a) power from your battery is used to operate a small electric motor called the starter motor, (b) the starter motor turns the flywheel and crankshaft of the engine so that the engine can attain sufficient momentum and speed to start and run on its own, (c) delivering rotational power to the crankshaft which supplies power to the remainder of the power train. Crankshaft Spark Plug Battery Engine
Vehicle Systems and components The engine: This power is ignited by exploding gas inside cylinders which drives pistons up and down, through connecting rods. Inside the pistons a mixture of compressed air and gas is delivered to the cylinders by a carburetor and intake manifold or a fuel injection system. The moving parts of the engine must be lubricated. Oil which accumulates in your engines oil pan is pumped by the oil pump through an oil filter and then through tubes that deliver the oil to the moving parts to be lubricated. Oil and Oil Filter
Vehicle Systems and components The fuel system: Fuel and air is delivered to the engine through components which include: (a) the fuel tank which is used to store the gas, (b) a fuel pump which pumps the gas from the tank through a fuel line and furl filter to a carburetor or fuel injection system. This fuel injection system or carburetor delivers the proper mix of air and gas to the cylinders by means of an intake manifold after passing through an air cleaner. Question: What is the name of the system that moves the gasoline to the engine?
Vehicle Systems and components Vehicle maintenance: fuel system: Leaks in your fuel system can cause fires and expose you to toxic gases. The leaks can occur in the fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel pump, carburetor, fuel injector lines and even by not having your gas cap secured attached. If you smell gas you should immediately stop the car, turn off the engine and determine the problem. Your fuel system should be checked for leaks as part of regular maintenance. Lets now consider the power train system
Vehicle Systems and components The power train system: A vehicles power train consists of components that generate and transmit power to the wheels. In a rear wheel vehicle automatic vehicle, it includes: (a) the engine which generates the force, (b) the transmission which adjusts and controls the engines RPM and changes the gears, (c) the drive shaft which transmits forces from the transmission to the rear of the vehicle into the differential which allows the axels and back wheels to turn. In a front wheel drive vehicle, the power is transmitted from the engine through a combination transmission-differential and then to the front wheels. In a four-wheel drive vehicle, power is transmitted from the transmission to a transfer case which can transmit power to either the rear wheels only or to both the rear and front wheels. Question: What is the name of the system that transmits power to the wheels? Drive shaft Transmission Differential
Vehicle Systems and components The exhaust system: After gas is exploded in one of the cylinders it is released into an exhaust manifold which collects it and passes it to a catalytic converter which chemically reduces the quantity of harmful pollutants. The gases are then passed by exhaust pipes through a muffler and resonator which reduce the noise. The gasses are then moved to the tailpipe which vents the hot air away from the vehicle. Muffler Exhaust Pipes Keep your exhaust system in good working order by noticing changes in noise, fumes, and rattling. These all signal problems. Eventually all vehicles need replacement exhaust components. Question: What is the name of the system that removes the emission gases into the environment?
Vehicle Systems and components The cooling system: Heat caused by the friction of moving engine parts and the explosion of gasoline is removed through the vehicles cooling system. In this system, heat is absorbed by coolant flowing through passages inside the engine. The coolant is a mixture of water and chemicals that protect the cooling system from corrosion, lubricate the water pump, and prevent freezing. It is stored in the radiator which transfers the heat to the outside environment. The radiator is cooled by a fan, and most have a recovery tank to capture coolant as it expands due to the heat, and returns it to the radiator when it cools. This coolant also allows your engine to heat up to its proper operating temperature and is controlled by a heat sensing valve called a thermostat. Question: What is the name of the system that prevents the engine from overheating? Radiator
Vehicle Systems and components The electrical system: The battery is your vehicles primary source of electrical power. When you turn on your ignition switch to start your car, electricity is used to close another switch called a solenoid that transmits the large amount of current needed to turn the starter motor. Once your engine is running, power is generated by the alternator, which also keeps your battery charged. Then there is a voltage regulator, distributor, and coil which controls the amount of electricity needed by the spark plugs. Electricity is distributed throughout your vehicle by various electrical circuits for lighting, computers, radio, interior cooling, heating, etc. These circuits have fuses to disable a circuit that is drawing too much current so as to prevent a fire and protect the components that the circuit serves. Question: What is the name of the system that starts the motor?
Vehicle Systems and components The steering system: A vehicles steering wheel is attached to a steering column or shaft which terminates in the steering box. Inside the steering box, the turning motion of the column is translated into lateral motion which is passed on to the wheels through a series of components which include ball joints, the steering arm, and steering knuckle. In power steering systems, turning the steering wheel actuates a hydraulic system which amplifies the force necessary to rotate and move the linkages leading to the wheels. With power steering there should be no free play in the wheel. When you turn the steering wheel in a power steering system, the hydraulic fluid is compressed inside a cylinder. This compressed fluid is then transmitted by hydraulic lines to a piston which amplifies the force making it easier to turn the wheels. Question: What is the name of the system that makes it possible to turn the car?
Vehicle Systems and components The suspension system: The purpose of your vehicles suspension system is to connect the wheels to the frame and body and keep the movement of your wheels from being transmitted fully to the body of the vehicle. This allows you to maintain control of the car in turns, when you hit potholes, and on rough roads. It makes riding in the car more comfortable. As the up and down movement of your wheels is absorbed by the springs in your suspension system, your shock absorbers keep the springs from continuing to bounce. There are are different designs for suspension systems involving various linkages, struts, joints, torsion bars, and so on. Question: What is the name of the system that helps ease the jarring effect of potholes? Coil Springs and Shock Absorbers
Vehicle Systems and components The suspension system: The purpose of your vehicles suspension system is to connect the wheels to the frame and body and keep the movement of your wheels from being transmitted fully to the body. This allows you to maintain control of the car in turns, when you hit potholes, and on rough roads. It makes riding in the car more comfortable. As the up and down movement of your wheels is absorbed by the springs in your suspension system, your shock absorbers keep the springs from continuing to bounce. Lets now consider your vehicles braking system.
Vehicle Systems and components The braking system: There are two independent braking systems in your vehicle, the service brakes and the parking brake (also referred to as the emergency brake). The service brakes are used to slow your vehicle while you are driving. The parking brake can also be used to slow your vehicle in an emergency, but is mainly used to hold your vehicle in one place while stopped or parked. When you press your brake pedal, a piston in your master cylinder forces the brake fluid through the hydraulic lines to pistons in the wheel cylinders at the wheels where additional pistons provide the force to apply your brakes. Hydraulic fluid is stored in a brake reserve normally located in the engine compartment.
Vehicle Systems and components The braking system: Both drum and disc brakes convert friction force to heat and if the brakes get too hot, they cease to work because they cannot dissipate enough heat. For both types of brakes, your stopping time is roughly proportional to the square of your speed. So, if you double your speed you increase your stopping distance by four times! Your parking brake uses a cable to engage the brakes or clamp down on the drive shaft, and will function even if your service brakes fail. There are two types of brakes: (a) drum brakes and (b) disc brakes Drum brakes slow your vehicle by the friction of a brake shoe pushing against the drum which is rotating with the wheel. Disc brakes slow your car by the friction of a caliper pressing against a disc which is rotating with the wheel.
Vehicle Systems and components The braking system: If the wheels are locked as in the case of a skid, the drums or discs are not moving and there will be no friction. Brakes will only slow your car while there is friction between the moving parts of your brakes. The purpose of the antilock braking system is to prevent the brakes from locking by first sensing that they are locking then automatically, rapidly releasing and applying pressure. If you do not have antilock brakes, you can avoid having your brakes lock manually, rapidly releasing and then reapplying pressure to your brake pedal. Without ABS: wheels lock up…no steering control. With ABS: wheels do not lock up…you have steering control. Lets now consider driver controls
Vehicle Systems and components Driver Controls: The next several slides presents the most common driver controls used in modern passenger vehicles. You should go into your vehicle, identify them, know where they are typically located, and what their purpose is. It is important to know their location so as not to be distracted looking for them when driving.
Vehicle Systems and components The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil. The first and most important is the temperature or boil. When this warning light is on or the gauge moves into the red, it means the temperature of the engine is too high and the engine will overheat soon. The proper response is to pull over and turn off the engine so it can cool down. It would be good to then get your cooling system checked. Question: What should you do if this needle goes into the red zone? Red zone
Vehicle Systems and components The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil. The proper response is to check and add oil to the recommended level. The vehicle should be checked out to find out why the oil level was low. Question: What should you do if this needle gets any lower? Next, is the oil gauge or warning light. It signifies that the oil level is low. Without oil, the parts that need lubrication would heat up, expand and not move freely. This will cause permanent damage to the engine. Its a good idea to frequently check your oil level anyway.
Vehicle Systems and components The instrument panel: lights, gauges and chimes: Certain gauges and lights are more important than others. An easy way to remember the most important one is to learn: boil, oil, and coil. Question: What should you do if this needle drops into the red zone? Red zone Coil relates to the battery or alternator light or voltage gauge. If trouble is indicated, it means the battery is not being charged. This is the least urgent of the three warnings. The problem will eventually bring things to a stop, but it does not require immediate or emergency attention. Lets now consider the legal use of safety equipment. The proper response is to get the system checked out. It could be a bad battery, alternator, or other related electrical problem. Generally the needle of a well charged battery will be in the center of the gauge.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Lighting The Vehicle Code specifies: (a) the brightness of vehicle lights, (b) the number, color, and positioning of lights on vehicles, and, (c) the distance ahead and behind that may be illuminated. It would be appropriate to flash your lights (low to high beams or quickly turn lights off and then on) to get their attention. Question: What could you do, if at night, a vehicle is approaching you without its headlights on? It is important that your tail, brake, headlights and turn signal lights be in good working order. You should use your headlights: (a) when it is cloudy, raining, snowing or foggy, (b) on frosty mornings when windshields may be icy or foggy, (c) on country or mountain roads to make it easier for other drivers to see you, (d) anytime it would help you to see and be seen better, and, (e) no later than 30 minutes after sunset and at least 30 minutes before sunrise.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Head Lights You should use your high-beam headlights whenever you are having trouble seeing with your normal headlights, except: (a) when it is rainy, foggy or snowing, or (b) when it may blind other drivers. Lets review...
As the sun begins to set, dont forget to: _______________________
Also, what about your following distance in rainy weather? __________________ In rainy weather you must use your __________.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Hazard Lights You can use your hazard warning light flashers: (a) when your car breaks down on or near the roadway, and (b) to warn following traffic that there is an accident or dangerous condition ahead. If emergency flashers are not available, you can tap your brake pedal so as to warn drivers behind you of a hazard ahead. In addition to using the hazard flashers, raising the hood in a vehicle breakdown situation will make your vehicle more visible to other drivers who may not see the flashers.
How can you let an on-coming driver know that their high beam headlights are on? Quickly flash your high beams then quickly lower them again.
This car has experienced a breakdown. The 4-way hazard flashers are on and there are lighted flares on the pavement to warn motorist. What else could the driver have done to alert us? Raised the hood of their car.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Backup Lights (white lights) The purpose of backup lights is to: (a) help avoid collisions while you are backing up at night by improving visibility, and (b) alert others to the fact that you are backing up or about to back up. The driver of this car has shifted to reverse. Where is the drivers right foot?
To prevent your car from being stolen: - To prevent your car from being stolen: - park in a well lit area near a store entrance if possible. - be sure doors and windows are locked. About 40% of stolen vehicles had at least one unlocked door! About 40% of stolen vehicles had at least one unlocked door! - activate any anti-theft devices you might have - use the parking brake (it will delay a thief who intends to tow your car) Anti-theft steering wheel devices will discourage thieves. What can you do to reduce the chance that your vehicle will be stolen? Car theft is a very big problem all over…
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Windows, mirrors, and defroster Vehicle Components and Systems – Unit 6 Jurisdiction laws provide specifications for the safe use of sun screening devices and tinting of windows. When cars are manufactured they are in conformance with these specifications. Any change in tinting or the modification or installation of sun screening devices must be done in accordance to laws. True or False: It is legal to tint the front windshield of you vehicle?
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Windows, mirrors, and defroster You must have mirrors which provide a view for at least 60 meters to the rear of your vehicle. Two mirrors are required on all vehicles. A right side mirror is required and either a a rear view or left side mirror. You should properly adjust your mirrors before starting to drive, to avoid being distracted while attempting to adjust them during driving.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Windows, mirrors, and defroster Maintaining good visibility requires that you keep your windshield and mirrors clean and free from obstruction. If your windshield is cracked and obstructs your view or that of your passengers, you not be allowed to take your driving test. You must not carry objects, inside or outside, which obscure your view. Its also illegal to drive a motor vehicle equipped with a television or similar device that is visible by the driver while operating the motor vehicle.
It is appropriate to sound your horn: (a) to avoid accidents by alerting other drivers of your presence, (b) on narrow mountain roads when you cannot see 60 meters ahead while driving as far the the right as possible. Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Horns Vehicles are required to have a functioning horn or other similar audible warning device. While the noise level of you horn must not be excessive, it must be audible under normal driving conditions for at least 60 meters from your vehicle. It is not appropriate to sound your horn: (a) because someone is driving slowly, (b) to chastise other drivers who have made a mistake, (c) because you are angry, (d) when by slowing or stopping, you can avoid the dangerous situation, and (e) to get the attention of friends who are pedestrians or in other vehicles.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Tires To avoid skidding, blowouts, and unsafe handling, the manufacturers recommendations for your vehicle should be followed in selecting replacement tires. The recommendations for tire pressure should also be followed. Either under or over inflated tires: (a) reduces traction, increases the likelihood of skidding, and degrades the handling characteristics of a vehicle, and (b) leads to rapid tire wear. In addition, failing to maintain proper wheel balancing and suspension alignment can lead to extreme rapid tire wear and may result in a blowout.
Vehicle Systems and components The legal use of safety equipment: Tires In addition, worn components in the suspension and steering systems of your vehicle can cause you to lose control as well as accelerate tire wear. The purpose of rotating tires is to prolong the life of the tires. It should be done according to the intervals and procedures recommended by the manufacture of your vehicle Another cause of poor tire wear is peeling out or spinning your tires on fast starts. This behavior can also waste fuel, is potentially dangerous, and can lead to a citation for exhibition of speed. True or False: Most passenger vehicle tires should be rotated between 9600-16,000 kilometers.
Vehicle Systems and components Comfort Devices - electric seat adjusters (some with memory) - electric mirror adjusters - electric lumbar adjuster - electric pedal adjustment The purpose of these is to help make the driving experience more comfortable and less fatiguing.
Pre-Driving checks – outside of vehicle 2 most important Walk around vehicle checking that nothing or no one is nearby. Also inspect the tires, noticing if any appear to low. Check lights and turn signals for breaks/cracks Lets now consider the inside Pre-Driving steps
Inside Pre-driving: Starting Procedure 1) Key the ignition 2) Lock doors 3) Adjust seat 4) Adjust mirrors 5) Fasten seatbelt (check passengers) 6) Foot on brake, start vehicle 7) Shift to Drive 8) Signal if pulling away from curb 9) Check mirrors 10) Shoulder check…proceed
Vehicle Components and Systems Review time…lets see what you remember…
1) The primary source of electrical power is from your vehicles __________. 2) The moving parts of your engine must be lubricated by ______. 4) This system transmits power to the wheels: __________. 5) The __________system removes spent fuel emissions into the environment. 3) What is the name of the system that moves the gasoline to the engine? _______________.
8) The system that starts the motor: ______________ 11) There are two braking systems on vehicles. The ______________ are used to slow the vehicle when driving. 10) This system makes riding in the car more comfortable: ____________________ 7) The system that prevents the engine from overheating: ________________ 9) The steering system makes it possible to _____________. 6) What is the purpose of the muffler? ______________.
14) This instrument panel light or gauge will warn you if your engine is running too hot: _________________ 17) True or False: You must have headlights on in the rain. _________ 16) If your battery or alternator light comes on, or the gauge needle moves to the L (for low), this means that the cars ___________is not being charged. 13) True or False: The purpose of ABS is to help the vehicles brakes more effectively lock up in emergency stops.______ 15) This instrument panel light or gauge will warn your that your lubrication resources are running low: _____________ 12) Considering braking distance, if you double the cars speed, you will increase the stopping distance by ________.
23) True or False: Peeling out or spinning your wheels for a fast start can result in a exhibition of speed citation. ______ 22) True or False: Three mirrors are required on all vehicles. The inside, and both outside mirrors. __________________ 19) How can you let an on-coming driver know that their high beam headlights are on? _______________________ 21) True or False: It is illegal to have a TV set other video device in view of the driver ________ 20) When you see a vehicle with white rear lights on, the driver has shifted to _______________. 18) If you have a car breakdown be sure you put on your ________________.
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